时间:2020年02月19日 16:25:03

In his play, Ostrovsky portrays a sensitive spirit destroyed by a rigid and uncomprehending society,在他的戏剧中,奥斯特洛夫斯基描绘了一种刚烈及不了解的社会摧毁的敏感精神,and it was the idea of the vulnerable young woman in the grip of inescapable fate that touched Tchaikovsky so deeply.而且其中一个想法是脆弱的年轻女性被不可避免的命运掌控,这深深触动了柴可夫斯基。Ostrovskys heroine, Katerina is married to a weak young man dominated by his mother.奥斯特洛夫斯基的女主角,凯特琳娜嫁给了一个占据他母亲的脆弱年轻人。Oppressed and frustrated, she falls secretly in love with another man.经受着压抑和沮丧,她偷偷的爱上了另一个人。And left alone, she succumbs to her passion.而在独处的时候,她屈于自己的。A wild storm breaks out and in terror she confesses her guilt.一场狂野的风暴呼啸而来,在惊恐中,她承认自己的罪行。She is pursued through the storm by her mother-in-law until she drowns herself in the Volga.她在风暴中被她的婆婆追逐,直到她将自己淹没在伏尔加。注:听力文本来源于普特201209/201399

Science and Technology The science of stuttering Speech therapy科技 口吃科学 演讲疗法Unravelling the mystery of faltering speech解秘演讲时的口吃DOWN the ages stuttering has been blamed on many things.多年来,口吃可以归咎于许多事。In the second century Galen pinned it on a dryness of the tongue.二世纪时,盖伦(古罗马时期最著名最有影响的医学大师)将口吃归咎于舌头干燥。In the 17th, Francis Bacon reckoned a stiff tongue was responsible.17世纪,弗朗西斯.培根认为僵硬的舌头应对口吃负责。In the 19th, surgeons suggested too large a tongue.19世纪,外科医生指出是长舌头造成了口吃。In the 20th, parental neglect and even an unfulfilled urge for oral sex had their moments of fame (;The Kings Speech;, a film competing for Oscars this week, stresses psychology).到了20世纪时,父母的忽略,甚至是未实现的口交被认为是造成口吃的原因(;国王的演讲;,本周一部角逐奥斯卡的影片,则强调心理原因)。The suggested remedies were just as diverse.矫正口吃的建议方法也多种多样。Galen thought wrapping the patients tongue in a cloth soaked in lettuce juice might help.盖伦认为将病人的舌头用浸过莴苣汁的布包起来可能有帮助。Bacon recommended wine. The Victorians wielded scalpels.培根的推荐是酒。维多利亚时代的外科医生们挥舞手术刀。The psychiatrists, the couch.精神科医生的建议是沙发。None of it worked (except in the movies).这些方法都不奏效(电影中除外)。These days, as delegates to the AAAS meeting in Washington, DC, heard, the talk is of brain anatomy and genes.几天来,在华盛顿出席美国科学促进会的代表们都听说了大脑解剖和基因与讲话有关。Luc De Nil, of the University of Toronto, has been poring over stutterers brains using positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging.多伦多大学的卢克.德.尼尔已经用正电子发射断层扫描和功能性磁共振成像仔细研究了口吃者的大脑。He has found that parts of the brain linked to the production of speech are more active in stutterers than non-stutterers, while those involved in perceiving sounds are less so.他发现大脑的一部分与生成话语的区域相连,口吃者的这个区域要比非口吃者活跃,而感知声音的那些区域则是非口吃者更活跃。The two sorts of brain look different, too. Stutterers tend, for instance, to have more densely packed grey matter in the areas associated with processing and producing sounds.两者的大脑看起来也不同。比如,有关处理和产生声音的区域上覆盖的灰质,口吃者要更密集。Such differences in activity and anatomy, though, must have deeper causes.活动性和解剖上的不同一定存在着更深层的原因。And, in time-honoured fashion, there is a debate about whether those causes are genetic or environmental.而这些原因是基因上的还是环境上的,其争论的历史也相当悠久。Dennis Drayna of Americas National Institutes of Health argued to the meeting that persistent stuttering is at least partly a matter of genes.美国国家卫生研究院的丹尼斯.德雷纳在会上说道,持续的口吃至少一部分原因是基因问题。It runs in families. Studies of twins suggest a genetic component larger than those known to be involved in high cholesterol and osteoporosis.在家族中遗传。对双胞胎的研究表明这个遗传因素要比胆固醇和骨质疏松症的遗传因素高。At least two studies of adopted children suggest that those whose adoptive parents stutter are no more likely to develop the impediment than those taken on by non-stutterers.至少,有两个关于被收养孩子的研究表明,孩子是否会发展成为口吃者,其可能性,收养者是口吃者并不比非口吃者大。To discover which genes might be responsible, Dr Drayna looked at 44 Pakistani families.为了发现哪种基因与引发口吃有关,德雷纳士对44个巴基斯坦家庭进行了调查。Marriage between cousins is common in Pakistan, and such inbreeding leads to a high incidence of genetic disorders.近亲结婚在巴基斯坦很普遍,而这种近亲交配引发遗传性疾病的发病率很高。Dr Draynas analysis suggests that stuttering is linked to mutation of a gene called GNPTAB—a finding confirmed when the same mutation was subsequently discovered in a number of stutterers from Pakistan and India who were unrelated to the original group of families.德雷纳士的分析表明口吃与一种叫做GNPTAB的基因突变有关——随后,在巴基斯坦和印度非近亲结婚的家庭中发现了许多口吃者也有类似的突变时,这个发现得到了实。In January Dr Drayna and his colleagues published a paper in the Journal of Human Genetics tracing the responsible mutation back almost 600 generations, to a common ancestor who would have lived around 14,000 years ago.1月,德雷纳士和他的同事在《人类遗传学杂志》上发表了一篇论文,追踪了约600代人中发生过此种突变的人,他们的祖先是同一个人,生活在约14,000年前。Further study of South Asians has shown that mutations in two other genes, GNPTG and NPA, are found in individuals who stutter, but not in non-stutterers.对南亚人的进一步研究表明,另两大基因也存在突变——GNPTG 和 NPA,在口吃者中发现了这两种基因,而非口吃者中没有。All three affected genes encode enzymes that regulate lysosomes, the cells waste-disposal units.所有这三种受影响的基因通过编码酶调节溶解体,溶解体是细胞废物处理单元。Two of the encode mutations involved are also known to cause a rare disease called mucolipidosis.其中有两种编码突变也会引发粘脂沉积症——一种罕见的疾病。Severe mucolipidosis is fatal within ten years of birth.在出生的十年内,严重的粘脂沉积症是致命的。Even the mild variety has symptoms that include abnormal skeletal development and, sometimes, slight mental retardation.即使是温和一点的,也会引发许多症状,包括骨骼发育异常,有时还会有轻度精神发育迟滞。Fortunately for stutterers, close examination of those with the relevant mutations reveals no symptoms of mucolipidosis.在对相关突变进行仔细检查后,并没有发现任何粘脂沉积症的症状,这对口吃者来说是幸运的。Dr Drayna suspects that both conditions are caused by misfolding of the enzymes in question, but that the details are different.德雷纳士怀疑这两种病状都是由错误折叠酶引起,但细节有所不同。With stutterers, he thinks, a specific group of brain cells involved in speech production is, for an unknown reason, uniquely sensitive to the enzymatic glitch—perhaps producing the patterns seen by Dr De Nil in his brain scanners.他认为,对口吃者来说,参与话语生成的一组特定的脑细胞,不明原因的对酶毛刺有一种独特的敏感——也许将德.尼尔士在脑部扫描中看到的结构生成出来能够解释这个现象。To investigate further, Dr Drayna is now attempting to splice human stutter-causing genes into the DNA of mice.为了进一步调查,德雷纳士正尝试将引发人类口吃的基因拼接到老鼠的DNA中。That, of course, raises the question of what a stuttering mouse sounds like.当然,又有了另一个问题,口吃的老鼠听起来像什么呢。To the human ear, it may not sound like anything.人类的耳朵听来,这个声音可能什么都像。Many murine squeakings are too high-pitched to be perceptible.许多小鼠的尖叫声非常高亢,难以感觉它是否口吃。But ultrasonic detectors should deal with that.也许高声波探测仪可以解决这个问题。With luck, the causes of stuttering should soon be understood better.幸运的话,引发口吃的原因很快就会被更好的理解了。Whether that results in treatments more effective than lettuce juice and wine is another matter.而治疗方法是否比莴苣汁和酒更有效,则要另当别论了。 /201301/218071

Science and Technolgy科技Social science社会科学Wisdom about crowds关于群体的思考To model the behaviour of humans en masse, treat them as people, not molecules在为人类的全体活动建立模型时,要将他们看作是;人;,而不是;分子;。THE behaviour of crowds is sometimes unpredictable and occasionally deadly, but there is good reason to believe it is governed by simple rules. Presumably, like molecules in a liquid, people in a crowd all behave in more or less the same way. Capture those similarities in a model and it should be possible to predict how a crowd will behave.群体的行动有时候是不可知的,偶然致使的,不过有充分的理由相信,这种行为符合简单的规律。简单说来,这就像液体中的分子,在群体中的人的行动大致是一样的。在一个模型中捕获这些相似性可以对于一个群体的行动进行预测。Existing models of crowd behaviour do just that. They treat moving masses of humanity as though they were fluids. This works, up to a point. But it often fails to predict the changes that happen as a crowds density increases and its movement becomes chaotic. That is why Mehdi Moussaid of Paul Sabatier University, in Toulouse, and his colleagues have made a radical innovation. Instead of treating the individual human beings in a crowd as if they were molecules, they have treated them as if they were human beings. They have, in other words, given them volition. Of course, the objective of someone in a moving crowd is usually fairly simple-to get somewhere and then stay there. But it is an objective, nevertheless.现有的大众行动模型就可以做到这一点。这些模型将变化的人类群体当作是液体。在某种程度(或者条件)下,这个模型非常有效。不过当涉及到群体的密度增加,运行变得混乱时,对于预测发生的变化往往不能奏效。这就是保尔?萨巴蒂大学(Paul Sabatier University,在图卢兹)的迈赫迪?穆赛德(Mehdi Moussaid)和他的同事已经进行突破性创新的原因。与以往的理论中将群体看作是分子不同,他们将群体看作是;人;。换句话说,就是考虑到了;人的意志;。当然了,在一个活动的群体中的客观存在的一些人通常比较简单:到哪里,就待在那。即使这样,它还是一个客观存在的事物。As they describe in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Dr Moussaid and his team built a computer model in which, initially, every virtual person in the crowd followed two rules. The first was that each attempted to chart as straight as possible a path to his destination, such as an exit or the end of a corridor, while avoiding obstacles, including other pedestrians. Second, each adjusted his speed, depending on his distance from such obstacles.就像他们在《美国国家科学院学报》中所描述的那样,穆赛德士和他的团队建立了一个计算机模型,在这个模型里,起先,每个虚拟的在群体中的人都从两个规律。第一,当避开包括其他行人在内的障碍时,每个人都试图尽量以直线的的路线到达目的地,就像一个出口或一个走廊的尽头。第二,每个人都会调整自己的速度,这个依赖于与障碍物的距离。These two rules were enough to reproduce in the model the sorts of behaviour seen in real crowds, such as the tendency people have to sort themselves spontaneously into separate lanes of traffic moving in opposite directions and the stop-and-go motion that occurs as crowds become more dense. When Dr Moussaid really put the pressure on, however, by increasing the density of the virtual crowd, the model did not show the extreme turbulence seen in real crowds-the sudden crushes and chaotic changes in direction.这两个规则在真实的群体中的各种行为上已经得到了足够的验,例如,在公路上,人们通常会趋向于同时将自己朝相反的方向移动,这种停停走走的行为,让本来发生的拥挤更加拥挤。当穆赛德士确实增加压力时——通过增加虚拟人群的密度,在真实的人群中,这个模型并没有显示出的骚乱——骤然的碾压和方向变化的混乱。These happen because in extremely dense crowds there is so much shoving and jostling that peoples movements are no longer entirely under their own control. In other words, they actually do start behaving like molecules in a fluid, bouncing off one another at random. To mimic that behaviour, Dr Moussaid added a third rule, which made members of his crowd more molecule-like when they were at very close quarters-a lack of volition that will be familiar to anyone who has been in a tight jam of humanity.因为在极其密集的人群里,有很多人推搡和拥挤,人们自身的行动并不受自己的控制,因此会发生混乱。换句话说,这个时候,他们就像液体中的分子一样,被任意地反弹。为了模拟这种行为,穆赛德士又增加了第三条规律,即当群体中的成员之间非常接近的时候,他们就像分子一样,此时群体中的成员是缺乏意志的,对那些处于拥挤人群里的人来说,这种感觉深有体会。With this third rule added, the model accurately reproduced the dynamics of dense crowds as well as those of sparser ones. At first, a crowd flows smoothly. Then, as more people are added, it begins to show stop-and-go patterns and sometimes extreme crushing. Finally, it displays the sort of turbulence that can lead to disaster. On one run, for example, the model showed precisely the pattern seen in a of a catastrophe in Mecca in 2006, when 346 pilgrims there on the haj were crushed to death.有了这第三条规律的补充,无论在动态密集的人群里还是在稀疏的人群里,这种模型都会精确在得到再现。最初,人群流动顺畅。接着,更多的人加入,整个人群开始变成时走时停的模型,有时候还变得极度拥挤。最后,人群变得混乱,并能导致灾难。例如,在2006年麦加的朝觐的灾难上,根据视频的显示内容,这种模型得到了精确的显示,当时有346名朝圣者在混乱中被踩踏至死。The practical upshot of all this, Dr Moussaid hopes, will be improvements in the design of public spaces where crowds are likely to gather, especially in the location of evacuation routes. That is an outcome greatly to be desired. And it was made possible by remembering that people are not molecules.穆赛德士希望,所以有这种真实的结果会对有助于改善公共场所的设计,尤其是对于疏散通道位置的考虑,在这种场合下,有可能聚集大量的人。这是一个非常值得注意的结果。一定要牢记,人,不是分子。 /201210/204675

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