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巫溪黔江区武隆县治疗宫颈炎哪家医院最好的重庆处女膜修复那家医院好北碚渝北区治疗妇科疾病多少钱 Chinese companies are significantly ramping up their spending on research and development, according to a new report.一份最新发布的报告指出,中国企业正在大幅增加研发出。Companies based on the mainland of China have increased their spending by a factor of 15 over the past decade, according to a report from the management consulting firm “Strategyamp;,” and the number of Chinese firms on Strategyamp;’s 2014 Global Innovation 1000 has gone from eight in 2005 to 114 today.据管理咨询公司Strategyamp;的报告显示,总部设在中国大陆的企业出水平在过去10年里增长了14倍。入选2014年Strategyamp;“全球创新企业1000强”榜单的中企数量,已从2005年的8家跃升至如今的114家。The reason for the Ramp;D growth: Chinese companies are shifting away from producing cheap goods for export and concentrating on higher quality economic growth.中国企业研发出增长背后的原因在于,它们正把重心从从生产廉价出口商品上移开,专注于实现更高质量的经济增长。“When we are looking at the regional cut, China continues to go gangbusters,” said Barry Jaruzelski, the report’s author and a senior partner with the firm.该报告作者巴里o雅鲁泽尔斯基是Strategyamp;公司的高级合伙人。他说:“在亚洲地区企业纷纷削减研发投入之际,中国企业仍继续大幅增加投入。”“It’s been in the high double-digits for many, many years,” he added. “The rest of the world was double-digit, but lower — around 13 percent — and North America and Europe were positive, but much lower, at 3. 5 percent in North America and 2.5 percent in Europe.”他补充道:“中企研发出已经多年维持两位数的高增长,虽然世界其他地区也有两位数的增幅,但相对较低,在13%左右;而北美和欧洲的增长更是要低得多,分别为3.5%和2.5%。”The findings dovetail with overall research and development trends in China, including government spending, which the National Science Foundation found, is second only behind the ed States.这些结果与包括政府出在内的中国整体研发趋势相契合。美国国家科学基金会(National Science Foundation)称,中国政府的研发出仅次于美国。Patents, too, increasingly have a Chinese flavor, with the largest number of applicants coming from China and Chinese residents. The Chinese overtook the ed States in 2012, according to the World Intellectual Property Organization.在专利申请领域,中国份额也越来越大。来自中国和中国居民的专利申请数最多。世界知识产权组织(World Intellectual Property Organization)称,2012年中国的专利申请量已经超越了美国。“In terms of their development, they have advanced a lot over the past 20 years,” said Mosahid Khan, head of the intellectual property and statistics section at WIPO in Geneva. “They are sort of catching up with the ed States and Japan on the technological frontier whether it be patents or R amp; D investment.”世界知识产权组织日内瓦知识产权及统计部负责人莫萨德o肯说:“在发展方面,中国在过去20年中进步了很多,在技术前沿,无论是专利还是研发投资,中国正在赶超美国和日本。”Chinese companies are still are dwarfed by American-based firms when it comes to the 7 billion spent on global research and development. The Americans, as they have traditionally done, are the biggest spenders at 6.9 billion followed by European-based companies at 3.8 billion and then Japan which is third at 6.7 billion.2014年,全球研发投入达到6470亿美元。但中资公司的研发投入仍然远比不上美资公司。美资企业的研发投入规模历来都高居全球首位,今年达到2569亿美元,其次是欧资企业达到1938亿美元,然后是位居第三的日资企业达到1167亿美元。Still, the Chinese growth can’t be ignored. It has gone from almost negligible number in 2005 to billion in 2014. Chinese firms increased their spending from a year ago by 46 percent.不过,中资企业的研发投入增长也不可小觑,从2005年几乎可以忽略不计的水平跃升至2014年的300亿美元,今年同比增长46%。Robert Atkinson, the president of The Information Technology and Innovation Foundation, a Washington, D.C., technology policy think tank, warned that some of the Chinese figures may be “somewhat overstated” due to a “rewards system” for state-owned enterprises which is based on them doing “a lot of R amp; D” and thus classifying some things as research and development which wouldn’t be treated as such in the ed States.美国信息技术与创新基金会(The Information Technology and Innovation Foundation)是一家总部设在华盛顿特区的科技政策智库,该基金会的总裁罗伯特o阿特金森提醒称,中国的企业研发投入数据可能“有些水分”,因为中国对国有企业实施的“奖励制度”看重研发,因此中资企业会将一些在美国不会归为研发的活动列入研发出项目。Still, he said, China was “pulling out all the stops” in Ramp;D as part of a strategy to become more self-sufficient by producing as much as they can indigenously and ending their dependence on foreign firms like Apple or Boeing for help.中国正在加大研发出力度,而美国一直在削减其政府研发出。这也是中国未来也许能赶超美国的原因之一。巴特尔研究所(Battelle)和《R&D 杂志》(Battelle/Ramp;D Magazine)公布的《2014年全球研发经费预测报告》(2014 Global Ramp;D Funding Forecast)预测,在研发投入方面,中国最早可能在2025年超越美国。“They have basically decided the old strategy of attracting foreign firms to set up assembly operations is no longer their path to growth,” Atkinson said.阿特金森说,中国的目标是“超越美国”,因此美国若要想保持世界创新领导者的地位,则必须做出更多努力,包括制定更优惠的税收政策持研发、取消对科技经费的削减。“They feel like they have maximized that potential,” he said. “This is one reason why you are seeing now a real backlash against foreign technology firms in China going after companies like Microsoft, Qualcomm and other with whole set of trumped up anti-monopoly complaints and things like that. They feel like they don’t need them anymore.”他说:“美国要硬着头皮像过去那样大力投入研发,我们必须做到这一点,因为我们不能输,如果我们在投入上做到位了,我坚信我们在创新上能继续领先于中国。如果我们不这么做,未来10年或15年内,中国将在很多领域赶上或超过我们。”And while China is spending more, the ed States has been cutting its government R amp; D spending which could be one reason why the Chinese could one day surpass the Americans. The 2014 Global Ramp;D Funding Forecast, published by Battelle/Ramp;D Magazine, projects China could overtake the ed States as early as 2025.Strategyamp;公司发布的这份报告使用了彭资讯(Bloomberg)和Capital IQ提供的数据,并结合了相关调查和访谈。该报告分析了企业的研发投入和创新水平。除了预测全球趋势,该报告还指出了在研发方面投入最大的行业和公司。Atkinson said the goal of China is “beat us” and that America must do more including more generous tax incentives for Ramp;D and reversing cuts in science and technology if it wants to remain the world’s innovation leader.对于美国而言,让人颇为安慰的是,目前还没有一家中资企业在研发投入或创新方面进入十强榜单。这意味着,在短期内没有中国企业能获得谷歌(Google)或强生公司(Johnson amp; Johnson)那样的辉煌业绩。事实上,排名最高的中资公司仅排在第62位。“We’ve got to go back and just bite the bullet and you know what we are going to do that because we are not going to lose,” he said. “If we did those things, I have every faith we could stay ahead of China from an innovation perspective. If we don’t do those things, within 10 years or 15 years China will have caught up to us in many, many areas or surpassed us.”2014年,大众汽车公司(Volkswagen)和三星公司(Samsung)研发投入分别达到135亿美元和134亿美元,连续第二年荣登研发投入榜单榜首。英特尔(Intel)和微软则分列攀升至第三和第四名,而谷歌也首次进入十强,仅领先默克公司(Merck and Co)。除了默克公司外,还有其他三家医药企业进入研发投入十强名单。The report, which uses data from Bloomberg and Capital IQ data combined with surveys and interviews, looks both at a company’s Ramp;D spending and its level of innovation. Along with charting global trends, the report also highlighted the sectors and companies that are doing the most in research and development.英特尔发言人克里斯汀o多茨说:“我们所处行业的发展日新月异,我们需要时刻准备好取代自己的技术。”他以英特尔的14纳米处理器作为例子并说道:“我们不能按兵不动,我们需要遵循尔定律不断创新。” /201411/341215重庆月经不调

重庆哪家做人流比较好You get exactly one chance at success in the Japanese labour market, and as the world economy started to turn downwards in 2007, an 18-year-old Mr Takeda missed his.在日本劳动力市场,你只有一次成功的机会——不多也不少。当2007年世界经济开始下行时,18岁的竹田(Takeda)错过了自己的机会。His technical high school poured effort into matching its pupils with employers, but as a shy teenager in that year’s weak market, he was left without a job — and no way back. Mr Takeda, who does not want his full name published, describes what followed as six years of “black”.他所上的技术高中努力帮助自己的学生找工作,但他是个害羞的年轻人,在那年不景气的市场环境下没有找到工作——也没法重新来过。竹田不希望文章中出现他的全名。他把接下来的六年描述成“黑色”的六年。“If you don’t get recruited first time around it’s extremely difficult,” says Mr Takeda, who couldn’t even get a part-time position. “I didn’t have any work experience. Once you have a blank period on your CV it’s extremely hard to get a job.”“如果你毕业时没找到工作,再想找到工作就非常困难了,”竹田说。他甚至得不到一份兼职工作。“我当时没有任何工作经验。一旦你的履历上有一段空白期,要找到一份工作就变得极端困难。”Mr Takeda fell victim to the poisonous combination of a deflationary economy and Japan’s lifetime employment system. Lucky school and university leavers get a secure job for the rest of their career. Those who miss out enter a precarious limbo of temporary contracts and part-time work.经济通缩和日本的终身就业制度是一种有害的结合,竹田就成为了这种结合的牺牲品。幸运的高中和大学毕业生会找到一份可以从事一辈子的工作。那些毕业时没找到工作的人,就进入了一种危险的没着没落状态,只能签临时工作合同、从事兼职工作。With this kind of work increasingly on the rise in developed countries, Japan is an advanced case study in what happens when a large group of workers is marginalised in this way.考虑到发达国家的这种工作越来越多,日本为考察当大量劳动者以这种方式被边缘化时会发生什么提供了一个高级案例。Those who missed out on lifetime jobs in the aftermath of Japan’s 1990 stock market crash are now in their forties.那些在日本1990年股市崩盘之后错过了终身制饭碗的人,如今已经40多岁了。“There are many men who couldn’t find work when they were young, gave up, and they’re now in middle age,” says Yuji Genda, a professor at the University of Tokyo.“有许多这样的人,他们在年轻时没找到工作,就放弃了,现在已步入中年,”东京大学(University of Tokyo)教授玄田有史(Yuji Genda)说。There are now around 340,000 Japanese men of prime working age, between 35 and 44 who are out of the labour force — double the level of 20 years ago. “It’s become a big social problem,” he says.日本目前约有34万处于职业盛年(35岁至44岁)的人不属于劳动力人口,这个数字为20年前的两倍。“这已经成了一个严重的社会问题,”他说。Mr Genda’s research highlights the extremity of what happens to Japanese students who graduate in a bad job market. In the US, if the unemployment rate is one percentage point higher at the time of graduation, a high school graduate earns 3 per cent less on average.玄田有史的研究凸显了在劳动力市场糟糕时期毕业的日本学生所面临的极端遭遇。在美国,如果高中毕业生在毕业时失业率高了1个百分点,那么他们的平均收入会低3%。That disadvantage fades out after a few years. But in Japan, graduating in similar conditions means a 7 per cent wage hit on average, and more than a decade later students in that cohort will still be earning 5 to 7 per cent less. The brunt of that wage loss is borne by those who did not secure a regular job.在美国,这一劣势在几年之后就消失了。但在日本,同样的情况意味着,那些高中毕业生的平均收入会低7%,十年多以后,他们的收入仍将低5%至7%。承受工资损失冲击的是那些没找到正规工作的人。The polarisation of Japan’s labour market not only causes hardship for those on the wrong side of the lifetime system — it is also a significant economic problem.日本劳动力市场的两极分化,不但令终身就业制度之外的人艰难度日,而且也构成一个突出的经济问题。The productivity of temporary staff is lower, the IMF argues, because they are less motivated and companies do not train them.国际货币基金组织(IMF)提出,临时工的生产效率更低,因为他们的积极性更低,公司也不培训他们。The fund has urged Shinzo Abe, the prime minister, to prioritise overhauling the jobs market as part of the “third arrow” of Abenomics, his package of structural reforms designed to tackle deflation and boost growth.IMF敦促日本首相安倍晋三(Shinzo Abe)把彻底改革劳动力市场提高到优先位置,作为安倍经济学“第三箭”的组成部分。“第三箭”是指安倍提出的旨在摆脱通缩和提振增长的一系列结构性改革措施。The Diet, or parliament, is considering modest reforms, such as letting companies pay professional staff by results instead of hours worked, but nothing that would break down what has become a two-tier market, economists said.经济学家表示,日本国会(Diet)正在考虑实施温和改革,比如让公司根据业绩而不是工作时长给专业人员付薪水,但经济学家表示,这么做将无法打破当前劳动力市场已经形成的分化。 /201508/392897重庆市肿瘤医院引产多少钱 More than 80% of California is now in a state of extreme drought, according to the latest assessment. The environmental conditions that residents are experiencing today actually began in 2011. Still, there seems to be no end in sight. Water costs are sky high, as you would expect, but Californians are paying the price in more ways than one. The state’s Central Valley agriculture industry, for example, stands to lose .7 billion this year as a result of what some believe is the worst drought to affect the region in 500 years. Some 14, 500 workers could lose their jobs in an area responsible for half of the state’s agriculture and five percent of the entire nation’s.最新评估显示,加州80%的地区目前处于极度干旱中。当地居民如今正经历的环境条件实际上2011年就萌芽了。但目前仍没有缓解迹象。毫不意外,当地用水成本高得吓人,但是加州所付出的代价,并非只是用水成本这么简单。加州中央谷地(Central Valley)农业今年将面临17亿美元的损失,原因在于该地区遭遇了据称是500年以来最严重的旱灾。这一地区的农业产值占加州半壁江山,占全美农业产值的5%,大约1.45万名工人也可能因农业萧条而失业。How will California survive? For a problem of such massive scope, the solutions will be complex, experts say. One thing is certain: technology will play a key role.加州的出路在何方?专家表示,对于如此大范围的旱情来说,要找到解决办法不是件容易的事。但有一点是肯定的:科技将发挥重要作用。Halla Razak is the director of public utilities for the city of San Diego. Diversifying the water supply has been a top priority, she tells Fortune, because more than 90 percent of San Diego’s water has historically been purchased from the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California. It became clear in 1990, when there was another drought, that the existing plan wasn’t sustainable, Razak said. It prompted officials to take a fresh look at alternatives.圣地亚哥市公用事业部门主管哈拉#8226;瑞扎克向《财富》杂志(Fortune)透露,水源多元化一直是该部门工作的重中之重,因为圣地亚哥的九成用水都是从南加州市政水管区(Metropolitan Water District of Southern California)购买的。瑞扎克说,1990年也出现过旱情,当时我们明确地意识到现有的计划缺乏可持续性。旱情迫使政府官员重新审视替代水源的问题。Since 2007, per-capita water use in the San Diego region has decreased about 27 percent. Officials point to rebates, tools, and educational programs aimed at improving water-use efficiency as factors in the change.自2007年以来,圣地亚哥人均用水量下降了27%。官员称,旨在改善用水效率的返利活动、工具和教育项目都是导致这一变化的因素。“These are low-tech solutions, ” Razak concedes. They are not like the brand-new and pricey reverse-osmosis desalination plant now under construction. The new Carlsbad Desalination Project, the work of the private developer Poseidon Water, is expected to open this fall. It will supply roughly 50 million gallons of water per day, which is about 10 percent of what the region uses each year, Razak says.瑞扎克承认,“这些解决方案的科技含量较低。”这些办法并非那种全新的、昂贵的高科技解决方案,例如目前正在建设的反渗透海水淡化工厂。瑞扎克还说,由私营开发商波塞冬水务公司(Poseidon Water)新建的卡尔斯巴德海水淡化项目(Carlsbad Desalination Project)有望于今秋投入使用。该工厂每日供水量约为5,000万加仑,大约是该地区年用水量的10%。Desalination is something of a controversial topic. Though it is an established technology that has long provided drinkable water to many parts of the world, most notably the Middle East, it is also frequently criticized for its high energy demands.海水淡化是一个具有争议性的话题。虽然这是一种成熟的技术,而且长时间以来被用于为世界很多地区提供饮用水,尤其是中东地区,但它经常因高能耗而受到诟病。‘San Diego’s most expensive source’“圣地亚哥最昂贵的水源”“We’ve been desalinating water for over 100 years, ” says Peter Gleick, president of the Pacific Institute, a nonprofit that works with Fortune 500 companies on water solutions. “We know how to desalinate, but that’s not the long-term answer because it’s still extraordinarily expensive.”非营利性组织太平洋研究所(Pacific Institute)所长皮特#8226;格莱克表示,“我们从事海水淡化业务已经100多年了。我们对海水淡化技术了如指掌,但这并非长久之计,因为这一技术仍然非常昂贵。”该组织致力于与财富500强(Fortune 500)企业合作开发水务解决方案。Reverse osmosis technology has helped improve desalination’s energy footprint compared with past alternatives, Gleick says. Even so, the new Carlsbad plant “will be San Diego’s most expensive source of water, ” he says.格莱克说,与之前的技术相比,反渗透技术已帮助改善了海水淡化的能源足迹。即便如此,新建造的卡尔斯巴德工厂将“成为圣地亚哥最昂贵的水源。”In Gleick’s view, the “more mundane” technologies that help people use water more efficiently, from efficient toilets to irrigation equipment, are far more important. “Drip irrigation is not a new technology, toilets are not new, but there are new versions that let us save a tremendous amount of water cost-effectively, ” he says. “They may not be sexy, but they’re frankly the smartest things we could be doing.”在格莱克看来,那些“更世俗”的技术能帮助人们提升用水效率,包括节水马桶和灌溉设备在内的这些技术远比反渗透技术更为重要。“滴灌并不是什么新技术,节水马桶也不是,但是也有新的版本能够让我们以低廉的成本节约大量水资源。这些技术并不怎么吸引眼球,但它们实际上却是当前我们能够采取的最明智的办法。” /201408/322116梁平城口丰都县生孩子哪家医院最好的

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