青岛蓬莱青春痘治疗好医院飞度免费平台

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 青岛蓬莱青春痘治疗好医院飞度【黑龙江新闻】
Shared interests, a sense of humour and a healthy sex life may all go a long way to creating a satisfying marriage.拥有共同的兴趣爱好、富有幽默感和健康的夫妻生活对创造美满婚姻均大有裨益。#39;Although it has been known that women prefer tall men in mating for evolutionary reasons, no study has investigated whether a taller husband makes his wife happier,#39; said researcher Kitae Sohn, from Konkuk University in Seoul, South Korea.“尽管众所周知出于进化的原因,女性更喜欢高个子男性,目前尚无调查研究高个子丈夫是否可以让其妻更幸福,”韩国首尔建国大学研究员孙基泰如是说。A greater height difference in a couple was positively related to the wife#39;s happiness. He added that the relationship between height and happiness #39;gradually weakened over time and entirely dissipated by 18 years of marital duration#39;.夫妇身高差与妻子幸福感正相关。他补充说,身高和幸福感的关系会随时间推移而弱化,直到婚姻进入18个年头后完全消解。Dr Sohn, who analysed data from 7,850 women collected from a long-term population survey, said there could be many reasons why a taller man was linked to a happier wife.孙基泰从一项历时较长的人口调查中收集了7850名女性的数据,称男性个子偏高与妻子更为幸福相关联,其后有诸多原因。One is the intrinsic value of height; that is, women simply like tall men, while unable to say why.原因之一是身高的内在价值,即女性就是莫名喜欢高个子男性。This is similar to people favouring fatty, salty, and sugary foods without knowing exactly why: such foods are essential to survival.这个和人们说不清为何喜欢高脂、偏咸或偏甜的食物一样,即这些食物对于人类生存至关重要 /201512/414448

Last year, four of Japan#39;s top 10 best-sellers were about how blood type determines personality, selling more than 5 million copies altogether.去年,日本10大畅销图书中有4本与血型决定性格有关,四本书的总销量超过500万册。Taku Kabeya, chief editor at Bungeisha, the publisher of one of the books, told The Huffington Post that he thought the appeal of these books comes from having one#39;s self-image confirmed. Readers discover the definition of their blood type and ;It#39;s like #39;Yes, that#39;s me!#39;;作为其中一本图书的发行人、文芸社主编Taku Kabeya在接受《郝芬顿邮报》采访时称,他认为这类图书的魅力源自人们对自我形象的认知。读者看到书中对自己血型所下的定义时便会觉得“太对了,这就是我!”。As defined by the books, type As are sensitive perfectionists and good team players, but they tend to be over-anxious. Type Os are curious and generous but stubborn, while ABs are artistic but also mysterious and unpredictable. Type Bs are cheerful, but have eccentric, individualistic and selfish traits.按照书中定义,A型血的人是敏感的完美主义者以及优秀的团队领导者,但同时往往过于焦虑。O型血的人好奇心强,慷慨大方,但十分固执;而AB型血的人很有艺术气质,但太过神秘莫测。B型血的人性格开朗,却性格古怪,崇尚利己主义且十分自私。About 40 percent of the Japanese population are type A and 30 percent are type O, while only 20 percent are type B, with AB accounting for the remaining 10 percent, according to the B.B报道称,日本人口中大约有40%的人是A型血,30%是O型血,而B型和AB型血的人数仅占20%和10%。Morning television shows, newspapers and magazines often publish blood type horoscopes and discuss relationship compatibility based on blood types. Popular comics and games often mention a character#39;s blood type.早间新闻节目、报纸以及杂志常常会发布一些类似于占星术的血型分析,并探讨恋人间的血型相容性。热门喜剧以及也常常会提到某个人物的血型。You can even buy soft drinks, chewing gum, and bath salts catering to different blood groups.你甚至可以买到根据不同血型人群所定制的软饮、口香糖以及浴盐。Blood types, however, are simply determined by proteins in the blood. Why is it such a popular belief that they determine one#39;s character? One reason often given about the craze is that in a relatively uniform and homogenous society, it provides a simple framework to divide people up into easily recognizable groups.然而,简单来说血型是由血液中蛋白质决定的。为何“血型决定性格”这种说法会如此受到人们的欢迎呢?导致这股热潮的原因之一便是:在相对制式、趋同的社会里,血型理论提供了一种简单的框架将人分为不同的类型。;Being the same is considered a good thing here in Japanese society,; translator Chie Kobayashi told the B. ;But we enjoy finding little differences that distinguish people.;译者千绘小林在接受B采访时表示:“在日本社会,‘从众#39;被视为一种美德。但我们也喜欢找到这些区别人们的小差异。”The beliefs surrounding blood groups have been used in unusual ways.血型理论还被应用到许多不同寻常的事物中去。The women#39;s softball team that won gold for Japan at the Beijing Olympics is reported to have used blood type theories to design training for each player. Major companies reportedly make decisions about assignments based on employees#39; blood types.北京奥运会上夺取冠军的日本女子垒球队便针对每个队员的不同血型进行训练。据说,大多数公司会参考血型来为员工安排任务。In 1990 the Asahi Daily newspaper reported that Mitsubishi Electronics had announced the creation of a team made up entirely of AB workers, because of ;their ability to make plans;.1990年,《朝日新闻》的一篇报道称,日本三菱电器组建了一个完全由AB型血员工组成的团队,认为“他们企划能力强”。These beliefs even affect politics. Last year, the country#39;s Minister for Reconstruction Ryu Matsumoto was forced to resign after only a week in office, after a bad-tempered encounter with local officials was televised. In his resignation speech he blamed his failings on his blood type.血型学说甚至波及到政坛。去年,日本复兴担当大臣松本龙由于脾气暴躁而与日本地方官员发生冲突,该事件被电视报道后,上任仅一周的松本龙就被迫辞职。在辞职演说中,他将自己的过失归咎于血型。;My blood is type B, which means I can be irritable and impetuous, and my intentions don#39;t always come across,; said a remorseful Matsumoto.松本龙十分懊悔地表示:“我是B型血,这意味着我容易烦躁和冲动,我的本意经常被误解。”Not all see the craze about blood types as harmless fun, and the Japanese now have a term for it, ;bura-hara,; meaning blood-type harassment.并非所有的人都将这股热潮视为无伤大雅的玩笑,现在在日本有一个专门术语叫“bura-hara”,意思就是血型骚扰。People with blood B and AB are especially looked down upon because according to their blood types they are strange and can#39;t get along with others. The negative images are so widely acknowledged that people with these blood types are reluctant to ;come out;. It even affects their willingness to become blood donors.B型和AB型的人尤其遭到人们的白眼,因为这些血型的人性格古怪,无法与他人相处。这些负面形象得到人们的广泛认同,使得这些血型的人十分抗拒站出来。这甚至还影响到他们想献血的意愿。 /201510/401886

This is too hard! I need a chainsaw!这太难了!我需要一个电锯!Dumbo#39;s short Van Gogh-inspired period小飞象的矮个梵高——令人鼓舞的时期 /201512/415652Chinese Personal Names中国人姓名A modern Chinese usually has a surname(“family name”) and a given name(“first name or“Christian name”) always in that order.现代中国人的姓名通常由姓(家庭姓氏)和名(个人所起的名字)组成,并且姓在前,名在后。Thus Deng Xiaoping is Mr. Deng with the personal name Xiaoping the same way John Jones is Mr. Jones with the personal name John.因此,邓小平被称为邓先生,个人的名字为小平。正如约翰·琼斯被称为琼斯先生,个人的名字为约翰。In ancient China,however, naming was very complicated and one person usually had several names,and naming involved xing,shi,ming,and zi.Each of these four words meant a different thing.在中国古代,起名非常复杂一个人可以有好几个名字,包括姓、氏、名、字,每一个都表达不同的意思。Xing and shi together formed today’s sur-name,and ming and zi today’s given name. Today,people use xingshi to refer to a person’s surname,mingzi to refer to one’s given name.姓和氏演变为现在的姓,名和字则演变为现在的名、所以现在人们通常用姓氏来指一个人的姓,用名字来指一个人所起的名。Study of ancient Chinese documents shows that xing originally referred to the names of different matriarchal tribes.It also had something to do with the place where people lived.据对中国古代文献的研究表明,“姓”最初被用来指不同的女氏族长部落,和人们的居住地也有某些关系。Researches show That xing came into being during the matrilin-eal society period,i. e.,around four to five thousand years ago.研究表明,“姓”出现于母系社会时期,大约四千至五千年之前。Nearly always the family name(surname)is one-syllable long. The only com-mon modern surnames that are two-syllables long are ouyang and Sma.几乎所有家庭的姓都是一个音节,常见的两个音节的姓有欧阳、司马等。 /201509/395397

HONG KONG — Wallace Chan, the Hong Kong jeweler behind the creation of what has been called the world’s most expensive diamond necklace, began working with his hands when he was 8 years old.香港——“世界上最昂贵的钻石项链”背后的创作者是香港珠宝设计师陈世英(Wallace Chan),他从八岁就开始做手艺活了。In the 1960s his family migrated from the impoverished Fujian Province to Hong Kong, where they made money from odd jobs. The boy was put to work on repetitive tasks best done by small hands, like spooling yarn or assembling cheap decorative goods.20世纪60年代,陈世英一家从贫困的福建省移居香港,靠打零工为生。年幼的陈世英做的是那些只有小手才能做的重复性劳动,比如绕纱线,或组装廉价的装饰品之类。“We made plastic flowers until our fingers bled,” he said, speaking in Cantonese during an interview at his studio. “We got 10 cents for every bag of plastic flowers. I still remember — and for 15 cents we could get two pineapple buns.”“我们做塑料花,直到手指流血,”他在自己的工作室接受采访时用粤语说道,“我们每做一袋塑料花能赚一毛钱。我还记得,有一毛五分钱就可以买两个菠萝包。”Mr. Chan, 59, now works in an upstairs studio in Central Hong Kong, something of a fortress, with double electronically locked doors. A slight man with a long gray beard, wearing a plain black suit, he sat in a back room — a black cloth thrown over his desk, the shades drawn against the sunlight — and assessed bag after bag of uncut, unpolished stones, each one the size of a golf ball. “The stone tricks the eye, so I have to outsmart it,” he said, peering at a lump of topaz with a flashlight. “I can see its flaws and angles. There are elements I want to hide and elements I want to bring out. I am chasing its light.”陈先生今年59岁,他在香港中环上层的办公室有点像一座城堡,有两道带电子锁的门。他身材瘦小,留着长长的花白胡子,穿着一身朴素的黑色西装,坐在办公室里屋,桌上铺着黑布,色调反衬着阳光。屋子里有一袋袋未经切割打磨的原石,每一块都是高尔夫球大小。“石头会欺骗眼睛,所以我得比它聪明才行,”他用手电照着一大块托帕石,打量着它。“我可以看到它的瑕疵和角度。有些东西是我想隐藏起来的,有些东西是我想打磨出来的。我在追逐它的光。”In September, Mr. Chan unveiled A Heritage in Bloom, called the world’s most expensive diamond necklace, at an estimated cost of 0 million. Its 11,551 diamonds, with jade pieces to create the butterflies and bats that Mr. Chan loves, total 383 carats; the centerpiece diamond alone weighs 104 carats.九月,陈世英发布了“裕世钻芳华”(A Heritage in Bloom),它被称为世界上最昂贵的钻石项链,估价2亿美元。它使用玉块及11551颗钻石,拼出陈先生喜欢的蝴蝶与蝙蝠图样,重达383克拉。主钻重达104克拉。The project started in 2010 when Chow Tai Fook, a Hong Kong jewelry company, acquired an extremely rare, unpolished 507-carat diamond found in the Cullinan mine in South Africa. It commissioned Mr. Chan to craft the stone into a masterpiece that would become part of China’s long history of jewelry design.这个项目始于2010年,当时香港珠宝公司周大福获得了南非库利南矿山出品的一块极为罕有、未经琢磨的钻石原石,重达507克拉。陈先生接受委托,把这块石头打磨成一件中国漫长的首饰设计史上的杰作。“When I saw it, I felt my spirit leaving my body and returning,” Mr. Chan said. “I looked at that rock for three years before I touched it.” The final product took 47,000 hours of work from 22 craftsmen.“我一看到它,就觉得魂魄离开身体,然后又回来了,”陈先生说,“我对着这块石头看了三年,之后才着手。”最终成品是22位手工艺人花费47000小时的成果。In late November, as part of the viewing period for its Dec. 1 gem auction, Christie’s Hong Kong opened an exhibition featuring 30 exceptionally technically difficult works by Mr. Chan, some of which had not been seen publicly before. The show, which didn’t include sales, coincided with the introduction of “Wallace Chan: Dream Light Water,” a 380-page book written by the jewelry expert Juliet W. de La Rochefoucauld and published by Rizzoli.12月1日,佳士得香港将举办珠宝拍卖。作为拍卖观赏期的一部分,11月底,佳士得举办了一次展会,内容是陈先生的30件工艺极为复杂的作品,其中有些从未公开展出。这次展览不包括销售,正好与《陈世英:梦光水》(Wallace Chan: Dream Light Water)一书同时推出,这本380页的书由珠宝专家朱丽特·W·德·拉·罗切夫考尔德(Juliet W. de La Rochefoucauld)创作,由里佐利出版社(Rizzoli)出版社出版。The 0 book will be available in the ed States on Jan. 28, when Mr. Chan is scheduled to hold a talk and book signing at the Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum in New York.这本书售价280美元,将于1月28日在美国上市,届时陈先生将在纽约的库珀·休伊特,史密森尼亚设计物馆(Cooper Hewitt,Smithsonian Design Museum)做讲座和签名售书活动。In his studio’s conference room, Mr. Chan carefully flipped through the exhibition version of the book, which is more than two feet long, and features close-ups of his detailed works.陈先生在工作室的会议室里小心地翻着这本书的展览版本,它大约有两英尺多长,其中有他精美作品的照片特写。His favorite pieces are playful, whimsical, even humorous. There are dangling blue earrings called Dancing Elf; a rainbow-colored lark with a diamond in its beak; and a fish with translucent fins blowing bubbles. Mr. Chan particularly loves butterflies, a motif that appears in works such as Fluttery-Painted Lady, patterned with grass and flowers, and Ragtime, with flamelike wings crafted from paper-thin sheets of mother of pearl.他最喜欢的作品有趣、古怪,甚至很有幽默感。其中有名叫“舞蹈精灵”的蓝色耳坠;虹色调的云雀嘴上嵌着一颗钻石;鱼儿长着半透明的鳍,还吐着着泡泡。陈世英尤其喜欢蝴蝶,这是他作品中常常出现的主题,比如:在“鼓翼的蛱蝶”(Fluttery-Painted Lady)中,蝴蝶与花草一起出现,在“拉格泰姆”(Ragtime)中,蝴蝶火焰般的翅膀用薄如纸张的珠母片做成。When an idea comes to him, he grabs a pencil and sketches, quickly and fluidly. During the interview, he dreamed up a horse’s head with a flowing mane, which turns into another horse’s head, that then drops down into a jeweled pendant.他一有想法,就会抓起铅笔迅速流畅地画下来。在采访中,他想象出一个鬃毛飘扬的马头,鬃毛又幻化作另一匹马的头,最后成为一个珠宝吊坠。Mr. Chan’s hands are small enough for him to try on his own ladies’ jewelry. He slid on a ring he called My Dreams, which is extraordinarily light and slimming to the fingers, considering that it is made of two large jeweled cubes.陈世英的手很小,能够试戴自己做的女式首饰。他戴上一只叫做“我的梦”(My Dreams)的戒指,它由两大块珠宝立方体组成,却极为轻盈,在手指上显得很纤细。Using both hands, he picked up a large flower brooch, called Vividity, that is an explosion of hot pink and bright green. It, too, is surprisingly light for its size, the result of Mr. Chan’s technique of using titanium, which has a fraction of the density of gold.他双手拿起一个大大的花卉胸针,它的名字叫做“鲜明”(Vividity),艳粉与亮绿色碰撞在一起。这款珠宝虽然大,但也出人意料地轻盈,这是因为陈先生采用了钛金属工艺,所以它的密度只是金子的零头。His two workshops — one in Hong Kong and one in Macau, employing artisans who have worked with Mr. Chan for 15 to 30 years — produce only about a dozen pieces of year. “I spend so much time with one piece that it becomes me,” he said. “The stone is me, and I am the stone.”陈世英的两个工作室分别在香港和,聘用了与他合作过15到30年的工匠们,一年只生产十几件珠宝。“我在一件作品上花费很多时间,于是它就成了我的一部分,”他说,“那块石头就是我,我就是那块石头。”Mr. Chan became interested in precious stones when, at 16, he got a job at a workshop that carved Chinese religious icons. At 17, he begged his father for 1,000 Hong Kong dollars, now about 0, and used the money to buy a carving machine and a hunk of malachite and started selling small carvings door-to-door.陈世英从16岁起开始对宝石感兴趣,当时他在一家雕刻中国宗教塑像的工作室找了份工作。17岁那年,他向父亲要来1000港币,用这些钱买了一个雕刻机和一大块孔雀石,开始挨家挨户地卖小雕像。His family was pleased that he had found a steady job; but in his late 20s, he became restless.家里对他有份稳定工作感到很满意;但他快到30岁的时候,开始感到焦虑。“I wanted to be more than a workman,” he said. “I wanted to study art and watch films. I wanted to make things I loved. I wanted to make jewelry that dances with you, creations that have a story and a soul.”“我不想只做个工人,”他说,“我想研究艺术、想看电影。我想做我喜欢的东西。我想做出能与人共舞的珠宝,想创造出拥有故事和灵魂的作品。”So at the age of 28, against his family’s wishes, he moved to Macau, then still a Portuguese colony but aly a free-wheeling gambling haven.于是28岁的时候,他不顾家人的反对移居。当时的还是葡萄牙的殖民地,不过已经是个自由自在的避风港了。He became obsessed with the fact that a flaw could be reflected many times in a cut stone — creating an optical illusion similar to a double-exposure photograph. From 1985 to 1987, he developed the Wallace Cut, the technique that would bring him international fame. The Wallace Cut involves drilling a hole into the back of a multifaceted stone and then carving and etching an image, in reverse. When viewed from the front, the image will be reflected multiple times.他开始对一件事着迷:切割之后的宝石里,一个瑕疵可能会被反射很多次,创造出一种光学幻象,类似二次曝光摄影。从1985年到1987年,他开发出了“世英切割”(Wallace Cut),这项技术为他带来了国际声誉。这种技术包括在多面的宝石背面钻孔,然后雕刻和蚀刻出一个反向的图像。从正面看的时候,这个图像就会被多次反射。He also developed a very small, very fast drill because the technique requires that the stone be drilled, cooled in water because of the friction caused by the head of the drill, dried and drilled again multiple times — using elements of centuries-old European techniques such as intaglio printmaking and cameo carving.“世英切割”需要钻孔,由于钻头擦生热,还需要在水中冷却,干燥后继续钻,如此反复多次,他因此开发出一种又小又快的钻头,借鉴了几个世纪前欧洲的技术,比如凹版印刷和宝石浮雕。His most famous Wallace Cut was an homage to the Horae, the Greek goddesses of the seasons, in blue topaz. A German dealer took one look at Horae and told Mr. Chan that he had to take it to Europe. He showed it at the 1991 Intergem Fair and the Deutsches Edelstein Museum, both in Germany, and began to be known as a carving prodigy.“世英切割”最著名的作品以希腊的时序女神(Horae) 命名,用蓝色托帕石制成。一个德国商人只看了一眼这件“时序女神”,就告诉陈先生,他一定要把它带到欧洲去。后来,陈先生在德国的1991年Intergem览会与德意志伊德尔斯泰因物馆(Deutsches Edelstein Museum)展出了这件作品。One of Mr. Chan’s largest and most unusual commissions came in the late ’90s, when a Taiwanese temple asked him to make a three-foot-high great stupa of gold, crystal and ruby to house a relic believed to be Buddha’s tooth. Mr. Chan worked for months to figure out how to encase the tooth in concentric crystal globes; the project, completed in 2001, took two years in all.陈先生最大的、也是最特别的委约作品之一是在90年代末期,一个台湾寺院请他制作一尊三英尺高,镶嵌水晶和红宝石的金舍利塔,用来盛放佛牙圣物。陈世英研究了好几个月,才想出如何在构成同心圆的水晶球中放入佛牙;这个项目在2001年完工,历时两年。Fran漀椀猀 Curiel, chairman of Christie’s Asia-Pacific, in an email called Mr. Chan a “Renaissance man in the best sense of the world — a scientist, designer, sculpture; but my best description of him is as a visionary.佳士得亚太地区主席高逸龙(Fran漀椀猀 Curiel)在电子邮件中称陈先生是“一位典型的文艺复兴式人物——科学家、设计师、雕塑家;但对他最好的描述一个有远见的人”。“He has the curiosity, courage and, above all, the talents to push boundaries, artistically and geographically,” Mr. Curiel continued. “He is one of the first Chinese jewelry artists to make his name in the international arena.”“他有好奇心,有勇气,最重要的是,还有突破边界的才华,无论是艺术的边界还是地理上的边界,”高逸龙说,“他是首批享誉国际的中国珠宝艺术家之一。”Mr. Chan finally broke through a glass ceiling in the jewelry world when, in 2012, he became the first Asian designer to be invited to exhibit at the Biennale des Antiquaires in Paris, the world’s premiere haute jewelry exhibition.陈世英最终打破了珠宝世界中的玻璃天花板,2012年,他成了第一个受邀参展巴黎古董双年展(Biennale des Antiquaires)的亚洲设计师,这是世界顶尖的高端珠宝展览。“The Path to Enlightenment — Art and Zen” had pieces that were entirely different from those by European designers: a swirling Chinese dragon, a jade-green cricket, a translucent swan and fighting scorpions. The Great Wall, Mr. Chan’s necklace of antique Chinese imperial jadeite and diamond-encrusted maple leaves, sold for 56 million euros, or .6 million.“启蒙之路:艺术与禅”(The Path to Enlightenment — Art and Zen)的展品与欧洲设计师们的珠宝内容截然不同:盘旋的中国龙、绿的蟋蟀、半透明的天鹅和打斗的蝎子。陈先生的“长城”(The Great Wall)是一款项链,带有钻石镶嵌的枫叶,售价5600万欧元,或约合5960万美元。Mr. Chan is said to sell works only to clients he likes — a practice he neither confirmed or denied.据说陈先生只把作品卖给自己喜欢的客户——这件事他既不承认也不否认。“Let’s just say I don’t choose business just because of money,” he said. “Each work is from my heart, my hands. I suffer through each one. The buyer needs to understand that it is from my heart — that they are taking my child.”“这么说吧,我不会只为了钱而交易,”他说,“每件作品都是我用心、用双手做成的。每一件都让我付出心血。买家要理解它们发自我的心灵——他们带走的是我的孩子。”“If someone just says, ‘I have money, I want it,’ and they don’t understand, then I don’t want to give it to them.”“如果有人说,‘我有钱,我想要’,那么他们就没有理解,我也不想把作品卖给这样的人。”Both Mr. Chan and his staff are extremely protective of customers, saying all sales are confidential. And auction reports on his pieces just note “private buyer.”陈先生和员工都极为保护客户,说所有交易均要保密,作品的拍卖报告上只写着“私人买家”。Mr. Chan lives simply. He wears no jewelry, drinks endless cups of plain Chinese tea and still resides in a quiet corner of Macau.陈先生的生活很简谱。他不戴珠宝,一杯又一杯地喝着普通的中国茶,他依然住在一个安静的角落。He doesn’t particularly want to discuss his eye-popping price tags or prominent clients.他不太想谈那些让人瞠目结舌的价格,或是那些显赫的客户。“I want to leave a legacy,” he said. “Chinese jewelry has a history of 6,000 years, and I want to be part of it.”“我想留下一份遗产,”他说,“中国的珠宝有6000年历史,我希望成为其中的一部分。” /201601/419351

Ming Dynasty明朝Fall of the Ming Dynasty明朝的灭亡The fall of the Ming Dynasty was a protracted affair, its roots beginning as early as 1600 with the emergence of the Manchu under Nurhaci.明朝的灭亡是一件长期的事情,它的覆灭早在1600年努尔哈赤统治的满族出现后就埋下了祸根。Under the brilliant commander, Yuan Chonghuan, the Ming were able to repeatedly fight off the Manchus, notably in 1623 (where Nurhaci himself was killed by a much smaller force commanded by Yuan.) and in 1628.在杰出的将领袁崇焕的带领下,明朝得以不断击退满族人,其中最著名的是1623年(努尔哈赤被比自己兵力少得多的袁军所杀)以及1628年。But the tragic killing of General Yuan in 1630 by the futile Ming emperor began to change things around ; the succeeding general proved unable to eliminate the Manchu threat.然而自从1630年袁江军被无能的明朝皇帝杀害后,一切都变了;继任的将军无法减少满族人的威胁。Earlier, however, in Yuan’s command he had securely fortified the Shanhai Pass, thus blocking the Manchus from crossing the pass to attack Liaodong Peninsula.早先,袁崇焕曾下令加固山海关的安全防御并因此阻挡了满族人入关攻打辽东半岛。Unable to attack the heart of Ming directly, the Manchu instead bided their time, developing their own artillery and gathering allies.因为无法直接攻打明朝的中心,满族人等候着,加强他们自己的炮兵并召集盟军。They were able to enlist Ming government officials and generals as their strategic advisors.他们能够招募明朝的官员和将领作为他们的军事参谋。Large part of the Ming Army mutinied to the Manchu banner.明朝军队的大部分人马向满族人倒戈。In 1633 they completed a conquest of Inner Mongolia, resulting in a large scale recruitment of Mongol troops under the Manchu banner and the securing of an additional route into the Ming heartland.1633年,满人征了内蒙古,因此将蒙古的大部分兵力收归自己麾下,这是入侵明朝中心的另一个保障。By 1636 the Manchu ruler Huangtaiji was confident enough to proclaim the Imperial Qing Dynasty at Shenyang, which had fallen to the Manchu in 1621, taking the Imperial title Chongde.到1636年时,满族的领袖皇太极已经足够有自信在沈阳(1621年被满族政府)建立大清帝国,立年号为崇德。The end of 1637 saw the defeat and conquest of Ming’s traditional ally Korea by a 100 000 strong Manchu army, and the Korean renunciation of the Ming Dynasty.1637年年末见了明朝的传统盟友韩国被拥有100000人马的强大的满军打败和政征,最终韩国与明朝脱离了关系。On May 26, 1644, Beijing fell to a rebel army led by Li Zicheng.1644年5月26日,北京陷入由李自成领导的反叛军手中。Seizing their chance, the Manchus crossed the Great Wall after Ming border general Wu Sangui opened the gates at Shanhai Pass, and quickly overthrew Li’s short-lived Shun Dynasty.满族人抓住这个机会,在明朝将领吴三桂打开山海关的大门后进入了长城,很快就推翻了李自成建立的短命的顺王朝。Despite the loss of Beijing (whose weakness as an Imperial capital had been foreseen by Zhu Yuanzhang) and the death of the Emperor, Ming power was by no means destroyed.因为北京失守(朱元璋曾预见北京作为国都的弱点)和皇帝的驾崩,明朝毫无疑问地灭亡了。Nanjing, Fujian, Guangdong, Shanxi and Yunnan could all have been and were in fact strongholds of Ming resistance.南京、福建、广东和山西是明朝时期的要塞,然而中央政权的沦陷导致了许多明朝伪政权的出现,它们无法共存。However, the loss of central authority saw multiple pretenders for the Ming throne, unable to work together.这些政权被清军各个击破,直到1662年,永历皇帝朱由榔去世后,明朝复兴的最后一丝希望破灭了。Each bastion of resistance was individually defeated by the Qing until 1662, when the last real hopes of a Ming revival died with the Yongli emperor, Zhu Youlang.尽管明朝战败,到中华民国成立以前仍然有许多小规模的反清复明运动。Despite the Ming defeat, smaller loyalist movements continued till the proclamation of the Republic Of China. /201512/412255Eating hot dogs, ham and other processed meat can cause colorectal cancer, and eating red meat ;probably; can cause cancer, the World Health Organization#39;s cancer agency reported Monday.世界卫生组织在周一报道,热,火腿和其他加工肉制品可能导致直肠癌,吃红肉有可能导致癌症。Kurt Straif of the International Agency for Cancer Research said the risk of developing colorectal cancer from eating processed meat remains small but rises with the amount consumed. Consuming red meat was linked to colorectal, pancreatic and prostate cancer, but the link was not as strong, the IARC report said.国际癌症研究属Kurt Straif说,因为食用加工肉制品患癌症的风险仍然很低,但是随着食用量的增加,风险会增加。食用红肉可以导致直肠癌,胰腺和前列腺癌,但是研究属称,这一联系并不非常密切。;In view of the large number of people who consume processed meat, the global impact on cancer incidence is of public health importance,; Straif said.Straif说,;大量食用加工肉的人看来,癌症患病率的全球影响和公共健康重要性相关;。The IARC report labeled processed meat a carcinogen — cigarettes are similarly labeled — and said red meat is ;probably carcinogenic to humans.;国际癌症研究属将加工肉制品列为致癌品,和香烟属于同类,并且称,红肉可能对人类来说是致癌物。The North American Meat Institute scoffed at the report, saying it ignored ;numerous; studies showing no link between meat and cancer.北美肉类协会在报告中嘲讽道,研究属忽略了大量表明肉类和癌症之间没有关系的研究。;Red and processed meat are among 940 agents reviewed by IARC and found to pose some level of theoretical #39;hazard,; institute spokeswoman Betsy Booren said. ;Only one substance, a chemical in yoga pants, has been declared by IARC not to cause cancer.;;红肉和加工肉制品是国际癌症研究属发现并且认定为应该归入理论#39;有害#39;的940种物质之一;,机构发言人Betsy Booren说,;只有瑜伽裤种的一种化学成分被认定为无法致癌;。Processed meat was defined as meat transformed through salting, curing, fermentation, smoking ;or other processes to enhance flavor or improve preservation.; The most common processed meats consumed in the U.S. include hot dogs, sausages, bacon, ham, canned meat and beef jerky.加工肉制品是一种经过腌制,发酵,烟熏或者其他方法来提高口味和延长贮藏期的肉类。在美国常见的加工肉制品包括热,香肠,培根,火腿,罐装肉类和牛肉干。The IARC said it considered more than 800 studies that investigated possible links between a dozen types of cancer with the consumption of red meat or processed meat in many countries and populations with diverse diets.国际癌症研究属称,这一理论的提出,基于在许多国家和拥有不同饮食习惯的民族之间,展开的关于各类癌症和食用红肉以及加工肉制品间可能联系的800多项研究。The experts concluded that each 50 gram portion — about 1.75 ounce, or about two strips of bacon — of processed meat eaten daily increases the risk of colorectal cancer by 18%, the IARC said研究属报道,专家总结称,每天食用每50克,大约1.75盎司,或者大约两条培根的加工肉制品,可以增加直肠癌患病率18%。IARC director Christopher Wild said the findings support current public health recommendations to limit intake of meat but stressed that red meat has nutritional value. He said governments and international regulatory agencies must balance the risks and benefits of eating red meat and processed meat ;to provide the best possible dietary recommendations.;研究属署长Christopher Wild说,这一研究发现持目前公共健康限制肉类摄入的建议,但是他强调道,红肉营养价值很高。他说,政府和国际监管机构必须平衡食用红肉和加工肉制品的利弊,以便提供最好的可能饮食建议。 /201510/406593

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