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来源:飞管家免费答    发布时间:2019年07月18日 04:52:52    编辑:admin         

It is peak mosquito season, and while some lucky outdoor venturers seem unperturbed by the tiny insects, others appear to be relentlessly assaulted. Scientists are trying to understand what makes certain humans more attractive to the bugs. One expert, molecular vector biologist L.J. Zwiebel, a professor of biological sciences at Vanderbilt University, weighs in.眼下正是蚊子活动的高峰期,有些在室外活动的幸运儿好像并不受这种小小昆虫的侵扰,而另一些人则似乎不断遭到它们的侵袭。科学家们就什么原因导致某些人更吸引这些恼人的东西进行了探索。其中一名专家──范德堡大学(Vanderbilt University)生物学教授、分子载体生物学家L.J.茨维伯尔(L. J. Zwiebel)也加入了讨论。Sweet Smell of Success人体气味Mosquitoes find their mammalian prey through sensing the heat and carbon dioxide mammals emit. Pregnant women and larger people are sometimes the victim of multiple attacks, since they exert more energy than the average person.蚊子通过感知哺乳动物释放出的热量和二氧化碳来寻找它们的“猎物”。有时候,怀女性与体型较大的人会遭到蚊子多次侵袭,因为他们会比普通人散发出更多能量。Mosquitoes are also guided by their sense of smell. #39;Despite what my grandmother told me, I don#39;t have sweet blood,#39; says Dr. Zwiebel, since mosquitoes cannot distinguish blood quality. #39;Mosquitoes are attracted to our human odor, and that is largely a consequence of the bacteria on our skin,#39; says Dr. Zwiebel. The #39;flora and fauna on our skin#39; also smell appetizing to mosquitoes, says Dr. Zweibel, and these can increase when we sweat or spend a lot of time outdoors.此外,蚊子也受到它们嗅觉的指引。茨维伯尔说:“不管我奶奶以前对我讲过什么,但是我的血肯定不香甜,”这是因为蚊子并不能辨别血液的品质。他指出:“蚊子是被我们人类的气味吸引的,这主要是因为我们皮肤上有细菌。”他说,“我们皮肤上菌群”的气味也吸引蚊子,当我们出汗或在室外呆了很长时间后,这些菌群的数量就会增加。As far as Dr. Zwiebel knows, there is no scientific basis to prove that having high cholesterol or diabetes, despite what some websites claim, will keep bugs away. Nor will taking vitamin B supplements, eating garlic or taking specific medications.就茨维伯尔所知,尽管某些网站报道称高胆固醇或糖尿病可防范蚊子,但这一说法并无科学明。此外,用维生素B、吃大蒜或用某些药物可驱蚊的说法也没有科学依据。Skeeter Immunity叮咬免疫力After 20 years in labs with the biting bugs, Dr. Zwiebel says he can stick his arm into a container of mozzies and be bit hundreds of times, yet #39;not have a hair out of place.#39; Children, who have been bitten far fewer times than adults, may have stronger reactions to bites, since their immune systems haven#39;t matured fully. But adults who are convinced they are being victimized by the bloodsuckers usually are not. #39;There are some people who have strong allergic responses to the bites which may make it seem like they#39;re being bit more often, but they#39;re probably not,#39; Dr. Zwiebel notes.茨维伯尔在实验室中与这种咬人的昆虫呆了20年时间,他说他能把胳膊伸进一个装有蚊子的容器中,被咬上几百次也“毫发无损”。儿童被蚊子叮咬的频率低于成年人,但他们对叮咬的反应可能会更强烈,因为他们的免疫系统尚未完全成熟。常常有些确信自己被这种“吸血虫”侵害的成年人其实并没遭到叮咬。茨维伯尔指出:“有些人会对叮咬产生强烈的过敏反应,这可能会使他们显得更经常遭受叮咬,但也许事情并非如此。” /201307/249863。

Sleeping like a log: More than half of us in the UK sleep curled up in the foetal position, suggesting we are a nation of worriers, while the second most common position is the log, right, which indicates a rigid personality睡得香:在英国有超过一半的人是胎儿型睡姿,睡觉时会蜷成一团,这说明我们是一个焦虑者的国度,第二常见的睡姿是像树干一样的睡姿,这体现出刚强的个性。Do you sleep like a log? Or are you more of a yearner, a freefaller or a foetal?你是树干型睡姿吗?还是渴望型、自由落体型或是胎儿型?More than half of people in the UK curl into the foetal position as they sleep - a sign they are seeking comfort - according to new research.根据最新的一项调查,超过一半的英国人睡觉时会蜷成一团,像婴儿一样——表示他们在寻求安慰。The #39;log#39; is the second most common position, adopted by those with rigid personalities, according to the study by a body language expert.“树干型”是其次普遍的睡姿,根据一个肢体语言专家所做的研究,采用这种睡姿的多为个性刚强的人。#39;Yearners#39;, who sleep with arms outstreched, account for the 25% of the population who are longing to chase their dreams. 17% of those surveyed adopt the #39;freefall#39; position, suggesting they feel a lack of control over their lives.“渴望型”指的是双臂向前伸展的睡姿,占人群中的25%,他们大都渴望追求梦想。17%的被调查者睡觉时的姿势是“自由落体型”,暗示他们觉得自己无法掌控自己的生活。The position you choose while sleeping reveals a startling amount about your personality, according to body language expert Robert Phipps.身体语言专家罗伯特·菲普斯告诉我们,人在睡眠时选择的睡姿惊人地反映出了这个人的个性。Mr Phipps has identified four positions and says the foetal – most favoured by worriers – is by far the most common.菲普斯表示在四种睡姿中胎儿型是焦虑者最喜欢的——也是目前最常见的一种睡姿。More than half of us (58 per cent) adopt it and sleep with knees up and head down. The more we curl up, the more comfort we’re seeking, he says. The second most common position is the log (28 per cent).超过一半的人(58%)会采取胎儿型睡姿,膝盖卷起,低着头。菲普斯解释道:我们蜷缩地越厉害,也就是我们渴望的舒适越多。第二常见的睡姿是树干型(28%)。A straight body, with arms and legs by the side, apparently indicates stubbornness and they can wake up stiffer than when they went to sleep, says Mr Phipps.菲普斯表示,笔直的身体而且胳膊和腿放一边,这样的睡姿明显反映出固执的性格,他们醒来时会比入睡时更僵硬。Nap-time: #39;Yearners#39; sleep with their arms outstreched, while #39;freefallers#39; sleep on their stomachs with their arms at right-angles, right.小憩“渴望型”的人会伸长胳膊,;而“自由落体型”的人会趴着睡,胳膊成直角弯曲。The 25 per cent of us that are a yearner – arms stretched out in front – are either chasing a dream or being chased.有25%的人是渴望型睡姿,手臂向前伸出去,这样的睡姿要么是在追求梦想,要么是在被人追赶。Yearners are their own worst critics says Mr Phipps, always expecting great results. They wake up eager to face the challenges of the day.菲普斯说渴望型的人会最爱批评自己,他们总是期待很好的结果。他们醒来时带着对新一天挑战的渴望。Freefallers – face down, arms outstretched – make up 17 per cent and feel they have little control over their life. Physically this is the least comfortable position.拥有脸朝下、手臂张开的自由落体型睡姿的人占了17%,这一类人对于自己的人生少有控制。从生理角度而言,这是最不舒的睡姿。Mr Phipps’s survey asked people to record their most common sleeping positions, with some naming more than one. He said: ‘A good night’s sleep sets you up for the following day and our sleeping positions can determine how we feel when we wake.’菲普斯通过调查了解并记录人们最常见的睡姿,有的人常用的睡姿不止一个。他说:“一个良好的夜间睡眠决定了你的第二天,我们的睡姿决定了我们醒来时会是什么感觉。” /201210/206666。

Not getting enough sleep doesn’t just make you tired. It also makes you fat because of increased snacking, according to researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder in America。美国科罗拉多大学波德分校的研究人员表示,睡眠不足不仅令人疲乏,还会使人因吃更多零食而发胖。The researchers carried out a study which included eight men and eight women, whose average age was 22, and found that participants who lacked sleep for a week gained almost two pounds。研究者们在平均年龄为22岁的8名男性和8名女性当中进行了一项研究,由此发现那些一个星期都睡眠不足的研究对象的体重增加了近2磅(约0.9公斤)。To establish a baseline, participants spent the first three nights sleeping up to nine hours a night, and consumed only as many calories as they burned each day. Their daily intake of food and oxygen, and production of carbon dioxide were measured。为了建立标准,研究对象前3个晚上都可拥有长达9小时的夜间睡眠,并且每天只摄入与所消耗的热量相等的能量。他们每日摄取的食物、呼吸的氧气,以及排出的二氧化碳均被纳入测量范围。Then participants were split into two groups, with one limited to sleeping five hours a night, while the other continued to be allowed nine hours. After five nights, the groups switched. During this part of the experiment, participants were allowed to eat as much as they wanted。接着,研究对象被分为两组,其中一组每晚只睡5小时,而另一组仍睡9小时。5天后,两组情况交换。在这部分实验中,研究对象可以想吃多少就吃多少。The researchers found that participants burned about 5 percent more calories when their sleep was limited to five hours, but they consumed about 6 percent more calories, compared with when they were allowed nine hours。研究者发现,与睡9小时的情况相比,研究对象在睡5小时时要多消耗大约5%的能量,而他们摄入的能量却要多出大约6%。Although the participants ate less at breakfast when they had five hours of sleep, they ate more over the rest of the day; they especially consumed an increased number of calories in the form of snacks after the dinner and finally gained weight. When they shifted to adequate sleep patterns they shed the pounds。尽管研究对象在睡5个小时时早餐吃得较少,但是他们在接下来的一整天都会吃得更多,尤其是在晚餐后通过吃零食摄取更多能量,最终使体重增加。转到睡眠充足的模式后,他们就会减轻体重。Professor Ken Wright, one of the researchers, said extra sleep by itself isn’t going to lead to weight loss, and suggested that people who want to lose weight should pay attention to their sleep。研究者肯-莱特教授表示,多睡觉不会达到减肥的效果,并建议想减肥的人注意自己的睡眠。 /201304/234412。

1. H7N9 Avian Flu Prevention General Knowledge: 1. Illness symptoms are typical of viral pneumonia, with rapid onset, with early stages being high fever (38 degrees or above), coughing and other respiratory tract infection symptoms. 5-7 days after onset of the illness, breathing becomes difficult. 2. Thoroughly cook chicken meat and do not eat half-cooked chicken eggs. 3. Guangdong’s Center for Disease Control has said oseltamivir can be used for early stage treatment. 4. Avoid contact with live poultry and pigs, etc. 5. The virus can be destroyed after 1 minute in 100℃ temperatures. (Compiled according to public information)H7N9禽流感防治常识:1.病情表现为典型的病毒性肺炎,起病急,病程早期有高热(38度以上),咳嗽等呼吸道感染症状。起病5-7天出现呼吸困难。2对鸡肉等彻底煮熟,不要吃半生不熟鸡蛋。3.广东疾控中心称可用达菲做早期治疗4.尽量不接触活禽鸟和猪等。5.病毒在100℃中一分钟可被消灭。(据公开资料整理)2. After listening to the Shanghai H7N9 press conference, I have a few pieces of advice: 1. If you can help it, avoid eating pork and chicken. 2. Avoid eating out as much as possible, because the source of the poultry is uncertain. 3. If you come down with the flu, don’t go to the hospital in a panic, first observe for some time, as a hospital’s environment is sealed, and there’s a possibility of overlapping infection. 4. Do more exercise and eat more fruits and vegetables, to strengthen your immune system. 5. Be vigilant, paying attention at all times to information from Chinese authorities, Hong Kong media, and the World Health Organization.听完上海H7N9发布会之后的几点忠告:1.没事少吃猪肉和鸡肉,2.尽量不要在外边吃,因为家禽来路不明,3.如果患了流感,尽量不要急着去医院,先观察一段时间,医院环境密闭,不排除交叉感染可能,4.多运动多吃水果蔬菜,增强抵抗力。5.高度警惕,随时关注中国官方、港媒和世卫组织信息。3. From this point on, everyone must eat fully-cooked food, eggs too cannot be eaten too soft, the H7N9 virus cannot survive being heated at 65℃for 30 minutes and at 100℃for two minutes. You must not allow yourself to get sick, be sure to stay warm, don’t hang around places with poultry, and for now don’t eat any poultry products. Remember to also diligently wash your hands, and not give the virus the chance to enter your body. Everyone take care of your health!从现在开始一定要吃煮熟的东西,鸡蛋也不能吃嫩的呢!H7N9病毒在65℃高温下加热30分钟和100℃高温下加热2分钟就不能存活了。一定不要让自己生病,注意保暖,接触家禽,不要吃家禽类食物。勤洗手,不要给病毒入侵机会。大家注意身体! /201304/234952。