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宁都妇幼保健院医术信得过赣县区妇幼保健院彩超检查好吗Saudi Arabia, the largest crude exporter, could phase out the use of fossil fuels by the middle of this century, the kingdom’s oil minister, Ali al-Naimi, said yesterday.沙特阿拉伯石油部长阿里#8226;纳伊米(Ali Al-Naimi)昨日表示,这个全球最大原油出口国到本世纪中叶可能逐渐淘汰化石燃料。The statement represents a stunning admission by a nation whose wealth, power and outsize influence are predicated on its vast reserves of oil.对一个依靠巨大石油储量获得财富、实力和过大影响力的国家来说,这一声明令人震惊。Mr Naimi, whose gnomic utterances on oil supply routinely move markets, told a conference in Paris on business and climate change: “In Saudi Arabia, we recognise that eventually, one of these days, we are not going to need fossil fuels. I don’t know when — in 2040, 2050 or thereafter.”纳伊米关于石油供应的精辟言辞经常影响市场行情。他在巴黎举行的一个商业和气候变化会议上表示:“在沙特阿拉伯,我们意识到,最终而言,我们迟早将不需要化石燃料。我不知道具体什么时候——或许在2040年、2050年或之后。”For that reason, he said, the kingdom planned to become a “global power in solar and wind energy” and could start exporting electricity instead of fossil fuels in coming years.他说,出于这个原因,沙特计划成为“世界太阳能和风能大国”,并可能在几年后开始出口电力,而非化石燃料。Many in the energy industry would find his target of a 2040 phase-out too ambitious. Saudi Arabia is the largest consumer of petroleum in the Middle East. More than 25 per cent of its total crude production — currently over 10m barrels a day — is used domestically.能源行业的许多人会认为,他提出的2040年逐步淘汰化石燃料的目标过于雄心勃勃。沙特阿拉伯目前是中东地区最大的石油消费国,其原油总产量(如今超过每日1000万桶)的25%以上用于国内消费。A 2012 Citigroup report said that if Saudi oil consumption continued to grow at current rates, the kingdom could be a net oil importer by 2030.2012年花旗集团(Citigroup)的一份报告称,如果沙特的石油消费量按照目前的速度继续增长,到2030年该国可能成为一个石油净进口国。But while acknowledging that Saudi Arabia would one day stop using oil, gas and coal, Mr Naimi said calls to leave the bulk of the world’s known fossil fuels in the ground to avoid risky levels of climate change needed to be put “in the back of our heads for a while”.但是,在坦承沙特有朝一日会停止使用石油、天然气和煤炭的同时,纳伊米表示,让世界上大部分已探明化石燃料储量留在地下、以免气候变化达到危险水平的呼吁,需要“在一段时期内被置于脑后”。“Can you afford that today?” he asked other conference speakers, including British economist Nick Stern, author of the 2006 UK government report on the economics of climate change.“你今天负担得起那种做法吗?”他对会上的其他发言者问道。这些人包括英国经济学家尼克#8226;斯特恩(Nick Stern),他是2006年关于气候变化经济学的英国政府报告的作者。“It may be a great objective but it is going to take a long time,” Mr Naimi said.“这也许是一个伟大的目标,但它需要很长的时间,”纳伊米说。With more than 1bn people lacking access to electricity, there was going to be strong demand for fossil fuels for many years to come, he said, adding that more work was needed to find ways to burn oil, coal and gas without releasing warming carbon dioxide emissions.他表示,鉴于世界上仍有逾10亿人尚未用上电,化石燃料将在未来多年面对强劲需求。他补充说,需要开展更多工作,以找到燃烧石油、煤炭和天然气而不释放加剧全球变暖的二氧化碳的方法。Saudi Arabia has long said it plans to use more renewable power. Officials declared three years ago that they had plans to build so many solar plants they would be able to export solar electricity. But the fall in oil prices has increased doubts about the fate of such schemes.沙特多年来一直表示,它计划更多使用可再生能源。该国官员在三年前宣称,他们计划大量建造太阳能发电厂,以期能够出口太阳能电力。但油价下跌令人怀疑此类项目会否上马。 /201505/376515宁都医院是公立的吗 The renminbi has come a long way in the past two decades. As recently as 1994, foreign visitors to China were still consigned to using special “foreign exchange certificates” rather than local currency. Only select stores and restaurants were permitted to accept them.过去二十年,人民币取得了长足进展。就在1994年,外国游客来华还不得不使用特殊的“外汇券”,而非本地货币。只有指定的商店和餐厅才被允许接收外汇券。Progress has been even swifter since July 2005, when the Chinese government announced it was removing the currency’s tight peg to the US dollar.自2005年7月以来,人民币的发展进程进一步加快。当时中国政府宣布,解除人民币与美元的挂钩机制。Since then the renminbi has appreciated more than 30 per cent against the dollar and the central bank has scaled back its intervention in the foreign exchange market. Rmb trade settlement is rising, with 20 per cent of China’s merchandise trade settled in its own currency in 2014.从那之后,人民币对美元升值超过30%,中国央行也减少了对外汇市场的干预。人民币贸易结算逐渐增加,2014年中国20%的商品贸易以人民币结算。Yet the recent boom-bust cycle in the Chinese stock market has renewed doubts among foreign investors about the wisdom of allocating large sections of their portfolios to renminbi assets.不过,中国股市最近的牛熊转换循环使外国投资者再次怀疑,将投资组合中的一大部分配置为人民币资产是否明智。While most investors can accept market volatility, the government’s heavy-handed response, which has included a ban on sales of equities by big stockholders and trading suspensions affecting thousands of listed companies, has reminded investors that investing in China comes with political as well as financial risks. The prospect of being trapped in an unwanted investment due to ad hoc administrative intervention is not an enticing one.尽管多数投资者可以接受市场波动,但中国政府的粗暴反应——包括禁止大股东抛售股票,以及让上千家上市公司停牌——提醒了投资者,在中国投资既有金融风险,又有政治风险。由于临时的行政干预而让自己陷入不如意的投资之中,这种前景并不令人向往。Yet the long-term trend is still towards increased foreign acceptance of the renminbi for both trade and investment.不过,长期趋势仍然是,外国对人民币用于贸易和投资的接受度逐步提升。Trade settlement has also facilitated the accumulation of renminbi outside China. Offshore renminbi centres, led by Hong Kong, have sprung up in financial areas such as Singapore, London and Frankfurt, allowing governments and a broad range of companies to issue renminbi bonds.贸易结算还促进了人民币在中国境外的积累。以香港为首的离岸人民币中心在新加坡、伦敦及法兰克福等金融区逐渐兴起,使得多国政府及许多公司可以发行人民币债券。Capital controls restricting portfolio investment into and out of China have also been on a loosening trend, notably through the launch of the Shanghai-Hong Kong stock connect last November. Even as the International Monetary Fund considers whether to endorse the renminbi as an official reserve currency, more than 60 central banks have aly invested in renminbi assets, according to Standard Chartered.限制组合投资进出中国的资本管制也已经进入逐渐放松的趋势,特别是借助去年11月“沪港通”的开通。渣打(Standard Chartered)表示,虽然国际货币基金组织(IMF)还在考虑是否将人民币纳入官方储备货币,但目前已经有超过60家央行投资了人民币资产。In July, the central bank widened access to its vast domestic bond market for foreign central banks, sovereign wealth funds and multilateral financial institutions such as the World Bank. These institutions no longer require licences to invest in Chinese interbank bonds, as well as money market instruments such as repurchase agreements. Total foreign participation will still, however, be subject to a a.7月,中国央行向外国央行、主权财富基金和世界(World Bank)等多边金融机构,扩大了进入中国国内庞大债券市场的通道。这些机构投资中国间债券、以及回购协议等货币市场工具时,不再需要特许。然而,外国机构的整体参与仍然受制于配额。Outbound foreign direct investment is now subject to greatly reduced regulation, as China encourages domestic companies to “go out”. Foreign mergers, acquisitions and greenfield investments by Chinese companies below a certain threshold, typically 0m, no longer require approval from the foreign exchange regulator.随着中国鼓励国内企业“走出去”,如今中国国内企业对外直接投资面临的监管大大减少。中国企业在进行低于某一门槛——通常为1亿美元——的对外并购、收购以及绿地投资时,不再需要获得外汇监管机构的批准。For inbound FDI, many sectors of the Chinese economy remain restricted to foreigners, or off limits entirely, but the approval process is easier than before for sectors where investment is allowed.至于流入中国的外国直接投资,中国经济中很多领域对外资仍然存在限制、或者完全禁入,但是在允许外国投资的领域,审批流程已经比之前简化许多。In addition, China is using the Shanghai free-trade zone to experiment with a “negative list” approach to foreign investment. Rather than stipulating specific areas as “encouraged”, “restricted”, or “forbidden” for foreigners, the negative list will specify those that are closed. Any sectors not on the list are assumed to be unrestricted.此外,中国正利用上海自贸区来试验对外资列出“负面清单”的做法。负面清单将明确列出对外资封闭的领域,而不是规定“鼓励”、“限制”或“禁止”外资进入的特定领域。任何未出现在负面清单中的领域都被认为是不受限制的。Despite such progress, by many measures the Rmb remains a middling player in the global currency markets. In terms of global foreign-exchange turnover, it still trails the Mexican peso and Canadian dollar.尽管取得了这些进展,但是人民币在很多方面仍然是全球货币市场上的一个中流选手。从全球外汇交易额看,人民币仍然落后于墨西哥比索和加拿大元。Interest and exchange rates, though freer than before, remain subject to government control. China has pledged to complete both interest-rate liberalisation and “basic” capital account convertibility by the end of 2015. But it is clear that Beijing’s definition of these terms still leaves plenty of room for government interference in the market.人民币利率和汇率虽然比以往更加自由化,但仍然受到政府控制。中国承诺在2015年底前实现利率自由化以及资本项目“基本”可兑换。但是,很明显北京方面对这些术语的定义,仍然给政府干预市场留有大量空间。The market also lacks derivatives that would allow investors to hedge risk or make bearish bets. The interest-rate swaps market is relatively liquid, but more sophisticated tools such as cross-currency swaps remain thinly traded. Equity derivatives are still in their infancy, with futures and options only available on broad indexes, not individual shares.中国市场还缺乏让投资者可以对冲风险或做空的衍生品。利率掉期市场相对有流动性,但是诸如货币掉期等更加复杂的衍生品的交易量仍然很低。股票衍生品仍然处于萌芽阶段,期货和期权仅针对整体指数,而非个股。Capital controls still severely restrict investor access to China’s onshore bond market. The increased access that central banks now enjoy does not extend to private-sector asset managers, who can only obtain access to the onshore market through the Qualified Foreign Institutional Investor Programme (QFII) or its renminbi-denominated cousin, RQFII. Even once a QFII license is obtained, each asset manager is subject to a separate a from the foreign exchange regulator. And for individuals, the domestic bond market remains completely off limits.资本管制仍然严格限制着投资者进入中国境内债券市场的通道。外国央行如今享受的日益开放的投资通道,并未延伸至私人部门资产管理公司,后者只能通过合格境外机构投资者(QFII)或者与之类似的人民币合格境外机构投资者(RQFII)计划,获得进入中国境内市场的通道。即便一朝获得QFII资格,每家资产管理公司仍受制于外汇监管机构设置的单独的配额。至于个人投资者,中国境内债券市场仍然完全属于禁区。For the bond market, access is easier. Foreign investors buying into the Chinese stock market using the stock connect do not need a licence, but many stocks remain off limits and as limit daily flows and overall investments. Moreover, the Chinese stock market’s recent bull run, followed by its sudden downward correction, has made many foreign investors wary of participating, even where regulations allow it.对于股票市场来说,进入相对容易。利用沪港通投资于中国股市的外国投资者不需要许可,但是很多股票仍然禁止他们买卖,而且配额限制着每日资金流以及整体投资。另外,中国股市最近的暴涨以及随后的骤跌,令很多外国投资者对入市十分谨慎,即便监管允许进入。Global index provider MSCI recently declined to add Chinese onshore stocks, known as A shares, to its benchmark emerging market indexes. Though they cited technical concerns about the ownership status of shares bought through the stock connect programme, many observers privately believe that MSCI’s decision was also motivated by investor concerns about the stock market’s reputation as a casino.全球主要指数提供商MSCI明晟,最近决定暂不将中国内地股市(即A股)纳入其新兴市场基准指数。尽管他们声称是因为技术上的担忧,即通过沪港通购买的股票的所有权状态,但很多观察人士私下认为,投资者对A股如的担忧也促成了MSCI的决定。The addition of A shares to the indices would have triggered billions in fund inflows via funds that passively track them. Even before the share crash that began in late June, such a prospect made many of MSCI’s fund manager clients nervous.将A股纳入MSCI指数,将通过被动追踪这些指数的基金引发数十亿美元的资金流入。即使是在始于6月中旬的A股暴跌前,这种前景也让很多MSCI的基金管理公司客户感到紧张。As China proceeds cautiously but inexorably with financial reform, the importance of the renminbi is bound to increase. But whether the currency will ever take on an importance commensurate with China’s status as the world’s largest economy (at purchasing power parity) is still an open question.随着中国谨慎而又坚定地推进金融改革,人民币的重要性势必会增加。但是,人民币是否会取得与中国作为世界最大经济体(按购买力平价计算)的地位相称的重要性,仍然是一个尚无定论的问题。 /201508/392148赣州龙南妇幼保健院包皮手术怎么样

南康区医院收费好不好Global warming is having an impact on human and natural systems world-wide, scientists warned in a report Monday, calling for swift action to mitigate the impact of greenhouse gas emissions on the planet. 科学家们周一在一份报告里警告说,全球变暖正对人类和全球自然系统产生影响。他们呼吁迅速采取行动,缓解温室气体排放对地球的影响。The report, released by the ed Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, is the second portion of a four-part report, and follows the September release of the first portion, which focused on scientific evidence for global warming.上述报告由联合国政府间气候变化专门委员会(ed Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,简称IPCC)发布,是一个由四部分组成的报告的第二部分,其中专注全球变暖科学依据的第一部分已在去年9月发布。#39;What happens in terms of impact of climate change in different parts of the world will be determined to a large extent (by how much) we are prepared and able to mitigate the emissions of greenhouse gasses,#39; IPCC Chairman Rajendra K. Pachauri said. IPCC主席帕乔里(Rajendra K. Pachauri)说:气候变化对世界各地产生怎样的影响,很大程度上将由我们准备且能够减少多少温室气体排放决定。The report said that besides an increase in global average temperature, climate change was having a widesp impact on everything from water resources to food production and weather patterns. 报告说,除全球平均气温增加以外,气候变化还对从水资源到食品生产及天气模式等一切事物产生广泛影响。It said that without action to address the problem, by the year 2100, hundreds of millions of people could be affected by coastal flooding and displaced due to land loss. 报告说,如不对这一问题采取任何行动,到2100年,受海岸洪灾和土地流失影响而背井离乡者可能会达到数亿人。#39;Impacts from recent extreme climatic events, such as heat waves, droughts, floods, and wildfires, show significant vulnerability and exposure of some ecosystems and many human systems to climate variability,#39; the report warned. 报告警告说,热浪、干旱、洪灾和森林大火等近期极端气候事件的影响显示出,一些生态系统和很多人类系统都非常容易受到气候变异的影响。The report said climate change may affect the reliability of pipelines and electricity grids, as well as tourism resorts, especially ski and beach resorts. 报告说,气候变化可能影响到管道、电网和旅游度假区的可靠性,特别是滑雪和海边度假地的可靠性。It also said climate change had the largest impact on people who are socially and economically marginalized. 报告还称,对于在社会上和经济上被边缘化的人来说,气候变化对他们的影响最大。#39;Climate change will exacerbate poverty in low and lower-middle income countries, including high mountain states, countries at risk from sea-level rise, and countries with indigenous peoples, and create new poverty pockets in upper-middle to high-income countries in which inequality is increasing,#39; it said. 报告称,气候变化将加剧中低收入国家的贫困状况,其中包括高山国家、因海平面的上升而面临危险的国家以及拥有原住民的国家,还将在贫富差距日益增大的中高收入国家产生新的贫困人口。But funding needed to offset the impact of climate change is lacking, the report warned, saying developing countries would need between billion to 0 billion a year to implement needed measures. And efforts to reduce the effects of climate change would only have a marginal effect on reducing poverty unless #39;structural inequalities are addressed and needs for equity among poor and non-poor people are met.#39; 但报告警告说,缺乏抵消气候变化影响所需的资金。报告说,发展中国家每年需要700亿至1,000亿美元实施必要的措施。此外,各种减少气候变化影响的措施对减贫只会产生微乎其微的效果,除非结构性贫富差距得以消除,贫困人口和非贫困人口要求平等的诉求得到满足。The report was the culmination of efforts by hundreds of scientists, and portrays a sobering picture of what civilization may face in the coming decades, and emphasized that climate change is happening now. 这份报告是数百名科学家汗水的结晶,它描绘出一幅令人深思的图景,显示出未来几十年人类文明可能面临的问题,它还强调气候变化正在发生。#39;Present-day choices thus affect the risks of climate change throughout the 21st century,#39; it said. 报告说,今日的选择因此会影响整个21世纪的气候变化风险。Economically, the report said a global temperature rise of 2.5 degrees celcius above preindustrial levels could lead to global economic losses between 0.2% and 2.0% of income. By the end of the century, it said climate change could reduce labor productivity by 11%-27% in humid, tropical areas. 报告说,就经济方面而言,如果全球气温较工业时代之前的水平上升2.5摄氏度,则可能使全球经济收入损失0.2%至2.0%。报告说,到本世纪结束,气候变化可能使潮湿、热带地区劳动生产率降低11%-27%。The IPCC#39;s credibility has come under scrutiny since a 2007 report that contained errors about the pace of the melting of Himalayan glaciers. 2007年,IPCC发布了一份报告,报告中有关喜马拉雅冰川消融的速度有误,此后IPCC的信誉一直受到质疑。 /201404/283466于都医院做孕检多少钱 赣州宁都医院包皮手术多少钱

章贡人工流产多少钱This week’s landmark agreement between the U.S. and China on limiting emissions of carbon dioxide marks a significant diplomatic milestone in the struggle against global climate change. The fact that the two largest sources of CO2 have finally agreed to do something about it should, in theory, give a boost to next year’s ed Nations climate summit. Whether the actual terms of the deal—which calls for the U.S. to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 26% to 28%, compared to 2005 levels, by 2025, and for China to cap its emissions by 2030—have a realistic shot at being met is another question.上周,中美就限制二氧化碳排放达成重大协议,这在应对全球气候变化方面是一个里程碑式的外交事件。理论上,世界上最大的两个二氧化碳排放国最终同意就此采取行动将为明年的联合国气候变化峰会带来积极影响。按照协议,到2025年,美国的温室气体排放量将比2005年下降26-28%;到2030年,中国将实现温室气体排放零增长。不过,问题在于,这些目标能否真的实现。On the U.S. side, Republicans emboldened by the midterm elections will work to block any attempt to fulfill America’s side of the bargain, which Republican Sen. Jim Inhofe, of Oklahoma, soon to be chairman of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee, called “a non-binding charade.”美国方面,中期选举增强了共和党的实力。该党成员将阻止美国政府试图履行协议中的自方责任。即将担任参议院环境和公共工程委员会(Senate Environment and Public Works Committee)主席的俄克拉荷马州共和党参议员吉姆o英霍夫(Jim Inhofe)将中美之间的这份协议称为“毫无约束力。”China’s challenge in meeting the terms of the bilateral agreement are not political but structural: simply put, to reduce emissions growth, China must reduce the size of its coal industry, which supplies some three-quarters of China’s electricity. That is no easy task.就履行这份双边协议而言,中国面临的并非是政治难题,而是结构性挑战:简而言之,要降低温室气体排放增速,中国就必须压缩煤炭行业规模。而煤电约占中国目前发电量的四分之三,这绝不是一项轻而易举的工作。But Beijing must take action, because the smog-choked nation can hardly stick with the status quo. The climate deal is part of a larger strategy to address China’s pollution crisis.但中国政府必须采取行动,因为这个雾霾笼罩下的国家无法再安于现状。而这份气候协议正是中国应对污染危机宏图大略的一部分。The costs of China’s heavy reliance on coal for power generation were highlighted again days before the deal with President Obama was announced, when a pair of researchers at the prestigious Tsinghua University released a study showing that around 670,000 people die prematurely every year as a result of air pollution from coal. Every ton of coal produced in China adds more than 286 yuan () in environmental damage and health costs, reported Teng Fei, an associate professor at Tsinghua University. China produced nearly 4 billion tons of coal in 2013, according to the World Coal Association.就在中美宣布签署协议前几天,知名学府清华大学两名研究人员所发布的一项报告显示,燃煤引发的空气污染每年都会造成约67万人过早死亡,这再次突出了中国严重依赖煤电所付出的代价。清华大学副教授腾飞指出,中国每生产一吨煤,就会产生286元人民币的环境和健康成本。而据世界煤炭协会(World Coal Association)的数据显示,2013年中国生产了近40亿吨煤炭。The Tsinghua study follows a 2011 report by the World Health Organization, published in The Lancet, that estimated that 1.2 million people in China died in 2010 from diseases related to all forms of air pollution. China also has by far the deadliest mining industry in the world: One thousand forty-nine coal miners died in accidents in 2013, down 23% from the year before but still far more than any other country.上述研究成果出炉前,世界卫生组织(World Health Organization)曾于2011年在医学杂志《柳叶刀》(The Lancet)上发表报告称,2010年有120万中国人死于各种空气污染引发的疾病。同时,中国还是世界上死于矿难人数最多的国家:2013年有1049名生产人员死于煤矿事故,虽比上年下降了23%,但仍远高于世界其他国家。Mounting evidence of coal’s environmental damage comes as China’s slowing economy has reduced demand for electricity, creating an oversupply crisis for an industry that has known nothing but steady growth for the last three decades. China has reached “a very critical moment in the management of its coal resources, and in the history of the coal industry,” says Cao Xia, a professor of environmental law at Shanxi University of Finance and Economics, in China’s coal heartland, Shanxi Province.就在经济增速放缓造成中国电力需求下降之际,体现煤炭污染环境的据越来越多,这给30年来一直以稳定增长著称的煤炭行业带来了供给过剩危机。在中国产煤大省山西,山西财经大学环境法教授曹霞认为:中国在煤炭资源管理方面以及在煤炭行业发展史上已经到了“一个非常关键的时刻。”The direct, domestic impacts of the nation’s massive coal industry, which produces and consumes about as much coal as the rest of the world combined, are added to the indirect, worldwide costs in terms of greenhouse gas emissions. No international program to combat climate change can succeed unless China slashes its burning of coal.中国煤炭行业规模庞大,煤炭产销量几乎和全球其他地区的总和相当。除了在国内造成的直接影响,这个行业产生的温室气体排放还给整个世界带来了间接成本。除非中国削减煤炭消费量,否则任何应对气候变化的国际性方案都无法获得成功。“The actions China takes in the next decade will be critical for the future of China and the world,” wrote Fergus Green and Nicholas Stern in a research paper for the Center for Climate Change Economics and Policy, in London. “Whether China moves onto an innovative, sustainable, and low-carbon growth path this decade will more or less determine both China’s longer-term economic prospects … and the world’s prospects of cutting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions sufficiently to manage the grave risks of climate change.”费格斯o格林(Fergus Green)和尼古拉斯o斯特恩(Nicholas Stern)在向伦敦气候变化经济和政策中心(Center for Climate Change Economics and Policy)提交的研究报告中写道:“中国在今后10年采取的行动对中国和全球的未来都很关键。在这10年里,中国能否实现创新和可持续的低碳增长将或多或少地决定中国的长期经济前景……也将决定全世界的温室气体减排幅度是否足以应对气候变化带来的重大风险。”Facing mounting public outrage over air and water pollution, the central government’s actions to limit coal use have multiplied in recent months. The Airborne Pollution Action Plan, unveiled by the central government in September 2013, calls for a reduction of air pollution in the northern region surrounding Beijing by 25%, and 20% in the Yangtze River Delta.随着公众对空气和水污染不满的渐增,近几个月,中国中央政府限制使用煤炭的力度倍增。2013年9月,中央政府发布了《大气污染防治行动计划》,目标是让京津冀地区细颗粒物浓度下降25%,长三角地区下降20%。Aly, strict limitations on coal use in major urban areas, including Beijing and Shanghai, are in place. Planning to cap total coal production at 4.1 billion tons as of 2015, the government said in October it will no longer approve new coal mining projects below 300,000 metric tons (330,000 short tons), effectively banning the small, unregulated mines that have contributed to the coal glut. Hundreds of small mines have aly closed, and the government has also taken steps to restrict imports of “dirty” coal—i.e., coal with high levels of ash and sulfur. (Although China’s coal market is oversupplied, imports continue because domestic transport issues mean it’s often cheaper to purchase coal shipped from Indonesia or Australia than buy domestic coal from the northern provinces of Shanxi and Inner Mongolia.)包括北京和上海在内的主要城市已经对使用煤炭做出了严格限制。按照十二五规划,2015年中国煤炭产能将达到41亿吨。今年10月份,中国政府表示,将不再核准新建30万吨(约合33万净吨)以下的煤矿,这实际上封杀了那些造成煤炭供给过剩的小型不规范煤矿。数百个小煤矿已经关闭,中国政府同时采取措施限制进口“脏”煤,即含硫量和灰分高的煤炭(尽管中国煤炭市场已经供过于求,但受国内运输条件限制,购买印尼或澳大利亚煤炭要比购买山西和内蒙等国内北部省份的煤炭便宜,所以中国一直在进口煤炭)。At the same time, though, China is embarking on a grandiose plan not to shut down the coal industry but to move it inland, away from the big cities of the coast and from the prying eyes of international environmental groups. As I reported for Fortune from Shanxi Province in April, coal producers, under the direction of the central and provincial governments, are building huge “coal bases” in the northwest provinces that will include large mines, power plants connected to coastal cities via gigantic high-voltage transmission lines, huge plants to convert coal to liquid fuel, and related facilities such as concrete plants and chemical plants.与此同时,中国正在实施一项宏伟计划,其内容不是整体关闭煤炭行业,而是将其迁移到内陆,远离沿海地区大城市以及国际环保团体的挑剔目光。今年4月份我曾从山西向《财富》杂志发回过报道,在中央和省政府的指导下,煤炭企业正在西北省份建立大型煤炭基地。这些基地将包括大型煤矿、通过特高压输电线路和沿海城市相连的发电厂、大型煤制油工厂以及混凝土厂和化工厂等配套设施。This huge migration and consolidation may well clean up the skies in cities like Beijing, Shanghai, and Shenzhen, thus reducing rates of respiratory disease and deaths linked to air pollution. It could also rationalize the coal industry, better matching supply to demand, and reduce China’s imports of foreign oil. What it won’t do is reduce the country’s overall carbon emissions; in fact, it could drastically increase them, as more coal gets burned and more carbon-intensive processes – particularly coal-to-liquids conversion – are expanded.这项重大的迁移及整合计划可能会让北京、上海和深圳等城市的天空蓝起来,从而降低空气污染引发的呼吸道疾病发病率和死亡人数。这项措施还有可能理顺煤炭行业格局,让供需更加平衡,并减少中国的石油进口。但它无法降低中国的整体碳排放水平。实际上,此举可能大幅度提高中国的碳排放量,原因是燃煤数量的增多以及碳密集型生产工艺将得到更普遍的使用,特别是煤制油。“We are very concerned” about the coal-base plan, says Ailun Yang, a senior associate with the World Resources Institute who focuses on energy issues in China. “Enforcing tougher air pollution standards along the coast will lead to shutting down coal plants, and create demand for a lot more gas. The western parts of China want to supply the gas by turning coal into gas. That process will be very, very bad for the world.”世界资源研究所(World Resources Institute)重点关注中国能源问题的高级研究员杨艾伦(音译)说:“我们非常担心。在沿海地区执行更严格的空气污染标准意味着关闭燃煤发电厂,这将为天然气带来大量需求。中国西部地区想将煤转换成天然气并对外供应。这对全世界来说是一项非常不好的工艺。”Headline writers often refer to China’s “addiction” to coal. The relationship might be better thought of as a bad marriage, where neither partner can afford to leave. China needs the coal industry to fuel its demand for energy, which will surely continue to rise as the economy grows (even at rates of 7% to 8% a year, rather than the red-hot 10% to 12% annually of the last decade) and the middle class expands. The coal industry, of course, requires rising demand to continue to grow, to generate returns on its huge capital investments of the last decade, and to provide jobs for the hundreds of thousands of people who work in coal mines, coal plants, and related industries. In Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, and Xinjiang, entire cities depend on coal production and processing.新闻头条记者经常用“依赖上瘾”来形容中国与煤炭的关系。将此想象为一场失败的婚姻也许更为合适——在这里,双方谁也离不开谁。中国需要煤炭行业来满足国内能源需求。随着经济的增长(就算年增长率为7-8%,而不是过去10年中白热化的10-12%)和中产阶层的扩大,中国的能源需求必将继续上升。当然,煤炭行业也要依靠需求的不断扩大来保持增长,从而为10年来投入的大量资金提供回报,并通过煤矿、燃煤发电厂以及相关行业创造出数以十万计的就业机会。在山西、内蒙古和新疆,都存在着整座城市都依赖于煤炭开采和加工的现象。Coal in China has created an economy within an economy, and reducing the size of the coal industry would result in massive unemployment across large swaths of the country. Notwithstanding China’s huge push on renewable energy and natural gas, it’s hard to see how this co-dependency will be broken any time soon.煤炭行业已经在中国经济体系中自成一体。压缩煤炭行业的规模将造成大量人员失业。尽管中国正在大力推广可再生能源和天然气,但很难想象中国经济和煤炭的这种相互依存关系很快就会被打破。That’s not to say there’s no hope. China’s overall energy intensity (the amount of energy required to produce a given unit of GDP) has gone down in recent years, as the export-led economy shifts toward higher-tech products and services. Most areas of the country are on track to meet or exceed energy-conservation targets for 2015, according to the National Development and Reform Commission (as reported by Reuters), and the rate of growth in energy use is expected to fall by half this year compared to 2013. According to China-based researchers for Greenpeace, the total amount of coal burned in the first three-quarters of 2014 was 1% to 2% lower than the same period a year earlier.但这并不是说没有希望。近几年,随着中国的出口型经济向科技含量较高的产品和务转移,中国的整体能源密集度(创造单位GDP所需的能源)已经下降。据路透社(Reuters)报道,国家发改委表示,中国大多数地区都将达到或者超额完成2015年节能目标;预计今年中国的能源消费增速将比2013年下降一半。绿色和平组织(Greenpeace)驻中国研究人员指出,2014年前三个季度,中国的燃煤总量比上年同期减少了1-2%。“The data suggests the world’s largest economy is finally starting to radically slow down its emission growth,” wrote the Greenpeace analysts.绿色和平组织的分析师们写道:“相关数据表明,作为全球最大的经济体,中国终于开始从根本上降低温室气体排放增速。”Still, the coal beast on the mainland continues to grow. In October, just as the results of the Tsinghua University study of coal fatalities was being released, the national news agency Xinhua reported that a huge coal field, containing 12.8 billion tons, had been discovered in western Xinjiang. Mining has aly begun.不过,难以驾驭的中国煤炭行业仍在增长。今年10月份,就在清华大学公布上述研究结果的同时,新华社报道称新疆西部发现了储量128亿吨的大型煤田,而且已经开始采煤。 /201411/343049 安远妇幼保健院处女膜修复赣州市赣南片区子宫肌瘤哪家医院好的

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