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US Vice President Calls for More NATO Support in Afghanistan切尼突访阿富汗强调北约部队重要Mounting concern about the resurgent Taliban and the Afghanistan economy have prompted the U.S. vice president to make a surprise visit there. Dick Cheney is calling the continuing presence of NATO forces in Afghanistan vital for the country's future.  美国副总统切尼突然访问阿富汗,原因是对塔利班反叛分子和阿富汗经济日益增加的担忧。切尼说,北约军队继续在阿富汗驻扎对阿富汗的未来非常重要。In an unannounced trip to Kabul, his fourth visit to Afghanistan as vice president, Dick Cheney is asking NATO countries to make an even stronger commitment to the war-ravaged country.  切尼对喀布尔的访问事先没有宣布。这是他作为副总统对阿富汗的第四次访问,切尼要求北约国家在战乱的阿富汗做出更大的努力。NATO members are considering whether to send more troops to Afghanistan at a time when the anti-terrorism campaign is becoming more unpopular for European politicians. But the U.S. vice president says the ed States and NATO need to maintain sufficient forces in Afghanistan to counter a resurgent Taliban and al-Qaida. 200803/31660。

Democratic presidential contender Barack Obama forcefully rejected the idea of running as Hillary Clinton's vice presidential running mate Monday. Obama's comments came in the wake of suggestions from the Clinton campaign that the two candidates form a dream ticket, with Clinton in the top spot.  竞争美国民主党总统候选人提名的奥巴马参议员星期一断然拒绝了有关作为希拉里.克林顿的副总统竞选夥伴的建议。在此之前,从克林顿竞选班子里传出这两位民主党参选人结成以希拉里为主的梦幻组合的建议。Campaigning in Mississippi in advance of Tuesday's primary, Obama left no doubt that he rejects the idea of joining a ticket in which he would agree to be the vice presidential running mate of Hillary Clinton. 奥巴马在星期二密西西比州即将举行初选之前举行了竞选活动。他断然拒绝了有关让他作为希拉里.克林顿的副总统竞选搭档结成一个组合的建议。"With all due respect, I have won twice as many states as Senator Clinton," said Obama. "I have won more of the popular vote than Senator Clinton. I have more delegates than Senator Clinton. So, I do not know how somebody who is in second place is offering the vice presidency to the person who is in first place." 奥巴马说:“在我对克林顿表示应有尊重的同时,我想指出,我赢得的州是克林顿赢得的州的两倍。我比克林顿参议员赢得了更多的党内代表的票数。所以,我不理解一个屈居第二的参选人居然提出让一个名列前茅的人作她的副总统竞选夥伴。”Obama's comments came after remarks from Hillary Clinton last week suggesting the possibility of the two rivals running together on the same ticket, with Clinton in the top spot. 在奥巴马发表这番讲话之前,克林顿参议员上星期暗示,两名竞争对手携手组成一个搭档,以克林顿为首。"I have had people say, I wish I could vote for both of you," she said. "Well, that might be possible someday." 克林顿说:“我曾听人说,‘我希望我能够投票给你们两位’。好啊,希望将来有这种可能性。”Clinton's husband, former President Bill Clinton, also promoted the idea, noting that each contender would bring strengths to a combined ticket. 希拉里.克林顿的丈夫、前总统比尔.克林顿也赞赏这个主意。他指出,如果两人联合起来,两位竞争者将带来各自独特的优势。"He would win the urban areas and the upscale voters, and she wins the traditional rural areas that we lost when President Reagan was president," he said. "If you put those two things together, you have an almost unstoppable force." 前总统克林顿说:“奥巴马会赢得都市区和高层次的选民的持,希拉里则能够得到传统农村地区选民的持,这部分选民是我们在里根当总统的时候失去的。如果我们能够把两股力量凝聚在一起,我们的力量几乎是不可阻挡的。”Clinton and Obama are engaged in a close battle for the Democratic Party's presidential nomination. Obama continues to lead the delegate count by about 100 following his victory Saturday in the Wyoming caucuses. 希拉里.克林顿和奥巴马争夺民主党总统候选人提名的竞争难分胜负。奥巴马星期六在怀俄明州党内预选中获胜,党代表票数继续领先,他比克林顿多大约100票。Obama is favored to do well in the Mississippi primary on Tuesday, while Clinton hopes to regain her momentum with a victory in the Pennsylvania primary on April 22. Opinion polls there give her the lead. 奥巴马被看好星期二在密西西比州的初选中取胜,而克林顿希望在4月22号宾夕法尼亚州的初选中再次推动胜利的势头。Clinton has questioned whether Obama is y to serve as president and commander in chief, and that line of attack may have helped her win last week's primaries in Texas and Ohio. 克林顿质疑奥巴马是否胜任总统和三军统帅,这些攻击可能帮助了她上星期赢得德克萨斯和俄亥俄州的初选。But Obama tried to turn that around Monday by asking why would Clinton want him as her vice presidential running mate if he is not fit to serve as commander in chief? 可是奥巴马试图在星期一扭转局势。他质问克林顿,如果他不适合担任三军统帅的话,克林顿为什么要请他作竞选夥伴当副总统候选人。"Getting all the [retired] generals to say, well, we are not sure he is y," he said. "I am y on day one. He may not be y yet. But I do not understand. If I am not y, how is it that you think I should be such a great vice president? Do you understand that?" 他说:“让所有退休将军说,我们不确定他是否胜任,而我从第一天起就准备好了,他可能还没有准备好。可是我不明白,如果我不能胜任,那么,你为什么认为我会成为一个很好的副总统呢?你们大家明白吗?”The Clinton camp had suggested that a combined ticket would be formidable against the presumed Republican nominee, Senator John McCain. But Obama told supporters Monday in Mississippi that Democrats must choose between the two of them for the party nomination. 克林顿阵营建议奥巴马和克林顿联合起来,这样会有更大的力量来击败预测中的共和党提名人约翰.麦凯恩参议员。可是,奥巴马星期一在密西西比对持者说,民主党必须在他和克林顿两个人当中选择总统候选人。Political experts believe the idea of a joint ticket, in either combination, could remain viable if the Democratic race remains close right up until the national nominating convention in Denver in late August.John Fortier is an expert on U.S. politics at the American Enterprise Institute in Washington and a recent guest on VOA's Encounter program. "The bitterness also will be interesting to watch if we really do come to a very, very close resolution where the candidates feel that they have to come together as a ticket," said Fortier. "It is in some ways unbelievable that they would come together, and yet in other ways it seems almost the way to resolve those differences. And that will be a drama, if it plays out that way, that we will be watching in June or July."Political rivals have joined forces in the past after bitter presidential campaigns with positive results. Republican candidate Ronald Reagan chose George H.W. Bush as his running mate in 1980, and Democrat John Kennedy did the same in 1960 when he picked Lyndon Johnson as his vice presidential candidate. 以往,政治对手曾经在艰苦的总统选战后联合起来,获得积极效果。1980年,共和党总统候选人里根选择老布什做为他的竞选夥伴。1960年民主党人肯尼迪也同样选择约翰逊当他的副总统候选人。200803/29898。

Do you mind not slurping Denise?丹尼斯,可以不要咂着嘴喝茶吗?This is thirsty work.我说这么多话很渴。Now is everyone clear about what to do if there is a fire alarm?现在大家都清楚听见火警后该怎么做了吧?Its usually a false alarm anyway.一般都是假警报罢了。Thats not the point. Now Anna, what about smoking?那个不是重点。安娜,关于吸烟呢?No smoking on company premises. But it wasnt me, it was Mr Ingle.办公场所禁止吸烟。但那不是我,是英格尔先生。Mr Ingle!英格尔先生。I see, so it was Mr Ingle smoking in the warehouse. You should have told me Anna. Sorry!我知道了,所以是英格尔先生在库房吸烟。你应该早点告诉我,安娜。 对不起。Right, Im going to have to look into this.好了,我会调查一下这件事的。Back to work everyone… oh and take a biscuit with you.大家可以回去工作了……拿点儿点心吧。So Annas let the cat out of the bag – Mr Ingle wont be pleased – but at least she now knows what do if a fire breaks out.安娜把秘密说出来了——英格尔先生会不高兴的——但是至少现在她知道了火灾发生的时候自己该做什么了。 /201702/491071。

Caitlin Friedman and Kimberly Yorio offer advice on being a smart chick-in-charge in their new book: The Girl's Guide to Being a Boss Without Being a Bitch. Yes, we can say that on morning television I've been told. Good morning. Thrill liberating. Good morning to both of you, nice to have you here.Right. Those women need our book. Terrible.Absolutely. Why is it that women when they get into a position of power when they become the boss or become leaders they tend to be viewed as the bitch?Well, we think there's two reasons. The first is, it's really unfair that in the workplace people expect women to be emotionally there for them. It's all, you know, you would never take your personal problems to a male boss, but you, you do take them to a woman boss because women are nurturing just that's what women do.You expect them to understand.Exactly.The issues with their kids or whatever.Right, and the other thing is there haven't been any positive women role, I mean,( there haven't been. ) There are very few positive women role models out there. Especially look all the movies, they say you know, woman are just crazy lunatics when they get a little power and so we try to do in the book is show people how to do it a little bit better.And we'll get to some of that in a minute but why, why are the roles so different, Caitlin, for men and women when they do become the boss?Well, I think like Kim said(Kim, short for Kimberly), I think it really has to do with the lack of role models. I mean, when we were growing up and coming into the professional environment. We had really tough women bosses but they had learnt from men. So we think that women need to be able to manage, the way they are comfortable in managing.What's number one, number one mistake women are making?I think the number one mistake women are making is that they're, they're trying to do something the way that's not comfortable for them. You know, you, you really need to be firm and fair. You need to know what your employees need from you before you just sort of like set out these blanket things. The other thing is, I think, that if you are emotional once in a workplace, our favorite "Sex and the City" is when Charlotte cries, you know(And then she is the crier from then on)(Charlotte is a crier) She cried once in ten years. And that's what happens to women, you know, they get stuck with these bad raps and we think that, you know, what you need to do is really try to be as firm and fair as possible.Is there no place for emotion than in a workplace?Well, we don't think there is. (No) I mean we think that you can be yourself, which is, you know, kind and supportive, warm and giving, but not, you know, crying and screaming. (temptation) beating people, I mean, how many women did we interview for this book and they all said oh this woman screamed at me and threw something at me.Wait, we have one crazy story that didn't make it into the book. A woman, a woman said that she was a publicist and she...the owner of company's assistant was gaining weight. So she brought a scale into work and put it in her office and said, oh I don't think that you've noticed how much weight you are gaining so I brought you this scale. I mean that figure is just nuts...Wow,(that sounds crazy). so let's, let's talk about practical advice. How women can avoid some of these, beat these bad behaviors that will keep them from being labeled a bitch. First you say the bad boss behavior-insecurities rule. I mean do women when they become the boss, do they tend to not really feel it right way?What kind of ....?I think a lot of women are uncomfortable with leadership positions. I mean, men too, but I think that women in particular and that can bring insecurity.Gender discrimination. Do, do women tend to favor men in a workplace?Yeah, unfortunately, we think that there is definitely internalized sexism that goes on. I mean we come from publishing and even they, male assistants would get sort of more floor time during meetings. We think that we really want...Why is that? I mean why can't women relate with their co-workers or if they're the boss and, and why can't they, you know, just give them the power they need?Well, we are not sure why, but we think it'll change. You know, we think that with books like this, and with the fact that, you know, more women are in a workplace everyday that it will change because there's just, I mean, just by sheer numbers.So, some keys to being a better manager, you say, provide clear vision, support your staff, be a mentor.Absolutely. We, we really think it's...the, the women's responsibility when they are in leadership positions to be more mentor than manager.We could talk about this all day because a lot of us have worked with women and they're just interested in how it starts. Everybody has a story.Caitlin Friedman and Kimberly Yorio, again, thanks so much for the great advice(thank you so much). And you can an excerpt from The Girl's Guide to Being a Boss on our website at today.msnbc.com. 200809/48544。

Welcome to the worlds of the migrant worker. 30 hours or so from Cracow in southern Poland to Victoria bus station. Most here have followed what they hope is the money trail to the UK, expectations are low, but then again, anything here is better than home."There's no compare. Um, maybe, um, I'm, I haven't done my degree yet. But it's still much easier to find a job here.""With my profession, I could earn in Poland about 100 pounds per month. So here I can earn about 100 -200 per week, so far. That is why I'm staying here is... The trouble is, while 100 pounds a week might seem a lot in Poland, no one seems to have told them that it's not enough to make ends meet in London. This story is by no means a one-off. Too embarrassed to show his face on television, this man was prepared to show us what he has been reduced to. (So this is where you live in, yep) The man who lives here gave up his own company in Poland to try his luck in the UK. "You can hear the ceiling creaking, can't you? (Yeah) And you can hear the water. (That's the water I think.) It really feels like it might collapse."Somehow it's all fell apart for him. He spends several months on the streets, and now he moves from squats to condemned squats, simply surviving. So exhausted, he can hardly get the energy to look for work. There's no water in here, or electricity, it's about as low as you can think.The man who lives here, has qualifications from Poland in finance and banking, speaks very good English, and he ended up in conditions like this, so you can imagine how difficult this is for many Pols coming over here trying to find a work who don't have those sorts of qualifications, and who don't speak the language. Of course if you've got a car, you've also got somewhere to sleep, there isn't danger of being torn down around you. And that's what some others do. What is startling about this is that even though it must feel like a broken dream, some simply will not give up trying. "I know it's ur~a lot of jobs. And~and I~ur~you know~I have a good chance for job, because I'm a first-class lorry driver. When I called to my family, I never said for my situation. I'm homeless, I sleep in my car."The pattern of many people's day takes on a depressing routine, hang around on street corners early in the morning and wait for someone, anyone probably to offer some work. If you don't get it, then simply take to the park and get drunk. So it's probably a good job that they have the kindness of strangers to fall back on. At this center they offer advice on food, housing, medical support, and they simply offer comfort. "The~the saddest thing that we've seen is that the clients are arriving in a country with high expectations, with fantastic work ethic~um~you know, genuinely want to do well, want to succeed, want to, er, want to be a part of the community, want to earn some money to help their, to help their families back home, and they're ill-equipped to do that.Much has been said and made about Polish plumbers and others taking over jobs in cities like London. But Pols make up some three-quarters of the clients in this soup kitchen as well. This is the direct effect of the world at the 21st century. A world of the mass movements of people across borders, bringing victims as well as survivors, Lawrence Lee Sky News.one-off[Chiefly British] Something that is not repeated or reproduced.一次性事物不能重复或不可以再生的事物lorry[Chiefly British] A motor truck.机动卡车 200805/39354。

Could Ukraine Become Russia's Next Target?俄会对乌克兰持格鲁吉亚报复? The former Soviet republics of Georgia and Ukraine are allies engaged in similar attempts to establish democratic rule, to join NATO and realign themselves with the West, much to the displeasure of Russia. During the conflict in Georgia, Ukrainian President Viktor Yushchenko prohibited ships from the Russian Black Sea Fleet that are engaged off the Georgian coast from returning to port on Ukraine's Crimean peninsula without Kyiv's official permission. How the Kremlin may react to Ukraine's pro-Georgian and pro-Western position. 格鲁吉亚和乌克兰都是从前苏联独立出来的共和国。这两个国家都在努力建立民主体制、加入北约组织,并同西方国家结盟。它们之间是盟友,也同是俄罗斯反对的对象。在格鲁吉亚最近发生的冲突当中,乌克兰总统尤先科决定禁止在格鲁吉亚海岸附近执行任务的俄罗斯黑海舰队在未经乌克兰官方允许的情况下返回位于乌克兰克里米亚半岛的港口。俄罗斯将会对乌克兰持格鲁吉亚和西方国家的立场做出什么反应?In 2007, Public School Number 41 in Tbilisi was named after Mykhailo Hrushevsky, president of the short-lived Ukrainian People's Republic in 1917 and 1918.  2007年,格鲁吉亚首都第比利斯的一所公立小学被正式命名为米哈伊罗.胡舍夫斯基小学。胡舍夫斯基是1917到1918乌克兰人民共和国期间的总统。Ukraine's current President, Viktor Yushchenko flew to Tbilisi to join his Georgian friend and fellow head of state, Mikheil Saakashvili, in the school's re-dedication ceremony. Both men rode to power following mass pro-democracy protests that came to be known as colored revolutions. Georgia's was the Rose Revolution and Ukraine's was the Orange. Accordingly, the Hrushevsky School was painted orange. 乌克兰现任总统尤先科特地飞到第比利斯,同他的友人、格鲁吉亚的总统萨卡什维利一道,出席了学校的命名仪式。他们两人都是在被称为颜色革命的民主抗争的过程中成为总统的。格鲁吉亚是“玫瑰革命”,而乌克兰则是“橙色革命”。胡舍夫斯基小学,自然而然地,被刷成桔黄色。Moscow has not disguised its displeasure with the colored revolutions and refuses to deal with Mr. Saakashvili. On Tuesday, President Yushchenko again flew to Tbilisi, accompanied this time by the presidents of Poland, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia.  莫斯科方面一直没有掩盖对橙色革命和玫瑰革命的不满,并且拒绝与萨卡什维利打交道。上个星期二,尤先科总统再次飞抵第比利斯;这一次,与他同行的还有波兰、拉脱维亚、立陶宛和爱沙尼亚四国的总统。Mr. Yushchenko says the task of the presidential mission is to show that Georgia is not alone, that in this age the power of reason should not be replaced by the iron fist.  尤先科总统说:“我们此行的目的是要向全世界表明,格鲁吉亚并不孤独,而且在当今世界,理性不应被强权所取代。”The Ukrainian leader says the five presidents came to Georgia to prohibit the of killing people and the execution of the country. 这位乌克兰领导人还表示,他们到格鲁吉亚的目的,是为了制止屠杀民众、侵犯别国领土的行为。Ukrainian military analyst Oleksiy Melnyk, of the Razumkov Center think tank in Kyiv, told VOA the Polish, Ukrainian and Baltic leaders do not necessarily agree with all of the actions undertaken in the conflict by Georgian leadership, but notes they risked their own physical security to send a signal to Moscow. 位于基辅的乌克兰智囊机构拉祖姆科夫中心的军事分析家奥列克西.梅利尼克说,波兰、乌克兰和波罗的海地区的领导人并不见得对格鲁吉亚领导人在这次冲突中所采取的所有行动都表示赞同。但是他说,但是他们甘冒自身的风险向俄罗斯传递出一个信号。Melnyk says Moscow should see the presidential show of solidarity in Tbilisi as a serious signal that Russian foreign policy of establishing control over former Soviet republics and its neighborhood achieves a totally opposite effect. The analyst says Russia is surrounding itself with nations that are, at a minimum, not friendly and perhaps even hostile toward Moscow. 梅利尼克说:“莫斯科应该看到这些总统站在第比利斯一方所表现出的团结,是对俄罗斯想对前苏联共和国和它的邻国进行控制而导致完全相反的效果所发出的一个严肃的信号。这个分析者说,俄罗斯被围在对莫斯科至少不友好,或者甚至是敌视的国家当中。”Oleksiy Melnyk says Russian military actions in Georgia could lead the majority of Ukrainians who now oppose to their country's NATO membership to reassess their opinions about the respective security threats posed by the Western alliance and Russia. The chairman of the European Integration Forum in Tbilisi, Soso Tsiskarishvili, agrees with Melnyk's assessment, but notes Ukraine is better prepared to meets NATO's democratic standards for membership than Georgia. 第比利斯欧洲一体化论坛主席索索.齐斯卡里什维利同意梅利尼克的看法。但是他表示,乌克兰在加入北约所要达到的民主标准方面,比格鲁吉亚做得要好。Tsiskarishvili says Ukraine's two recent parliamentary elections and Georgia's presidential and parliamentary contests differ from one another like heaven and earth in terms of democratic and transparent procedures. 齐斯卡里什维利说:“从民主化和透明化的过程来看,乌克兰最近两次议会选举和格鲁吉亚的总统及议会选举有着天壤之别。”But Russian military analyst Pavel Felgenhauer cautions that Ukraine could be Russia's next target as part of what he says is a grand Kremlin plan for the partial restoration of Russian greatness. 但是俄罗斯军事分析家帕韦尔.费尔根豪尔警告说,乌克兰可能成为他所说的克里姆林宫部分恢复大俄罗斯这样一个宏大计划的下一个目标。"Russia right now wants at least half of Ukraine to be annexed," said Felgenhauer. "Vladimir Putin talked about that rather openly at the NATO summit in Bucharest, Romania in April. Ukraine will disintegrate into two halves, and we want the eastern half, including of course, first and foremost, Crimea." 费尔根豪尔说:“俄罗斯现在希望至少兼并乌克兰的一半。普京今年4月在罗马尼亚首都布加勒斯特举行的北约高峰会议上相当公开地谈到了这点。乌克兰将会解体成为两部分,我们希望得到乌克兰东部部分,这当然首先包括克里米亚。”Felgenhauer says Ukraine's overwhelming vote for independence in 1991, which included a majority of Crimeans, means nothing to Kremlin rulers, who the analyst says do not respect the will of even their own people.  费尔根豪尔说,包括多数克里米亚人在内的乌克兰绝大多数人1991年投票赞成独立,这对克里姆林宫的统治者毫无意义。分析人士说,克里姆林宫的统治者连自己人民的意愿都不尊重。Nonetheless, the analyst says Russia is tied down in Georgia and will not make any immediate military moves against Ukraine. He notes, however, that Russia's Black Sea Fleet, which leases naval facilities in Sevastopol in Crimea, will likely steam back to port in defiance of a Ukrainian presidential order that it must first ask for Ukrainian permission. 尽管如此,分析人士说,俄罗斯被牵制在格鲁吉亚,不会立即对乌克兰采取军事行动。他说,租用克里米亚半岛塞瓦斯托波尔海军基地的俄罗斯黑海舰队却可能不顾乌克兰总统的命令返回基地。乌克兰总统要求俄罗斯必须首先征得乌克兰同意才能返回塞瓦斯托波尔海军基地。"If Russia openly challenges Ukrainian sovereignty, I think that Ukraine will then turn to the West and say, 'you know guys, they're challenging our sovereignty with their fleet.' And this will happen without any kind of use of arms, or anything made in anger. Ukraine right now, apparently wants to make the threat to its sovereignty obvious to outside powers," said Felgenhauer. 费尔根豪尔说:“如果俄罗斯公开对乌克兰主权提出挑战,我认为乌克兰就会对西方说,‘你们知道吗,他们正在用他们的舰队挑战我们的主权’。这不用使用任何武器或者对任何事情造成威胁就会发生。乌克兰现在显然希望将主权面临的威胁清楚地展现在国际社会面前。”Felgenhauer says Moscow's vision of the world is that of Prime Minister Vladimir Putin; one in which Russia and Washington share spheres of influence. The analyst notes that Russia withdrew its bases from Cuba and Vietnam, expecting the ed States to stay away from what Moscow thought was to be its sphere of influence. He says Moscow felt betrayed when Washington began supporting colored revolutions among Russia's neighbors.  费尔根豪尔说,莫斯科对世界的看法就是普京对世界的看法。这个看法就是俄罗斯同美国分享势力范围。分析人士指出,俄罗斯从古巴和越南撤走了军事基地,俄罗斯期待美国也不要插手俄罗斯认为是自己的势力范围。他说,当美国开始持俄罗斯邻国境内的颜色革命时,莫斯科感到被出卖了。But Soso Tsiskarishvili points to this week's visit to Tbilisi by presidents of five countries that border Russia as a sign that they do not trust the Kremlin. 但是齐斯卡里什维利指出,俄罗斯5个邻国的总统本星期访问第比利斯表明,他们并不信任俄罗斯。200808/46282。

国家地理:Out of the Box 圣诞礼物 For most of us, the season evokes a kind of universal memory.My strongest memory of Christmas is the tree with all of the presents underneath it. And usually in the morning I wake up really early like at five o'clock. And when you come downstairs Christmas morning and the trees lit up, there is piles of presents, there might be a bicycle, there are skis, there is all... there's stuff all over the place. I really remember the lights, because that to me was the most magical. And hearing just the Christmas music that you only hear that one time a year. There is just lots to be happy for.Is that what you ask from Santa? Yeah.Christmas comes with a host of vivid images that bombard us from all directions for entire season: candy canes and carolers, stockings and store windows, Nativity scenes and nutcrackers, not to mention entire neighborhoods that explode in a kaleidoscope of light and colors. Then on top of all that, throwing the art character who's the master of ceremonies of this visual feast. Santa Claus.I'd describe him as fat and jolly.Big, chubby. A loving, very generous kind of guy. A good listener, listens to requests. I used to think that Santa Claus was probably one of the greatest people in the world.Merry Christmas!Santa's origins go back more than 2,000 years, but it took centuries of poetic embellishment and a few things lost in translation before the Santa that we know today emerged. The legend begins with a real figure, Saint Nicholas, a 4th century monk in what is now Turkey, who is famous for his kindness. It's said that he gave away his wealth to help children and the poor.He believed in, in helping others and doing it secretly, secret giving.Tim Connaghan, who plays Santa in movies and TV, has studied the evolution of Saint Nicholas from monk to myth. Nicholas was a bishop by the time he died around 350 AD, he was later canonized as a saint and became a revered symbol of generosity throughout Europe and beyond. There were so many churches, cathedrals and religious locations named after Nicholas. It was a very remarkable thing. The Greek adopted him as a patron saint. The Russians adopted him as a patron saint.The date of Nicholas' death, December 6th, was honored every year with a popular feast. But in 12th century France, the celebration took on a new twist that quickly became part of the tradition.Some French nuns decide one year, bake some little treats, go by all the homes, put treats in the shoes of the little children and tell them that Nicholas brought them for being good. And over the next hundred, two hundred years, more people pick up on this idea of giving something to the children. Because of the proximity of his feast day to Christmas. Saint Nicholas gradually became associated with the holiday as did the notion of a phantom gift giver who doled out rewards to the worthy.To give a gift subscription to any National Geographic magazine, log on to nationalgeographic.com/magazines.New Words:bombard: (v.) To attack with bombs, shells, or missiles. 炮击embellishment: (n.) The act of embellishing or the state of being embellished. 装饰canonize: (v.) To declare (a deceased person) to be a saint and entitled to be fully honored as such. 宣布为圣徒proximity: (n.) The state, quality, sense, or fact of being near or next; closeness 接近200708/16990。