福建检查输卵管多少钱飞度名医

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年11月16日 17:52:47
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Business商业Drug research药品研究All together now大家齐心协力Charities help Big Pharma慈善机构协助大型制药公司IT WAS once only drug firms that developed drugs. But this is changing. Take the case of the Michael J. Fox Foundation, a Parkinsons disease charity. On April 19th it announced that it would pay for a clinical trial of a drug developed by Sanofi, a French pharmaceutical giant, that might treat the mental symptoms of the disease.过去只有制药公司才开发药品,但这种情况正在改变。就拿Michael J. Fox基金会,一个帕金森病的慈善机构来说。此机构在4月19号宣布他们将为赛诺菲(Sanofi),法国的制药巨头,所研发的一种药物的临床试验买单,此药有可能用于治疗帕金森病的精神症状。The deal is the latest sign of a broader shift—one that is driven by desperation. Patents on blockbuster drugs are expiring. Research and development (Ramp;D) have grown less productive, with billions of dollars yielding only a trickle of drugs.这笔交易是产业萎靡所触发的转变的最新迹象。重磅药品的专利已开始失效。药品研发部门已不再那么多产,数十亿美金的投入只换来少许药品的诞生。Some blame stringent regulators. Others grumble that big pharma firms are too bureaucratic. All agree that developing a new drug takes money (well over billion) and time (over ten years in America). Whatever the cause, a shortfall in Ramp;D has inspired a flood of new partnerships.有些人将此归咎于严苛的监管部门,另一些人则认为大型制药公司太过官僚化。一个公认的事实是药物的开发是需要大量金钱(远超过十亿美元)和时间(在美国超过十年)的。无论原因如何,研发部门的低产给众多新合作关系的诞生以灵感。Charities have been particularly bold. Companies, beholden to shareholders, are loth to do things that might lose them money. Charities, by contrast, exist to give the stuff away. The leading ;venture philanthropist; is the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation. It has supported early research and clinical trials, small biotech firms and the biggest of Big Pharma companies, Pfizer. The foundation spent m on early research for Kalydeco, which in January became the first approved drug to target the mutated gene that causes cystic fibrosis. Kalydeco is owned by Vertex, a firm based in Massachusetts, but the foundation will get royalties from the drugs sales, which will then support further research. Other charities have followed the Cystic Fibrosis Foundations lead. The Fox Foundation, for example, has spent 9m on research.慈善机构的参与尤其令人关注。受惠于股东的公司们的不作为可能会断送他们的资金来源。慈善机构,却相反,生来就是乐于施舍。囊肿性纤维化(Cystic Fibrosis)慈善基金是风险慈善的领头羊。此基金已对药物的早期研究,临床试验,小型生物科技公司和最大的生物制药公司辉瑞(Pfizer)给予资助。并且,投资7千5百万美金进行Kalydeco的早期研究,Kalydeco在一月份成为第一个针对导致囊性纤维变性的突变基因的药物,它是位于马萨诸塞州的Vertex公司的产品,此公司会从药品的销售额中给投资的慈善基金一定的分成,这又将会被投资于药品的进一步研究。其他的慈善基金也纷纷效仿Cystic Fibrosis。就如Fox慈善基金已在药物研究上投资了2.89亿美金。Governments have also waded further into Ramp;D. In 2007 the European Commission announced a ten-year, /201210/203353

The right to vote has always been fundamental to our system of representative democracy, yet most African-American voters in southern states were denied this right for almost a hundred years, despite the ratification of the 15th Amendment in 1870. Southern voter registration boards imposed overwhelming bureaucratic impediments to qualified black voters and subjected them to harassment, economic reprisals and physical violence. With their voices unheard, they had little, if any, political power.选举权一直是代议民主体系的基础,然而美国南部各州大部分的非裔选民却不被赋予这一基本权利,尽管1870年第15项修正案批准了选举权利法案,但这种状况仍持续了近一百年。南方选民注册委员会对合格的黑人选民施加了压倒性的官僚障碍,包括骚扰,经济报复和身体暴力等手段。因为统治阶级无视选民的呼声,所以他们没有任何政治权利。In early 1965, during the Civil Rights Movement, peaceful demonstrators in Birmingham and Selma, Alabama were met with violent police resistance, including nightsticks, water hoses, tear gas, attack dogs, and imprisonment. Televised newscast images of these events outraged Americans, and persuaded President Lyndon B. Johnson and Congress to make voting rights legislation a priority.在1965年早期的民权运动期间,伯明翰、塞尔玛和阿拉巴马市的和平示威者遭到防暴警察的镇压,他们用木棒、软管、催泪弹、击棒袭击示威者,并逮捕示威者入狱。事件一经电视播出,便激怒了美国人,这也迫使林顿·约翰逊总统和国会优先考虑选举权立法。The Voting Rights Bill passed quickly in both houses, and was signed into law on August 6th, 1965. It gave the Federal government power to oversee the registration and election process in problematic counties. The Voting Rights Act was amended in 1970, 75, and 82, extending protection to other minorities and disenfranchised voters. Though the voting process in America continues to spark debate, the Voting Rights Act remains a significant piece of legislation, guaranteeing that no citizen will be denied the right to vote on account of race, color, or disability.《选举权法案》很快通过两院的批准,最终于1965年8月6日签署生效。这赋予联邦政府在问题城市监督注册和选举进程的权利。1970年、1975年和1982年的选举法案修正案给予少数民族和被剥夺权利的选民以保护。尽管美国的选举程序将继续引发争论,但选举权法案仍然是一项重要立法,它确保居民不因种族,肤色和残疾而被剥夺选举权。原文译文属!201211/209372

  

  How dumb, or smart, are birds? Calling someone a birdbrain is usually meant as an insult. But many birds are quite clever. Take, for example, the mockingbird. To you and me, one mockingbird might look pretty much like any other. But from the birds perspective, the same isnt true of humans.鸟类究竟是愚蠢还是聪明呢?称某人为“鸟脑”通常意味着侮辱。但很多鸟儿其实非常聪明。例如知更鸟。对于你、我来说,所有的知更鸟可能看起来都一样。但是从鸟的角度来看,这一理论却不适用于人类。Mockingbirds can tell one person from another with great skill, especially when that person poses a threat. In one experiment, scientists had volunteers approached and touched mockingbird nests once a day for four days. By the second day, the birds began their warning calls and attack runs sooner than they had the day before. By the fourth day, the birds appeared to be able to spot the human intruders as soon as they began to approach the nests.在分辨不同的人方面,知更鸟技巧高超,特别是有人威胁它时。在一项试验中,科学家们让志愿者们去接近、触碰知更鸟的窝巢,每天一次,连续四天。第二天,鸟儿们便鸣叫警告、突袭来者,反应比前一天更迅速。到第四天,一旦志愿者们开始接近鸟巢,知更鸟便能辨别出那位人类入侵者。On the fifth day, however, a new person approached and touched the birds nests. And the birds were slower to react. So in other words, the birds werent simply protecting their nests with the same ferocity no matter who approached.然而到了第五天,换一位陌生面孔的志愿者去接近、触摸鸟巢。知更鸟的反应又慢下来。因此换句话说,鸟类对入侵者也会区别对待,并不会一味地气势汹汹。They quickly recognized repeat intruders and were quick to target them. Because the new intruder wasnt familiar, the birds took longer to size him up. Mockingbirds might not be the only bird species to distinguish between people. Other species that have adapted to human environments might be good people spotters, too. In fact, this ability might be part of what allows some birds to thrive in urban environments.他们很快地识别重复入侵者,并快速攻击他们。因为对新的入侵者并不熟悉,所以知更鸟要花更长时间来做出判断。知更鸟可能并不是唯一能够区别人类的鸟类。其它一些已经适应了人类环境的鸟类,可能也十分善于识别人类。事实上这种能力会帮助鸟类在现代环境中生存下去。原文译文属!201212/213627。

  

  Books and Arts;New French film;Friends united;An unlikely comic hit;文艺;法国新片;最强拍档;独特的喜剧冲击;French film-makers are good at turning out silly comedies that foreigners find unwatchable. They have a better export record with highbrow, low-plot movies, set in chic apartments with parquet floors, that feel moodily French. Just occasionally, however, they come up with a comic gem. “Intouchables”, directed by Olivier Nakache and Eric Toledano, is one of those cleverly pitched, well-scripted, feel-good comic films typically crafted in Hollywood; it is a delight to see that the French can sometimes pull them off too. With more than 4m tickets sold since it opened earlier this month, the film is set to be a boxoffice smash.法国电影制作人擅长导演让外国观众看不下去的无厘头喜剧。电影的口碑也多为孤芳自赏和缺乏情节,多以别致的公寓,干净的木地板为背景,让人能感觉到沉闷的法国风格。然而偶尔,他们也会有好的喜剧作品。由奥利维·那卡和艾力克·托兰达导演电影《不可触碰》就是一例。该电影制作精良,剧本精心推敲,倒像是典型出自好莱坞的喜剧片,很高兴看到法兰西人能时不时突破自己。影片自11月初首映以来就已突破400万张票房业绩,这部电影势必会成为一部轰动票房之作。Based on a true story, it follows the improbable relationship between Philippe, a quadriplegic aristocrat (Francois Cluzet), and Driss (Omar Sy), a gregarious Senegal-born youth from the banlieues, the grim housing estates that ring Paris. On his release from prison, Driss is hired by Philippe in a moment of recklessness as a live-in help at his Paris mansion. Philippe is warned that banlieue youths have “no pity”. No pity, replies the wheelchair-bound former paraglider wryly, is just what I want.电影根据真实故事改编,讲述的是菲利普,一个四肢瘫痪的贵族(弗朗索瓦·克鲁塞饰演)和Driss(奥玛·赛饰演)一位来自巴黎郊区破房子里的塞内加尔裔青年之间建立的一段几乎不可能的主仆友情。Driss刑满出狱后,菲利普没有经过考察便立刻雇佣了他,让他负责照顾自己在巴黎豪宅里的生活起居。当别人警告菲利普说这位郊区青年毫无“怜悯之心”时,没有怜悯之心?坐在轮椅上的这位曾经的跳伞健将冷冷的回到:这正是我要找的。Less deftly handled, the treatment of such a subject could have fallen into a number of traps. Instead, the films light touch finds comedy in both mens handicaps: the one physical, the other social. Each, in his own unsentimental way, understands the other better than do those around them. This unlikely chemistry is captured in the opening sequence, when Driss roars through the streets of night-time Paris, funk music at full blast and Philippe in the passenger seat, giving his employer the thrill of the Maserati he owns but cannot drive.如果没有巧妙的处理的话,这类题材的电影可能会落入俗套。然而,这部电影的喜剧亮点放在了两个男人各自的缺陷上,一个是身体残疾,另一个是社交障碍。但彼此都没有感情冲动,都比周围其他人能更好的读懂对方。这种独特的味道在影片开场就有所展现。菲利普坐在副驾驶上,让Driss激动的开着自己拥有却无法驾驶的玛莎拉蒂,在夜晚的巴黎街头驰骋的时,车里充斥着劲爆的音乐。French critics have been thoroughly charmed. Le Figaronewspaper called the film “faultless”. Paris-Match described it as “the best scripted, best acted, funniest and most moving that we have seen in a long time”. It has surely launched Mr Sy, a black comedian best-known for a short nightly sketch on Canal Plus, a television channel, on the way to stardom. Bob and Harvey Weinstein, two Hollywood producers, have acquired the rights for America and Britain. Heres hoping that English-language audiences will get to see the original French version, and not just a remake.法国家已经被这部电影给彻底迷住了。《费加罗报》称电影“无可挑剔”。《巴黎竞赛》这样形容:我们已经很长一段时间内都没有看到像这样一部集“最佳剧本,最佳表演,最有趣,最感人”于一身的力作了。当然这部电影也使赛先生-这位法国有线电视每夜小品的黑人喜剧演员走上了星光大道。两位好莱坞制作人,鲍勃和哈维.维恩斯坦,也为美国和英国的观众拿到了版权,英语为母语的观众也有希望看到这部原味法国片,而不仅仅是部翻拍片了。 /201301/218246Books and Arts; Book Review;文艺;书评;New British fiction;新英国小说;The writer and the spy;作家和间谍;A clever book that leaves you cold;打不动人心的一本智慧书;Sweet Tooth. By Ian McEwan.《甜蜜牙齿》作者:Ian McEwan. At 64, with a Hollywood film, a Man Booker prize and a gong from the queen, Ian McEwan has become a grand old man of British letters. Publication of his latest novel, “Sweet Tooth”, was announced on the evening news. A ing at the Edinburgh book festival was introduced by none other than the first minister, Alex Salmond.64岁那年,带着被改编成的好莱坞电影,伊恩.麦克万从女王的手里接过了布克奖和奖章。成为英国的最年长的作者。晚间新闻报道了他最新出版的小说《甜蜜的牙齿》。在爱丁堡图书节的一次读书会上,竟然是首席部长阿列克斯.萨尔蒙德推荐了这本小说。For all the attendant publicity, “Sweet Tooth” is not Mr McEwans finest book. It has neither the darkness of “The Comfort of Strangers” nor the passion of “Enduring Love”, nor even the forensic observation that made “On Chesil Beach” such an uncomfortable and memorable . It is a clever book—ostensibly about spying, yet really about writers and the alchemy of fiction. But it is also curiously forgettable. What it lacks is not so much an animating spirit, as a heart.对于所有的参赛作品来说,《甜蜜的牙齿》并不是麦克万最棒的书。它既没有《舒适的陌生人》的那种阴郁,也没有《永恒的爱》那么的,甚至没有那种使《在Chesil的海滩》成为令人忐忑,却难以忘却的书的法医的观察。这是一本智慧的书——表面看似是关于谍报活动的,其实它是讲作者和小说的魔力。但是,说来奇怪,它也容易被忘掉。它缺少的是没有令人心跳般地虎虎生机。The novel is set in 1972, a pivotal year in post-war British history, when a series of bloody IRA bombings and debilitating miners strikes seemed to presage the political and economic chaos that would mark the rest of the decade. Farther afield, the cold war stumbled on, as East and West battled for cultural influence.小说的故事设定在1972年,英国历史上战后的最关键的一年,一连串的北爱尔兰共和军的流血爆炸,虚弱矿工的罢工似乎预示着政治和经济的大乱,那混乱也许充斥那个年代的剩下的整个时间。远方,冷战磕磕碰碰地继续着,就像东西方为了文化影响战斗一样。In her final year at Cambridge—nest of an earlier generation of spies—Serena Frome (rhymes with “plume”, the er is swiftly told, for no discernible reason) has an affair with an older man, who helps recruit her to become a junior spy. At the time the West was spending millions sping anti-Soviet propaganda, and America was bankrolling newspapers and broadcasters like Radio Free Europe. Serena, a compulsive er of fiction, is sent on a secret mission to convert a promising young novelist, Tom Haley, to the cause.剑桥是这个早先一代间谍的的老窝。Serena Frome (与”plume”押韵,给读者一带而过,没有别的意思。)在剑桥的最后一年,和一个老头之间有段韵事,老头协助招募她,使她成了一位初级间谍。那时,西方花费数百万用于反苏宣传,美国资助着报纸和广播,如自由欧洲电台等。一位痴迷小说的读者,Serena身负着神秘使命,被送去策反年轻有为的小说家 Tom Haley到这事业来。The two become lovers. Their hedonistic affair is full of Chablis and long discussions about famous writers and publishers of the time (Martin Amis, Tom Maschler). The book chugs along this way until the end, when Mr McEwan delivers an unwieldy denouement and some unearned sadness. By then it is hard to feel much of anything for these heroes, who are all notions and no depth.这两个成了恋人,他们享受着花天酒地,久久地讨论着当时知名的作家和出版商(如Martin Amis, Tom Maschler)。这本书遵循着这条线索,跌宕起伏,一直到结束,这时麦克万写出了繁琐的结尾和一些顺理成章的伤感。直到此刻我们也很难感受到这些英雄的什么事迹,虽然他们一直贯穿始终,但没有深度。 /201209/199430Scientists have captured a fascinating snapshot of one of our ancestors who walked the earth about 4,000 years ago.科学家今日绘制了一副地球上400年前人类祖先的画像。Well, look at that, they used a genetic time machine of sorts to get the picture of what he might looked like.看看这副图,科学家们应用了基因时间分析机来获得人类祖先的画像。Now they just had to analyze four frozen strands of hair from the ancient man who they say lived in Greenland.他们只是分析了格陵兰的早期人类的四根毛发就获得了这幅画像。They say DNA sequencing shows he had brown hair, was probably going bald and had type A positive blood.科学家们表示,根据头发提供的DNA排序,这名人类祖先是棕发,可能谢顶,A型血。Interesting.真有趣。Very interesting. Not bald, though receding hairline.非常有趣,这张图显示不是谢顶,只是发迹线靠后。Thats an insult to people with receding hairlines everywhere.这讽刺了世界各地谢顶的人。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201205/184565

  

  Kinect Microsofts hands-free Xbox 360 add-on is hitting the stores. Launch events like this one in Time Square are being used to get the world out around the world. Microsoft is hoping the Kinect connects with holiday shoppers. They recently raised their sale forecast to five million units. Mike Delman is the vice president for Xbox global marketing.微软的无手柄游戏机Kinect Xbox 360已全面上架。如这场时代广场的发布活动,各地的宣传活动将全世界的人们带入到虚拟的游戏世界中。微软希望Kinect在假日购物季能够大卖。Kinect最近的销售量有所上升,累计已卖出500万台。Mike Delman是Xbox国际市场部的副主席。We think once people start playing this, you watch them. And an interesting thing is its not only the people playing, they get energized and are rolling enthusiastic about it, but youll find people actually gathering around and its fun to watch people play. So we think this is gonna be a really hot holiday gift, gift-giving idea.我们认为人们一旦开始尝试使用Xbox 360,或是看别人玩Xbox。有趣的是不仅是亲身体验的人,连一旁观看的你也会觉得充满力量,心情愉快。而你会发现周围的人们愿意聚拢过来观看别人是怎么玩的。因此,我们认为这款Xbox游戏机将是假期档最热的礼物。So as you can see, there is no hand controller with the Microsoft Kinect. My body is the controller. Thats a big difference from competitors like the Nintendo Wii and the PlayStation Move.要知道,微软的Kinect游戏机并没有手柄。人的身体就是遥控器。这是和其他竞争对手如任天堂Wii和PlayStation Move的根本区别。Another big difference—price, at about 0 on top of buying an Xbox 360. Its more expensive than an Nintendo Wii, but CNN Stan Acamen believes theres a lot of hidden value for consumers.另一个很大的差别就是价格。你需要花费150美元购买一台Xbox 360。这比任天堂Wii要贵得多,但CNN STan Acamen认为这款游戏机还蕴藏着很大的商机。For something its basically a big super fancy Webcam. 0 may seem expensive but its definitely more advanced than any Webcam that you have, and in fact, you use it as a game controller, as a motion controller for your console, as a voice command center and also things like a version of Skype. You can chat with people. It really makes me feel like, more like a premium console add-on than just a Webcam.对于一个巨型的神奇网络摄像头来说,150美元也许太贵了,但它可比任何一个你拥有的摄像头都先进多了,事实上,你是将这个摄像头当做游戏手柄,也就是游戏遥控器,语音控制中心和像Skype一样的视频软件在使用。你能用它视频聊天。这也是我最喜欢的一点,相比于单纯的网络摄像头,它更像一个先进的综合控制台。Its a high stakes game for Microsoft. The billion US game market has been hard hit by the economic downturn. So the pressure is on for Microsoft to score big with Kinect.但这对于微软来说也是高风险的。美国200亿的市场正受到世界经济危机的影响,因此微软的Kinect是承担着巨大风险的。Bobbi Rebell, Reuters.Bobbi Rebell报道,路透社消息。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201208/196136

  

  

  Science and Technology Animal behaviour Drip-feeding科技 动物行为 滴定进食Ecology raids the techniques of chemistry生态学里应用上了化学技术。BIOLOGISTS are sometimes accused of physics envy—and there is truth in this accusation. The essential fuzziness of biological systems can never be captured by the precise, mathematically based experiments of something like the Large Hadron Collider. Between physics and biology on the spectrum of fuzziness, though, lies chemistry. And a group of researchers led by Carolyn Nersesian of the University of Sydney has just borrowed one of chemistrys most elegant techniques, titration, to answer a pressing ecological question: how do animals choose where to feed?生物学家们常常被认为非常嫉妒研究物理学的人(事实上确实如此)。他们永远不可能通过像大型强子加速碰撞那样精确、量化的实验来揭示生物学里的一些关键性的奥秘。但是在这种奥秘的;两极;——物理学和生物学之间还有化学。最近由悉尼大学的卡洛琳·涅尔谢相带领的一组研究人员借用化学里一种非常精妙的技术——滴定法来解决一个迫待回答的问题:动物们如何选择觅食场所。Titration, to remind those who dozed through their chemistry lessons, is a way of working out the concentration of a substance in a solution. A reagent of known concentration is dripped (or titrated, to use the term of art) into the unknown solution in the presence of an appropriate indicator molecule (for example litmus, in the case of a reaction between an acid and an alkali). When the tipping point comes, and all of the unknown reagent has reacted, the solution changes colour. The unknown concentration can then be calculated from the amount of known reagent used.滴定法(为了给那些在化学课上打过瞌睡的同学们提个醒)是一种计算溶质在溶液中的浓度的方法。在某种特定的指示分子的参与下(例如,酸溶液和碱溶液的反应中我们使用石蕊指示剂),将一种已知浓度的溶液滴到(专业术语叫滴定)未知溶液中。当滴定终点到来时,所有的未知溶液全都完成了化学反应,溶液的颜色就会发生变化。然后未知溶液的浓度就可以通过被消耗掉的已知溶液的体积计算出来。In Dr Nersesians titration the litmus was a species called the brushtail possum. The two reagents were predators and poisons. In the wild, possums feed mainly on eucalyptus trees. Feeding in trees this way also keeps them safe from ground-based predators, such as foxes. They frequently have to shift from tree to tree in search of non-poisonous leaves, though, because a tree that is being browsed starts manufacturing toxins. Dr Nersesian reasoned that there is probably a measurable point at which a plant becomes so toxic that possums prefer to take their chances with the predators on the ground—and she realised this was a perfect opportunity to do an ecological titration.涅尔谢相士的滴定实验中的;石蕊指示剂;是一种叫帚尾袋貂的动物。那两种溶液是;猎食者;和;有毒物;。在野生环境下,袋貂主要以桉树叶为食。生活在树上也能让它们安全地远离地面上的那些猎食者——例如狐狸。但是他们还得经常从一棵树上换到另一棵树上去寻找那些没有毒的叶子。因为一颗树如果被它们吃久了就会自动分泌毒素。涅尔谢相士认为可能当植物中的毒素达到一个量值的时候,袋貂会选择冒着被猎食的风险(途经地面换一棵树觅食),然后她就意识到这是一个应用生态滴定法绝好的机会。As she reports in the Journal of Animal Ecology, she attempted to imitate the distinction between trees and ground by giving eight possums the opportunity to feed in either of two enclosures. In one, cover was created with eucalyptus branches and light levels were kept low, mimicking an arboreal habitat. Here, the food was sometimes spiked with cineole—a poison often found in eucalyptus leaves. In the other enclosure, the food was always untarnished. However, no cover was provided and fox scent, in the form of faeces and urine, was scattered liberally around, mimicking conditions on the ground.她发表在动物生态学报上报告中写道:她通过给8只袋貂两种桉树来选择觅食来模拟树上和地面的区别。一棵桉树上,有特意放置的桉树枝来遮挡,光照强度也很低,模拟出适合树栖动物习性的环境。但是,这种树上的叶子有时含有桉树脑——桉树叶中常见的毒素。另一棵桉树上,叶子总是无毒的,但是,没有树枝的遮挡。而且通过将一些狐狸的;踪迹;,例如狐狸的脸谱尿液随意四散在周围,来模拟地面环境。To start with, when the level of cineole was low, possums preferred the first enclosure. But as the drip of the titration went up, from 0% to 1% to 2% to 5% and ultimately to 10% of the food being cineole, their behaviour changed. It was not quite the sudden shift from litmus red to blue of an acid being neutralised by an alkali, but it was not far off.开始桉树脑的浓度很低,袋貂都喜欢第一棵桉树。但是随着滴定程度的上升,食物中的桉树脑含量从0%到1%到2%到5% 到最终的10%,它们的行为开始出现变化。虽然不是完全像酸溶液完全被碱溶液中和时石蕊试剂突然从红变蓝那样迅速,但是也差不太多。When the food was toxin-free, the possums spent an average of 40 minutes of every hour eating safely under treelike cover and only 20 minutes in the risky, ground-like enclosure, and that scarcely changed for 1% and 2% cineole. The switch began at 5%, and by the time the cineole level had reached 10% the ratio of time the animals spent in the two enclosures had reversed itself—presumably reflecting, though this remains to be tested, the point at which they change trees in the wild.当叶子无毒时,袋貂们每小时用平均40分钟的时间在树枝状的遮蔽物下安全的进食。而在危险的类地面的桉树上只待20分钟,这时的桉树脑含量变化在1%到2%之间。分界点出现在5%,当桉树脑含量达到10%,这些小动物们呆在这两颗桉树上的时间比完全颠倒过来了——这大致上能反映在野外环境下它们换树进食时的毒素量值,当然这还有待验。Though foxes are of recent introduction in Australia (having been brought for sport by British settlers), many marsupial predators, now extinct, were present before the arrival of man in both his Aboriginal and his European forms, so the ecological system of plants, herbivores and carnivores in the eucalyptus forests would probably not have been that different in the evolutionary past. A neat illustration, then, of co-evolution between three different parts of an ecosystem—and of the value, even in biology, of precise measurement.虽然狐狸是很晚才被引进到澳大利亚的(由英国移民出于狩猎运动的目的而带来的),但是在原始人或者欧洲人到来之前还有很多其他的有袋动物的猎食者(现在都灭绝了)。所以桉树林生态系统中的那些植物,素食动物肉食动物,与进化史中较早的生态系统相比,差别可能也没有那么大。这样一来生态系统中的三个不同角色的(植物,素食动物,肉食动物)协同进化的一张清晰的图表呈现出来。在生物学里也能进行精确的量化计算,这种尝试的价值是巨大的。 /201301/221487

  

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