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2019年06月16日 18:58:26|来源:国际在线|编辑:飞度新闻医院排名
Ask about the foods that have conquered the world and you#39;re likely to hear about Coca-Cola and McDonald#39;s Big Macs. But think again, because the most successful industrial food ever produced flies far under the radar — it#39;s cup noodles.当被问及哪种食品征了世界时,你很可能会听人说出可口可乐和麦当劳巨无霸这样的。但仔细想想,要说目前为止影响最广泛的、也最低调的食品非碗装方便面莫属。A new book, The Noodle Narratives, written by three US anthropologists 55 years after the birth of instant noodles in Japan, reveals that there were more than 100 billion servings of instant noodles worldwide in 2012 — that#39;s about 14 servings for every single person on Earth. As for noodles themselves, they emerged more than 2,000 years ago to become a worldwide staple.在方便面于日本诞生55年之后,美国的3位人类学家撰写了一本名为《面条的故事》的书。书中指出,2012年全球方便面销量突破千亿大关,相当于,全球人均消费14包左右。面条起源于两千多年前,如今已成为全球人的主食。Given the fact that many instant noodles are MSG-enhanced junk food, not to mention the health risks associated with the paper cartons they#39;re served in, let#39;s talk about these strands of dough in terms of a culture you may not know.鉴于许多方便面都是含有大量味精的垃圾食品,更不用说其包装纸的健康隐患问题了,下面我们就来谈谈一些你可能有所不知的面条文化吧!Earliest noodles?面条始祖The oldest historical mention of noodles according to Jen Lin-Liu, a columnist for The New York Times and author of the book On the Noodle Road: From Beijing to Rome, with Love and Pasta, appears in a dictionary from the third century AD in China. The earliest Chinese noodles, however, did not appear in strands as they do today. They were little pieces of b dough thrown into a wok of boiling water. These kind of noodles, called mianpian, are still eaten in China.《纽约时报》专栏作家、《面条之路:北京到罗马,爱与意面同在》一书的作者林留清怡表示,公元三世纪的中国,历史上第一次提到面条,出自一本字典。然而,最早的中式面条与如今的形状截然不同。那时的面条是扔进锅中用沸水煮的小面片。这种面条叫面片,目前在中国人们还在食用。Another early mention of noodles has been traced back to the fifth century AD in Jerusalem, when they were referred to as itrium. Several centuries later, a string-like pasta called itrium, made of semolina and dried before cooking, was described by Syrian physicians.另一个早期提到面条的地方可以追溯回公元五世纪的耶路撒冷,当时这种面被称作“itrium”。几个世纪以后,一位叙利亚医师描述道:一种由粗面粉做的串状面食也被称作itrium,这种面条在烹调之前需要晒干。Of course, these documented mentions of noodles only came after noodles had aly been developed — and unlike other inventions, like the telephone for example, it#39;s rather difficult to pinpoint exactly when and where noodles came from, given that they relied on the innovation of cooks.当然,这些提到面条的文献要滞后于面条真正诞生的时间。与电话等发明不同,由于面条的发展依赖于厨艺创新,所以很难准确指出面条发明在何时何地。‘Humanitarian food#39;人道主义食品Invented by Momofuku Ando in Japan in 1958, few people know that instant noodles play an important role in hunger and disaster relief. While not exactly nutritious, instant noodles are a “hunger killer”, as US anthropologist Sidney Mintz would say.方便面诞生于1958年,由日本人安腾百福发明,很少有人知道它在赈饥与救灾方面发挥着多么重要的作用。正如美国人类学家悉尼?明茨所说的那样,方便面虽然没什么营养,却能“遏制饥饿”。According to the NPR, a US-based online news outlet, the fat in instant noodles, which are made with wheat flour fried in palm oil, combined with the soup, keeps one feeling full for longer. And that helps explain why ramen, as they are called in Japanese, have become a staple in the world#39;s humanitarian food aid packages.美国网络新闻媒体——美国国家公共电台NPR报道称,方便面由面粉经棕榈油炸制而成,它的油脂再加上汤,容易让人有持久的饱腹感。这就不难理解,为何拉面(日本人称其为“ramen”)能够成为世界人道主义食品援助中的主食了。 /201309/258640

From the neck up, Hideaki Kobayashi is a middle-aged, bald man with a bushy mustache.只看脖子以上的话,小林秀章是个一把胡子的光头中年大叔。From the neck down, this Japanese man could pass for a Japanese schoolgirl as he parades all over Tokyo dressed in ;Seifuku,; the name for the sailor outfits worn by teenage girls.但脖子以下,这位日本大叔看上去就跟日本女子中学生一样,他穿着“水手”(女学生所穿的水手装)走遍东京的大街小巷。The 50-something Kobayashi started dressing up as a teenage girl about three years ago. Before that, he was a computer engineer and an accomplished photographer — careers that he#39;s kept alive.小林今年50多岁了,大约三年前,他开始把自己打扮成女子中学生的样子。在这之前,他是一名电脑工程师,同时也是一位颇有造诣的摄影师,但这两项事业他现在也都没有放弃。He made his debut at an art and design event, but joked about the reasons behind his decision to dress like a giddy schoolgirl.他首次露面是在一个艺术设计展上,在谈到决定穿女装的原因时他开了个玩笑。;That#39;s a difficult question,; Kobayashi told Kotaku.com last year. ;It#39;s not really something I#39;ve thought too deeply about. Hrm. I guess it#39;s because sailor suits look good on me?;“这个问题蛮难回答的,”小林在去年接受Kotaku.com网站采访时说,“我对这件事想得其实不是很深刻。呃,我想也许是因为我穿上水手很好看?”As he#39;s become more comfortable in his own skin -- and the schoolgirl skirts -- Kobayashi has become more direct about his intentions.随着他越来越适应穿水手的自己,小林回答这一问题时变得更为坦率。;Japan society is all about conforming to the other people,; Kobayashi told CNN. ;I just want to wear something cute.;小林对CNN说,“日本社会十分注重对他人的迎合。我只是想穿得可爱一点。”Kobayashi is attracted to women, and identifies as a man even when he#39;s challenging gender norms.小林非常受到女性的欢迎,即使他挑战性别规范,人们也认同他是一位男性。He#39;s proud that he#39;s sought out by young girls who want to take pictures with him and post them online, Oddity Central reports.Oddity Central报道说,他很得意经常有年轻的女孩子希望跟他合照并把合照放到网上。Kobayashi#39;s reputation has sp so far that one Japanese prep school has hired him to teach teenagers to think for themselves.小林的名声很响,日本的一座大学预科学院甚至聘请他来教学生们如何进行独立思考。But while men dressing as women is accepted in Japanese pop culture, Kobayashi says that real life reactions can be different -- he says sometimes people shout insults on the street, and notes that he#39;s been stopped by the police as many as ten times.虽然男扮女装在日本是一种可接受的流行文化,小林表示在真实生活中,人们的反应还是会不一样,有时人们会在大街上大声侮辱他,而且他还经常被警察拦住,足有10次之多。Despite the negative attention and discrimination, he thinks it#39;s worth it. It#39;s still outweighed by the positivity of the throngs of people eagerly posing with him as he skips from Shibuya to Harajuku, and by the kids he#39;s able to reach with his message of tolerance, and how liberating being a non-conformist can be.即使有负面评价和歧视,他认为他还是值得这么做。他从涩谷一路走到原宿会不断有人想要与他合照,他可以教孩子们什么是宽容,以及作为一个不拘一格的人感觉是如何的自由,这些所带来的正能量更为重要。;If there#39;s something you want to do, do that,; Kobayashi said. ;That#39;s my message. Be yourself.;“如果你想要做什么事,就放手去做,”小林说,“这就是我想要传递的讯息。做真正的自己。” /201407/314183

As Frieze week kicks off in London, so does the third Shanzhai Biennial — which does not occur every two years, but instead irregularly, whenever the artistic trio made up of Cyril Duval, Avena Gallagher and Babak Radboy comes together to focus their laser wits on the increasingly porous interstices of art, fashion and branding. Shanzhai Biennial is not an exhibition in any conventional sense of the word, nor is Shanzhai an actual Chinese locale. It’s a term that means “mountain stronghold,” slang for the breed of counterfeit products stockpiled in lofty, hard-to-access villages: name-brand knockoffs that are famous worldwide for their absurd, sometimes even poetic perversions of Western language.随着弗里兹艺会(Frieze)在伦敦开幕,第三届山寨双年展(Shanzhai Biennial)也开幕了——其实它并非每两年举办一次,而是不定期举行,届时西里尔·杜瓦尔(Cyril Duval)、阿韦纳·加拉格尔(Avena Gallagher)和巴巴克·拉德伊(Babak Radboy)这三位艺术家聚到一起,把他们激光般的智慧集中到越来越具有渗透性的艺术、时尚和品牌推广的隙缝中。山寨双年展不是传统字面意义上的展览,山寨也不是一处真的中国山寨。“山寨”指的是存放于高高的、难以到达的村子里的名牌仿制品,它们以对西方语言的荒谬甚至不无诗意的曲解而闻名于世。Together, the words “Shanzhai Biennial” stand for an apocryphal institution that is often described as an art project posing as a luxury brand — or vice versa. At various times it has functioned as both, though it has consistently eschewed strict identification as either. In London, Shanzhai Biennial No. 3, titled “100 Hamilton Terrace,” consists of two retail installations — one onsite at Frieze Art Fair, another at Project Native Informant gallery in Mayfair — devised as a multipronged real-estate marketing campaign for a #163;32 million mansion for sale in St. John’s Wood. Both installations are grounded by carpets done in a deep, prosperous red, with floor plans of the property printed in large format directly upon them. The walls are hung with light boxes illuminating advertisements for the house, featuring inquisitive models peering through the outlines of more floor plans. Collateral art objects — limited-edition keys commemorating the house, and haute Frieze Art Fair tote bags that trade standard-issue cotton for quilted black leather and a braided chain — are on view in vitrines. But the most prominent element of the installation, in the Frieze booth anyway, is the mansion’s hefty price tag: a steady stream of zeroes that marches, larger-than-life, across the wall behind the lacquered sales desk.“山寨”和“双年展”这两个词组合在一起代表一个并不存在的机构,它经常被描述为伪装成奢侈品牌的艺术项目或伪装成艺术项目的奢侈品牌。有时它同时具有这两种职能,虽然它一直不想被严格定义为其中任何一种。伦敦的第三届山寨双年展名为“汉密尔顿露台100号”(100 Hamilton Terrace),包括两个零售装置作品——一个在弗里兹艺术览会现场,另一个在梅费尔的本土作品通报画廊(Project Native Informant)。它被设计成一个包括多种元素的房地产营销活动,推销的是圣约翰伍德的一个售价为3200万英镑的宅邸。这两个装置作品都以艳丽的深红色地毯为背景,地毯上印着大幅户型图。墙上挂着灯箱,照亮这所房子的广告,广告中好奇的模特透过更多户型图向外凝视。玻璃橱窗里是一些附属艺术品——纪念这所房子的限量版钥匙,弗里兹艺会的高档大手提袋,它的材质不是那种普通棉布,而是用中间夹有棉花的黑色皮革做的,还带一条镶饰链子。但是这个装置作品最显眼的元素——在弗里兹艺会的展位上——是这个宅邸高昂的价签:涂漆销售桌后面的墙上排列着一长串醒目的零。“We really want to stress that this is real advertising and fake art and not the opposite,” says Radboy. Indeed, the artists stand to earn a bona fide .5-percent commission on the property when it sells. “Advertising has its own formal attributes that are really uncanny when you consider them — but get overlooked because the perspective of critique always treats advertising as some dumb stepchild of culture, easily encapsulated in terms like ‘commodity aesthetics.’”“我们真的想强调这是真广告,伪艺术,而不是伪装成广告的艺术,”拉德伊说。的确,如果房子售出,这三位艺术家将获得0.5%的佣金。“如果仔细考虑,你会发现广告具有非常神秘的独特形式属性,但它被忽视了,因为批评家们总是把广告看作文化的愚蠢继子,随意地把它概括为‘商品美学’。”The project’s centerpiece, though, is artful indeed: a promotional produced for the address, which makes its premiere here. Scored by a Shanzhai interpretation of Sinéad O’Connor’s “Nothing Compares 2 U” in Mandarin, which the Biennial originally created for an earlier shown at MoMA PS1, the advertisement pushes in on domestic scenes from within 100 Hamilton Terrace, juxtaposed with Chinese models stoically enjoying their plush environs. It’s a Kuleshov cocktail of exoticism — evident in both the quintessentially English details of the house and its uncannily posed inhabitants — and globalized, aspirant values.不过,这个项目的中心作品的确非常艺术化:它是为这座宅邸拍摄的宣传片,在这里首次展示。宣传片的配乐是山寨双年展对西妮德·奥康纳(Sinéad O’Connor)的《没什么能与你相比》(Nothing Compares 2 U)的中文演绎,最初是他们为一个早期视频创作的,曾在现代艺术物馆(MoMA)PS1馆展示。宣传片在展示汉密尔顿露台100号的室内景致时,融入了中国模特们在其中恬淡享受奢华环境的镜头。它具有库列绍夫(Kuleshov)的电影风格,融合多种异国情调,既有房子典型的英式细节,又有一些姿态怪异的住户,具有雄心勃勃的全球化价值观。“The fair itself is so evocative of real estate,” Radboy continues. In a tented swath of Regent’s Park, Frieze is cut up into hundreds of contiguous stalls that rent by the day for five-figure sums. Shanzhai Biennial’s booth is in a prime position: the only one along the hallway through which fairgoers enter. “In the end, I think the advertising campaign has more in common with a military campaign: It is first and foremost concerned with territory and not cash.”“这场艺会本身很容易让人想起房地产,”拉德伊继续说道。艺会位于摄政公园里的一片搭起帐篷的地区,包括成百上千个毗邻摊位,每日租金都是五位数。山寨双年展的展位处于黄金位置,是唯一一个沿过道的展位,参观艺会的人都得从这儿经过。“说到底,我觉得广告宣传活动与军事战役有很多共同点:它们在乎的是疆域,而非钱。”“As an agency, we routinely spend tens of thousands of pounds promoting fine homes, yet our advertisements and marketing initiatives often frustratingly create barely a ripple amongst top-end buyers,” explains Aston Chase’s Mark Pollack, the listing agent who convinced his clients to bring Shanzhai Biennial on board to create an abstract take on what is usually resigned to the rote, ineffective methods he describes. Pleased with the parade of millionaires who will be passing by the display all week, the two companies are aly talking about future collaborations.“作为中介机构,我们通常花费数万英镑宣传高端房产,但我们的广告和营销活动常常令人失望,在高端买家中几乎没引起任何反响,”阿斯顿·沙斯房地产中介公司(Aston Chase)的卖方代理人马克·波拉克(Mark Pollack)解释说。他认为普通的宣传方法陈腐无效,劝客户们让山寨双年展加入进来,从抽象视角进行阐释。双方对本周将经过这里的百万富翁感到满意,已在商谈未来的合作。And what’s next for Shanzhai Biennial? In Chinese culture, the number four is a near-homophone for “death,” so the group plans to skip forward to Shanzhai Biennial No. 5.山寨双年展的下一个项目是什么?在中国文化中,数字四的发音与“死”接近,所以这个艺术家团体计划把四跳过去,直接举办第五届山寨双年展。 /201410/337312

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