2018年10月19日 17:35:52|来源:国际在线|编辑:飞排名养生问答网
Charles Cutler, an internist near Philadelphia, says women with recurring urinary-tract infections frequently request broad-spectrum drugs like ciprofloxacin because it is what they know. But the overprescription of such drugs has created a lot of resistant infections, he says. It can take 48 hours for a test to determine what is causing a urinary-tract infection and #39;doctors and patients don#39;t want to wait 48 hours,#39; says Dr. Cutler, who is chairman of the American College of Physicians#39; Board of Regents. 费城附近的内科医生卡特勒(Charles Cutler)说,反复出现尿路感染的妇女经常要求环丙沙星之类的广谱药物,因为这是她们知道的药。但过量使用这类药物导致出现了众多抗药感染。卡特勒说,检测确定尿路感染的原因需要48小时,但医生和病人不愿意等上48小时。卡特勒是美国医师协会评议委员会(American College of Physicians#39; Board of Regents)主席。 Bronchitis is another illness for which antibiotics are often overused, says Lauri Hicks, medical director for the CDC#39;s #39;Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work#39; program. Eighty percent of the time patients come into a doctor#39;s office with acute bronchitis they will be prescribed an antibiotic, and usually a broad-spectrum one, she says. #39;Bronchitis in someone who#39;s otherwise healthy typically gets better on its own,#39; she says. 疾控中心的“常识:何时使用抗生素”(Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work)项目医学总监希克斯(Lauri Hicks)说,气管炎是另一种常常滥用抗生素的疾病。她说,患有急性气管炎的患者去看医生时,八成会被开具抗生素,而且通常是广谱药。她说,如果在其他方面都很健康,气管炎通常会自己好转。 Doctors say it can be difficult to tell a bacterial infection from a viral one. A general rule of thumb with sinus infections is to hold off on the early use of antibiotics but consider using them if symptoms persist. Infections like bronchitis, which is mostly caused by a virus, and pneumonia are usually diagnosed by listening to lungs with a stethoscope. If there is doubt, X-rays can often tell the difference. 医生说,细菌感染和病毒感染可能很难分辨。鼻窦炎的一个简单的经验法则是,不要过早使用抗生素,但如果症状持续则可以考虑使用。主要由病毒引起的气管炎和肺炎感染通常是用听诊器听肺音来诊断。如果有疑问,通常可以用X光检查来辨别。 Experts say patients should question their doctors about the use of antibiotics-both whether they are warranted and why a particular type is chosen. 专家说,患者应当向医生追问抗生素的使用,包括是否必要以及为何选择某种类型的抗生素。 The American Academy of Pediatrics has emphasized the importance of judicious use of antibiotics. The group this year updated guidelines for treating sinusitis and ear infections to help physicians determine which illnesses will respond to antibiotics and which type of antibiotic to prescribe. Both updates recommended the narrow-spectrum amoxicillin as a first-line treatment when antibiotics are warranted. 美国儿科学会强调了明智使用抗生素的重要性。该组织今年更新了治疗鼻窦炎和耳部感染的指导方针,帮助医生确定抗生素对哪些疾病见效以及该开具何种抗生素。这些更新后的指导方针都推荐在有必要使用抗生素时将窄谱的阿莫西林作为首要治疗选择。 Resistant bacteria are often present in the body in small numbers to begin with but are crowded out by other bacteria that are more susceptible to antibiotics. When a person takes an antibiotic, it kills off the susceptible bacteria, allowing the resistant bacteria to grow more easily, says Dr. Hersh. 赫什说,抗药菌一开始只是少量存在于身体内,但受到其他对抗生素更敏感的细菌排挤。用抗生素之后,抗生素会杀灭易感细菌,从而让抗药菌更容易繁殖。 Jeffrey Gerber, a pediatric infectious-disease specialist at the Children#39;s Hospital of Philadelphia, recently led a research team exploring whether doctors#39; prescribing habits could change. The researchers looked at 18 primary-care pediatric offices. In half of the offices, doctors received on-site education about prescribing guidelines for some common infections: pneumonia, strep throat and sinus infections. Narrow-spectrum antibiotics were recommended for all three conditions. The other offices didn#39;t receive any guidance. 费城儿童医院(Children#39;s Hospital of Philadelphia)儿科感染疾病专家格伯(Jeffrey Gerber)不久前带领一个研究小组考察能否改变医生们开具处方的习惯。研究人员考察了18所初诊儿科诊所。一半诊所的医生们接受了一些常见感染处方指导方针的现场培训,包括肺炎、脓毒性咽喉炎和鼻窦炎。这三种病症都被推荐使用窄谱抗生素。剩下的诊所没有接受任何指导。 #39;After 12 months we saw overall a nearly 50% reduction in broad spectrum or off-guideline prescribing for these conditions#39; in the intervention group of offices compared with the control group, Dr. Gerber said. The study appeared in the June issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association. He said the researchers are currently examining what effect the change in prescribing habits had on illness control, cost and other outcomes. 格伯说,12个月后,我们看到相比对照组,干预组诊所针对这些病症开具广谱抗生素或脱离指导方针开药的情况整体上减少了近50%。该研究发表在今年6月出版的《美国医学会杂志》(Journal of the American Medical Association)上。他说,研究人员正在考察处方习惯的变化给疾病控制、成本和其他结果带来的影响。 /201308/253355个高女性生双胞胎的几率大Taller women are more likely to have twins, according to a US study.Gary Steinman, an obstetrician at New York's Long Island Jewish Medical Center, compared the heights of 129 women who gave birth to twins or triplets with the average height of women in the ed States and found women with multiple-birth pregnancies averaged more than an inch taller.Steinman, whose study is being published in the September issue of the Journal of Reproductive Medicine, said the reason seems to be aninsulin-like growth factor, which has been positively linked to both height and twinning.Insulin-like growth factor is a protein that is released from the liver in response to growth hormone. It increases the sensitivity of the ovaries to follicle stimulating hormone, thereby increasing ovulation, the study said."Any circumstance that affects the amount of available insulin-like growth factor so as to modify the sensitivity of the ovary to follicle-stimulating hormone appears to govern the rate of spontaneous twinning," Steinman said in a statement.Previous studies have demonstrated that shorter people have significantly lower levels of this protein and that countries with taller women have higher rates of twinning compared to countries with shorter women.In a previous study, Steinman found that women who consume animal products, specifically dairy, were five times more likely to have twins. Cows, like humans, produce insulin-like growth factor in response to growth hormones and release it into the blood, and the protein makes its way into their milk.(Agencies)美国一项研究表明,个子高的女性生双胞胎的可能性较大。纽约长岛犹太医疗中心的妇产科医师加里·斯汀曼将129名生过双胞胎或三胞胎的女性的身高与美国女性的平均身高进行了对比,结果发现生过多胞胎的女性平均身高要高出2.54厘米。斯汀曼的此项研究结果在《生殖医学》的第九期上发表,他说,这可能和类胰岛素生长因子有关,类胰岛素生长因子与身高和孪生几率呈正相关关系。类胰岛素生长因子是人体肝脏在生长激素的作用下分泌出的一种蛋白质。研究表明,类胰岛素生长因子能增强卵巢对促卵泡激素的敏感度,从而促进排卵。斯汀曼在一份声明中提到:"任何能影响类胰岛素生长因子分泌量的因素都会改变卵巢对促卵泡激素的敏感度,从而影响自然孪生的几率。"之前已有研究表明,个矮的人体内分泌的类胰岛素生长因子量要低很多,此外,女性个子较高的国家比女性个子较矮的国家的双胞胎出生率高。斯汀曼在此前的一个研究中发现,常食用畜产品尤其是奶制品的女性生双胞胎的几率比不食用这些食品的女性大五倍。奶牛和人一样,也能在生长激素的作用下分泌类胰岛素生长因子,这种蛋白质被释放到血液里,从而进入到牛奶中。Vocabulary:insulin-like growth factor :类胰岛素生长因子(IGF) /200803/31407Law and Order 美国的法律与秩序 What does it mean to obey the law? That depends on where you are. Different cultures have very different views of obeying the law. In some cultures, law-abiding citizens try to keep the letter of the law. That is, whatever the law says, they do. In other cultures, good citizens live by the spirit of the law. They see the law only as a general guideline. Often they obey the law only when someone official is looking. The situation in America fits into the first category. That doesn't mean all Americans keep the law. But American culture teaches people to respect the law--even to the smallest detail. 守法的定义是什么? 那要视你身处何地而定, 不同的文化对守法有不同的看法. 在一些文化中, 守法的公民会试着完全遵守法律的字面规定, 也就是说, 不管法律怎么规定, 他们都会照着去做. 而在其它文化中, 好公民则按着法律的精神来做, 他们视法律为一般的准则, 通常只有在执法人员会看到的情况下才守法. 美国的情况是属于第一种, 但这并不表示所有的美国人守法. 但是美国的文化教导人民要尊重法律--即使是在很小的细节上. Driving habits illustrate American respect for the law. A driver will usually stop for a red light, even when there are no other cars around. People treat the lines marking streets and roads as definite boundaries, not just decora-tions. Vehicles yield to those with the right of way-particularly pedestrians. Actually, though, drivers don't always keep traffic rules. For example, many drivers ignore freeway speed limits. But Americans generally drive with careful attention to the rules. 美国人的开车习惯说明了他们对法律的尊重态度. 开车的人通常会在红灯前停下来, 即使四周没有其它的车也是如此. 人们视街道上的标线为绝对的界线, 而不只是装饰而已. 车辆会让路给有权先行者 - 尤其是行人. 然而, 事实上, 开车的人并没有遵守所有的交通规则, 举例来说, 很多开车的人根本不理会高速公路上的速限. 但是美国人在开车时通常会小心地留意交通规则.History gives several clues to explain American attitudes toward the law. The U.S. Constitution, the basis for all laws in America, reflects many historical influences. The Magna Carta, or "Great Charter," was one. King John of England was forced to sign this document in 1215. It placed the king under the authority of the law. No longer was the king law; rather, the law was king. America's Christian heritage has also shaped how people view the law. For one thing, the Bible reveals God's unchanging laws which people must obey. It also teaches people to respect human authority as established by God. 过去的历史可以提供点线索来解释今天美国人对法律的态度. 美国宪法是美国所有法律的基础, 由它反映出很多历史性的影响. "Magna Carta"或称为"英国大宪章"就是一例, 英王约翰在一二一五年被迫签署这份文件, 它把国王置于法律的权威之下. 国王的命令不再成为法律, 相反的, 法律才是最高的权威. 美国的基督教传统也影响了美国人对法律的看法. 首先, 圣经显示了上帝不改变的律法, 这是人们必须遵守的, 它也教导人们尊重上帝所设立的执政掌权者. Of course, not everyone in America abides by the law. Crime is a growing problem. For that reason, law enforce-ment officials will never be out of a job. Police officers have their hands full trying to arrest lawbreakers. Detective agencies spend countless hours trying to figure out unsolved crimes. Nevertheless, most Americans still like to believe that the "long arm of the law" will eventually nab the bad guys. 当然, 并非每个美国人都守法, 犯罪是一个日益严重的问题. 正因这个原因, 执法人员永远都不会失业, 警察手上堆满了逮捕罪犯的工作, 侦探社花上数不清的时间想办法解决尚未侦破的案件. 尽管如此, 大部份美国人仍相信"法律的长胳臂"终究会逮到坏人的. But even bad guys in America have the right to a fair trial. When a person is brought to an American court, he is presumed innocent until proven guilty. Many ancient Eastern systems, in contrast, viewed an accused person as guilty until proven innocent. They used torture and other extreme measures to find out the truth. The American system tries to protect the rights of the accused. Still, the system is far from perfect. Court cases involving celebrities like O.J. Simpson can become media circuses. Skilled lawyers sometimes use minor issues to get their clients set free. And prison inmates may live even better than many poor citizens. 可是, 即使是坏人, 在美国仍享有接受公平审判的权利. 当一个人被带到美国的法庭时, 在明有罪之前, 会先假设他是无罪的. 相反的, 在很多古老的东方体系中, 在明被起诉者为无辜之前,都视他为有罪, 他们用严刑拷打其它严厉的方法来找出事实的真相.美国的司法系统试着要保护被起诉人的权利, 但是这个系统离完美尚有一截. 像辛普森这种知名人物的法庭案例, 反而成了媒体的马戏; 有技巧的律师有时会用不重要的论点帮客户脱罪; 而监狱里囚犯的生活甚至可能比很多穷人还要好. No one believes a perfect legal system is possible. Yet every society has laws. Whether people follow the letter of the law or just the spirit of the law, they recognize the need for laws to keep order in society. Without them, chaos would result. If every man were a law unto himself, no man would be free. 大家都认为完美的法律系统是不可能的. 但是, 每个社会都订有法律. 不管人们是完全守法还是只遵守法律的精神, 他们认同以法律来维持社会秩序的需要. 没有法律, 社会就会变得杂乱无章, 如果每个人都有自己的一套法律, 就没有人能享有自由. /200804/33378

你“Google”过自己吗?Have you ever "Googled" youself?More Americans are Googling themselves — and many are checking out their friends, co-workers and romantic interests, too.In a report Sunday, the Pew Internet and American Life Project said 47 percent of U.S. adult Internet users have looked for information about themselves through Google or another search engine.That is more than twice the 22 percent of users who did in 2002, but Pew senior research specialist Mary Madden was surprised the growth wasn't higher."Yes it's doubled, but it's still the case that there's a big chunk of Internet users who have never done this simple act of plugging their name with search engines," she said.Americans under 50 and those with more education and income were more likely to self-Google — in some cases because their jobs demand a certain online persona.Meanwhile, Pew found that 53 percent of adult Internet users admit to looking up information about someone else, celebrities excluded.Often, it's to find someone they've lost touch with. But looking up information about friends, relatives, colleagues and neighbors also was common.Although men and women equally searched for online information about themselves, women were slightly more likely to look up information about someone they are dating.In many cases, the search is innocuous, done to find someone's contact information. But a third of those who have conducted searches on others have looked for public records, such as bankruptcies and divorce proceedings. A similar number have searched for someone else's photo.Few Internet users say they Google themselves regularly — about three-quarters of self-searchers say they have done so only once or twice. And most who have done so consider what they find accurate.Pew also found that teens were more likely than adults to restrict who can see their profiles at an online hangout like Facebook or News Corp.'s MySpace. 如今,越来越多的美国人在Google上搜索自己,还有很多人通过Google查找朋友、同事或约会对象的信息。Pew互联网和美国生活项目在上周日发布的一份调查报告中称,47%的美国成年互联网用户通过Google或其它搜索引擎查找过有关自己的信息。这一比例比2002年的22%增长了一倍多,但Pew调查中心的高级研究员玛丽#8226;麦登认为增幅还不够大。她说:“在Google上搜索自己的网民比例确实翻了一番,但调查同时显示,目前仍有很多网民从未用搜索引擎搜索过自己的名字。”年龄在50岁以下的美国人以及受教育程度和收入较高的人在Google上搜索自己的几率更大,这是因为他们的工作有时需要在网上公开个人信息。此外,Pew调查中心发现,53%的成年网民承认自己曾在Google上查找过除名人以外的其他人的信息。在很多情况下,人们这样做只是为了寻找失去联系的人,但也有很多人通过Google查找朋友、亲戚和邻居的信息。男性和女性网民在Google上搜索自己的人数比例差不多,但女性更爱在网上搜索约会对象的信息。在很多情况下,在网上搜索别人纯粹是为了找到此人的联系方式。但有三分之一的人这样做是为了了解别人的公共纪录,如破产及离婚纪录等。另有相同比例的人曾搜索过别人的照片。多数网民并不经常在Google上搜索自己——约四分之三的人称,他们仅搜索过一两次。多数人认为他们搜索到的有关自己的信息是正确的。该调查还发现,与成年人相比,青少年更希望限制别人在Facebook或Myspace等社交网站查看自己的个人信息。 /200803/32072

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