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2019年03月24日 15:16:59 | 作者:飞管家免费问答 | 来源:新华社
科学家揭秘为何冬季多发流感It is a mystery that has baffled doctors for decades.But experts believe they have now finally solved the tricky question of why winter is notoriously known as the flu season.According to new research, the influenza virus coats itself in a protective fatty shield that is tough enough to withstand cold temperatures.The butter-like material only melts when it hits the respiratory tract, leaving the virus free to infect cells - a process scientists say is like an Mamp;M melting in the mouth.However, in warmer outdoor temperatures, the protective coating melts before it reaches a person or an animal, killing the germs before they can infect someone.Joshua Zimmerberg, from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), in the US, which led the study, said: 'Like an Mamp;M in your mouth, the protective covering melts when it enters the respiratory tract.'It's only in this liquid phase that the virus is capable of entering a cell to infect it.'In the past scientists have worked on theories that flu is more common in winter because people spend more time inside or the radiation from the sun in summer kills off germs.But no research has successfully explained the sp of the disease.Researchers have aly claimed that the report, which is published in the journal Nature Chemical Biology, could lead to new ways to prevent and treat flu.Duane Alexander, the director of NICHD, said: 'The study results open new avenues of research for thwarting winter flu outbreaks.'Now that we understand how the flu virus protects itself so that it can sp from person to person, we can work on ways to interfere with that protective mechanism.'Influenza and other respiratory viruses are sp in small droplets broadcast by coughing, sneezing and talking and which can also settle onto surfaces, to be picked up on fingertips. 为何冬季为多发流感?这可是困扰了医生们几十年的一个谜。不过,专家们现在终于解开了这个难题。一项最新研究发现,流感病毒表面包有一层脂肪保护外壳,这种外壳十分坚硬,能抵御严寒。这种油状物质在进入呼吸道后才会融化,病毒被释放后即会感染细胞。科学家称这一过程如同Mamp;M巧克力豆在嘴里融化。然而,在温度较高的环境下,这层保护壳在进入人体或动物体内之前就会融化,因此病毒在感染细胞之前即被杀死。研究负责人、美国儿童健康与人类发展研究所的约瑟华#8226;兹姆格说:“这层保护壳在进入呼吸道时即会融化,就像放入口中的Mamp;M巧克力豆一样。”“而就在这一液态阶段,病毒才得以入侵并感染细胞。”科学家们过去一直在研究冬季易发流感的原因,一些理论称这是因为冬季人们多在室内活动,或是因为夏季的阳光辐射会杀死细菌。但没有一项研究能真正解释流感传播的原因。研究人员们称,这项研究成果能为防治流感提供新办法。研究报告将在《自然化学生物学》期刊上发表。美国儿童健康与人类发展研究所主任杜安尼#8226;亚历山大说:“研究结果为控制冬季流感爆发开辟了新途径。”“现在我们明白了流感病毒是如何保护自己并在人际间传播的,因此我们可以研究如何‘干扰’这种保护机制。”流感及其他呼吸道病毒主要通过咳嗽、打喷嚏或说话时散播的飞沫传播,它也会附着在物体表面,通过被污染的手指接触传染。 /200803/30494Author Jeremy Safron has a unique philosophy on food: Don't cook it. Safron, a pioneer in the raw-food movement, is out with a new book, The Raw Truth, which outlines the benefits of raw food. He writes that vital enzymes in our food that are eliminated during processing and heating can aid in digestion and provide energy and nutrition.作家Jeremy Safron在食物方面有着自己一套独特的理论:吃生食。 Safron是吃生食运动的先锋队员,还出了一本书“生 理”,讲诉了吃生食的好处。他在书中写道:食物中的酶能够帮助我们消化,给我们提供营养与能量。但这些酶却消失在了我们烹饪加热的过程中。Safron has these tips for getting started on a raw diet:如果你也想尝试着开始吃生食,Safron给你一些小提示:Re-create. Get creative: Instead of your favorite angel-hair pasta, try substituting shredded zucchini to go with your marinara sauce.再创造。加点创意吧,不要再想着你最爱的天使面,试试看南瓜丝加番茄酱。Have a raw party. Hosting a potluck is a great way to introduce your family and friends to the raw-food concept and try new dishes.举办生食派对。举办一次生食派对,这可是绝佳的机会让你的亲朋好友们了解生食,并亲自尝试哦。Take it slow. For those of us raised on meat and potatoes, transitioning to a 100% raw diet can take up to three years. Dehydrated foods — such as dried fruits and herbs, which allow for a greater intake of nutrients — can help to ease the transition.慢慢来。 像我们这种大鱼大肉惯了的人,要完全转变成一个生食者,可能要用上3年的时间。脱水食物-----像坚果,脱水蔬菜,能给我们提供更丰富的营养,让这个转变过程轻松点儿。Get closer to your food. The closer you are to the source of your food, the fresher and more vital it is. Try contacting local farmers, checking out a farmers market or even growing food in your own yard.与食物更亲密。 你与你的食物来源越接近,你吃下的食物也就越新鲜,越有营养。试着联系你当地的农民伯伯,找两家农批市场 或者干脆就在你自己的院子里种植食物吧! /201103/1294161. Plan a swap meet. Organize a group of friends with similar styles; everyone brings rarely or unworn clothing and walks away with some new (to them) styles.旧衣交换会。自发组织一个交换自己不需要的衣交换会,股东一帮女性朋友将自己不穿的衣和自己的不穿的进行交换。 /201003/97774美国早期的高等教育学校沿袭英国而称为College,19世纪后期,私立的College开设研究所后多改名为University,每州也将其首要之州立大学由Institute﹑Seminary﹑College或类似之名改为University。另早期许多科学、工程和理工的专门学校都称为Institute,有些后来也改名为University,但少数学校仍以Institute为名,如:麻省理工学院(Massachusetts Institute of Technology)和加州理工学院(California Institute of Technology)。   现在College与University的意义如下:   UNIVERSITY通常是指一所设有文理科及专业课程的大学,且有至少一种领域的研究所,和至少一种的学士学位后的专业课程(如:医学、牙医或法律)。但也有少数例外情行,而有些私立文理学院只有大学部但也称为University。   COLLEGE则有几个意义:   所有高等教育学校的通称。   只有大学部的大学:然而也有学校具University之条件却名为College的学校,如:Dartmouth College in New Hampshire,有硕士、士和医学士之学位,而且又是美国最好的四年制大学之一。 属于University的学院。   二年制大学:有的称为junior college,有的称为community college,也有的就叫college,还有几个是technical college。 /200803/29055

关于学习:In college you can get a B.A., M.D., or Ph.D. but that doesn't mean you're going to get a J.O.B.大学里你能拿到B.A.(学士学位), M.D.(医学士), or Ph.D.(士学位),但这不意味着你能拿到J.O.B.(工作)。That "F" You Got In English Does Not Mean Fantastic, So You Should Worry.英语课上拿了F,不是说你Fantastic(棒极了),你得上点心。Don't Schedule 8am classes! 早晨8点的课不能选!!If you plan on not attending class, make sure you have a buddy that will sign u in.要是你打算逃课,先保有个家伙能帮你签到。Do your homework amp; study. And by study I mean STUDY A LOT! 好好学习,完成作业,我说好好学习是真的要努力!内容来自: /201105/135412

美国的同性恋文化(二)今天在街上开车,当我在红灯前停住的时候,两个亚洲女孩儿(从举止打扮来看 应该是中国人)开始手牵手地过马路。这要是在中国,应该是一件极为平常的事。俩,感情好;手牵手,过马路。但是这在美国,可就是提供了男士们无限性幻想的素材。只见在我旁边停下来的车里坐着的男士们,个个目不转睛地看着这两个中国从他们车前有说有笑地走过,作口水直流状。我特别清楚他们心里想什么,他们在想:“天哪!我怎么这么幸运,这么一对hot lesbians (性感的女同性恋)让我给撞见了。 每当我告诉这里的男性朋友们在中国,女孩子们手牵手走在大街上是一件很平常的事,根本说明不了她们的性取向时候,他们总是大发感慨道:“That's HOT! (太性感了! 美国人动不动就用这个词,意思和sexy 差不多)那种不自觉流露出的对中国男士羡慕的目光,表露无疑。 在美国, 男士们(除gay men之外)对女同性恋]们,尤其是漂亮的女同性恋们有着特别的执着与迷恋。在他们眼里,恐怕没有什么会有比女同性恋们在一起亲热更加令人想入非非的了。大家如果看过电影”American pie " (美国派)的话,应该还记得其中的一幕:电影中的男主角不惜牺牲自己的色相(与男生亲热)以换取一对美丽女同性恋的互相亲热。我在这里也参加过一些比较疯狂的party。有些漂亮的女孩子为了成为众人的焦点,会与别的女孩子接吻。这种做法,从来都不会失效。立刻,所有的男生都会围过来,因为谁也不愿错过这“免费的午餐”, 精的一幕。有些美国人对性的开放态度令人咋舌。在美国除了gay (男同性恋) 和lesbian (女同性恋) 之外,还有一个群体称为“bi”,这是“bisexual (双性恋)” 的缩写。这个群体里的人既可以是男人,也可以是女人。他们对女人和男人都感兴趣。他们的逻辑是“It doesn't matter if it's man or a woman. What matters is the person himself/herself. ”(性别无关紧要,重要的是这个人本身。) 美国是一个自由风气极为盛行的地方。正因如此,很多同性恋们才能勇敢地站出来,承认自己的性取向。但是近些年来,许多人在争论究竟人的性取向是完全由先天决定的,还是由於太宽松的后天社会环境使得许多人理所当然地认为同性恋本是人生的另一种可以选择的生活方式。很多人担心社会风气是不是过于宽容了以至于原本所形成的是非善恶标准皆因一句“这是他的个人选择,别人无权干涉”而被抛之脑后。更多的人在担心在这样环境里成长的年轻一代会不会因为社会大环境缺乏对性取向“错与对”的明确标准而变得无适从,或是更糟地去尝试同性恋的生活方式以追赶潮流,寻求刺激。在克林顿性丑闻和珍尼杰可逊“露乳”事件之后,越来越多的美国人开始反思令这种极度自由的社会风气以及人们对凡事近乎“无所谓”的态度是否如他们所标榜的那样尽善尽美。在这里有必要提到,不是美国所有的地方都会对同性恋那么包容和理解。 美国是一个以基督教为根基的国家。圣经里提到神圣的婚姻是由上帝创造的,而婚姻必须是一男一女的结合。这就可以解释为什么美国中部,南部保守的基督教徒会如此激烈地抵制,阻挠同性恋婚姻的合法化。上次看了一部纪录片,其中就讲述了美国中部某些保守的地方的极端基督徒对同性恋的歧视。他们不允许自己的孩子和同性恋的朋友交往。去年美国大选,同性恋婚姻的合法化就是美国两个政党,民主党和共和党争论的敏感问题。美国的同性恋们主要聚集在美国自由风气浓厚的各大城市里,尤其以洛杉矶和纽约最为显著。

No.1: The Workaholic Hotshot   This guy is always dressed to the nines, because he's loaded. Simmer down -- the cash flow comes at a price. He toils until the wee hours, then loosens his tie and parties like there's no tomorrow. Unfortunately, there is a tomorrow, and it starts in like three hours. What little time he has for you will be shared with his BlackBerry. The ugly truth: Money is the love of his life, and you come in second -- or third, since he's probably crunching more than numbers with his secretary. No.1 事业有成的工作狂 他的穿着那是相当讲究,因为他有的是钱。平静下来---- 这白花花的银子可不是白来的。他加班工作直至凌晨,然后松开领带,尽情狂欢,就像是没有明天。不幸的是,貌似只过了短短的三个小时,第二天就到来的。他能与你共度的短暂时光也只能通过他的黑莓手机来实现。丑恶的真相:他真正爱的是钱,作为伴侣的你只排在第二,或第三位,因为与他有“关系”的,不止是他的秘书。  No.2: The Adrenaline Junkie  This dude skydives, surfs, runs with the bulls -- anything for that rush. And he has the sick abs and chiseled arms to prove it. But to keep him happy, you need to be in perpetual motion too. This guy does not like to sit around, and he doesn't like for you to sit around either. And it isn't just a phase. In his late 30s, he'll get into marathons, and they'll lead to triathlons and eventually to the Ironman competition. Yeah, that means a trip to Hawaii, but instead of chilling on the beach you'll be cheering him on from the sidelines. Having fun yet?  No.2 总是很high寻求刺激的人  这家伙会跳伞,冲浪,参加公牛狂欢节--- 为了体验快感,他什么都愿意尝试。他身上的肿块和打过石膏的胳膊可以明他之前的“壮举”。为了让他高兴,你也得和他一起无休止的乱high。这家伙自己不愿静静的坐下,他也不喜欢你这样,就算一会儿也不行。在将近40岁的时候,他又一抽风去参加马拉松长跑,接着是三项全能运动,最终是铁人争霸赛。是的,这意味着就算是去夏威夷的浪漫之旅,也会变成你在边线上为他呐喊助威的行程。够有趣了吧? /201108/149693

Saturday February 26, 20112011年2月26日,星期六Every now and then I'll see a runner doing something so crazy or ridiculously hard during a run that it makes me think, "Wow, my run is easy compared to THAT!" This happened a couple of weeks ago when I was running with my team in New York's Central Park and we spotted a guy running while dragging a tire that was attached to a rope around his waist. We saw him and his Michelin several times during our run, so he was definitely doing significant mileage with the tire, not just 100-meter sprints.我常常能天到,有些跑步者在途中做着疯狂的或是可以说是可笑的自找苦吃的事情。这让我意识到,“噢,与这些人相比,我的跑步是不是太安逸了呀。”那是两星期前,正与同伴们在纽约中央公园跑步,我们发现一个腰上系着绳子拽着轮胎跑的人。我们一边跑一边看。他淡定地拽着轮胎跑了数英里,而非只有百米左右的短跑。Races, especially marathons, tend to bring out the most adventurous runners because they know they'll have a bigger audience for their crazy antics. Beyond costumed runners, I've seen people who have juggled, yo-yoed, and carried a pizza box on the palm of their hand through an entire marathon. (Those were three different people - not one person doing all of that at once.) I'm always grateful for the little extra boost that these crazy runners give me when I see them. Because, really, who wants to admit that they got beat by the guy who ran the entire race backwards?竞赛中,尤其是马拉松运动中,往往能出现最大胆的跑步者。因为他们知道,在这样的运动中疯狂而古怪的行为能得到更多的观众。不仅仅是穿着奇装异的跑步者,我曾经见到有表演杂耍的、玩溜溜球的、还有手掌上托着比萨盒跑马拉松全程的人。(这是三个不同的跑步者,这些活可不是一个人同时能干的。)这些疯狂的跑步者给了我莫名的激励,我永怀感激。 What are some crazy things you've seen or done on the run?有谁愿意承认它的心被倒着跑完全程的跑步者所征呢?It's almost March, which means spring weather should be right around the corner. But some parts of the U.S. are still experiencing cold and blustery weather, so runners are still spending lots of time on the tmill. If you're really bored with indoor running, finding some new running tunes may help. Check out other runners' favorite running songs and get fellow runners pumped up for their runs by adding a few of your own.已近三月,春风即将吹遍大地。但是美国的部分地区还在经受着严寒与狂风,因此还有相当一段时间,奔跑者们要在跑步机上度过。如果你已经厌倦了室内跑步,找些新歌也许会有帮助。淘一淘其它人奔跑时最喜欢的歌曲,与同伴们分享你的经验,让他们对奔跑充满期望。 /201103/127162

Why is good posture important? 为什么姿势正确很重要? When it comes to posture, your mother did know best. Her frequent reminders to stand up straight and stop slouching were good advice. 一提起身体姿势,妈妈总是知道得最多,她不厌其烦地提醒你要站直、别懒懒散散的,而这些都是正确的建议。 Your spine is strong and stable when you practice healthy posture. But when you stoop or slouch, your muscles and ligaments struggle to keep you balanced — which can lead to fatigue, back pain, headaches and other problems. 在健康的姿势下,你的脊柱强健而稳固,但当你弯腰驼背或懒散而坐时,肌肉和韧带就不得不努力保持身体平衡——进而导致疲劳、后背疼痛、头痛和其他问题。 Your spine's curves脊柱的生理弯曲 A healthy back has three natural curves: 健康的后背有三个生理弯曲: An inward or forward curve at the neck (cervical curve) 颈部向内或向前的弯曲(颈曲) An outward or backward curve at the upper back (thoracic curve) 后背上部向外或向后的弯曲(胸曲) An inward curve at the lower back (lumbar curve) 后背下部向内的弯曲(腰曲) Good posture helps maintain these natural curves, while poor posture does the opposite — which can stress or pull muscles and cause pain. 正确的姿势有助于保持这些生理弯曲,而错误的姿势则相反——其将压迫或拉伸肌肉并引起疼痛。 Good standing posture 正确的站姿 When standing, keep these tips in mind: 在站立时,记住以下几点: Hold your chest high. 挺起胸部。 Keep your shoulders back and relaxed. 保持双肩向后并放松。 Pull in your abdomen and buttocks. 收腹提臀。 Keep your feet parallel. 保持双脚平行。 Balance your weight evenly on both feet. 双脚均匀承重。 Try not to tilt your head forward, backward or sideways, and make sure your knees are relaxed — not locked. 尽量不要让头部向前、向后或向两侧倾斜,同时膝盖不要用力,保持放松状态。Take the wall test 做墙壁测试(做靠墙测试) To test your standing posture, take the wall test. Stand with your head, shoulder blades and buttocks touching a wall, and your heels about two to four inches (five to 10 centimeters) away from the wall. Reach back and slide your hand behind the curve in your lower back, with your palm flat against the wall. 用墙壁测试来看看你的站姿是否正确。站立时,将你的头部、肩胛骨和臀部紧贴墙壁,而脚踝距离墙壁2-4英寸(5-10厘米),双手向后,沿后背下部的弯曲处滑下,并保持手掌平贴墙面。 Ideally, you'll feel about one hand's thickness of space between your back and the wall. If there's too much space, tighten your abdominal muscles to flatten the curve in your back. If there's too little space, arch your back so that your hand fits comfortably behind you. Walk away from the wall while maintaining this posture. Keep it up throughout your daily activities. 理想情况下,在后背和墙壁之间,你能感觉到有一只手厚度的空隙。如果空隙过大,收紧腹肌使后背的曲线变平。如果空隙太小,挺起后背使后部的空间能够容纳一只手。保持这样的姿势离开墙壁,在日常活动中也要保持该姿势。 /201109/153785

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