明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年03月20日 21:51:35

What do President Obama, Ellen Degeneres and Pope Francis have in common? They’ve all snapped selfies in the last year. So has Miley Cyrus (she’s posted 121 of them on Twitter). Plane-crash survivor Ferdinand Puentes. And astronaut Steve Swanson. And so, I’m nearly positive, have you.奥巴马总统、脱口秀主持人艾伦o狄珍妮和教皇方济各有什么共同点?是,他们去年都玩起了自拍。其同道中人还包括演员麦莉o赛勒斯(她在Twitter上发了121张自拍照)、坠机事件幸存者费迪南德o普恩特斯、宇航员史蒂夫o斯沃森。另外我敢肯定,你八成也是个自拍迷。The selfie, of course, isn’t new—it has been around since the advent of photography, when chemist-turned-photographer Robert Cornelius captured one in 1839. But in the past two years, it has become explosively popular—the sort of meme that scales, seemingly overnight, from mere trend to phenomenon to something your Aunt Edna talks about in her crocheting circle. The Oxford English Dictionary called out “selfie” as the 2013 word of the year. More than half of all millennials (age 18-33) have taken a selfie and shared it online, according to a March 2014 Pew Research Center poll. A is debuting a new primetime sitcom called Selfie in late September. (Seriously.) Indie band The Chainsmokers produced a music called #Selfie that became a viral hit (and was awful!). How the heck did these hastily snapped-and-shared self-portraits become le dernier cri of smartphone society?自拍本身并不是新鲜事物,它与摄影技术同时诞生。早在1839年,由化学家半路转行成摄影家的罗伯特o科尼利厄斯就拍摄了一张自拍照。不过在过去两年里,自拍开始疯狂地流行起来,从一种潮流变成一种现象,到现在,就连你的邻居大妈也会在打毛衣时“咔嚓”一张。《牛津英语辞典》将“自拍”(selfie)评为“2013年度单词”。据皮尤研究中心(Pew Research Center)的一项民调,一半以上的“千禧一代”(即18至33岁的人)曾经自拍并且把照片分享到网络上。A电视台今年9月末将上映一部新的情景喜剧,名字就叫《自拍》。(这是真的。)独立乐队The Chainsmokers制作了一部叫做《自拍》的MV,在网络上极其火爆(看上去非常可怕)。那么,在这个智能手机大行其道的社会,为什么人们如此热衷于自拍呢? /201409/326315

  Diana Briske will never forget the day Snuggles attacked.62岁的戴安娜#12539;布瑞思克(Diana Briske)是明尼苏达州罗切斯特市(Rochester)的一位退休人士,她永远也不会忘记斯纳 丝(Snuggles)伤人的那一天。The calico cat was getting her regular evening petting when she suddenly bit into Ms. Briske#39;s right hand. The wound didn#39;t bleed, so Ms. Briske simply washed it out. The next morning, though, her hand was swollen and painful. She went to a doctor, who sent her directly to the emergency room.那天晚上,这只花斑猫在像平常一样接受主人爱抚的时候,突然咬住了戴安娜的右手。当时伤口并没有流血,所以戴安娜就简单用水冲洗了下。但到了第二天早上,她的手就又肿又痛。戴安娜去看了医生,医生直接把她送进了急诊室。Ms. Briske spent 10 days in the hospital, where surgeons repeatedly drained and cleaned the injury. #39;I never dreamed in a thousand years I#39;d need hand surgery#39; from a cat bite, said the 62-year-old retiree from Rochester, Minn.戴安娜在医院住了10天,那里的外科医生反复为她的伤口脓肿引流并进行清理。她说:“我这一辈子做梦也没想到,就因为被猫咬了一次,我竟然需要做手部手术。”A new study by researchers at the Mayo Clinic has found that of 193 patients who came in for cat bites on their hands over a three-year period, 30% had to be hospitalized for an average stay of 3.2 days. Most of those admitted, like Ms. Briske, needed their wounds surgically cleaned to eliminate infections, according to the study, published this month in the Journal of Hand Surgery.梅奥诊所(Mayo Clinic)研究人员进行的一项新研究发现,在三年的时间里,193名因手部被猫咬伤而前来就诊的病人中,有30%的人不得不住院治疗,其平均住院时间为3.2天。该研究论文于本月发表在《手外科杂志》(Journal of Hand Surgery)上,论文还称,大多数被收治的病人,如戴安娜,他们的伤口都需要手术清理以消除感染。#39;Cat bites can be very serious, and when you do get an infection, it can be very difficult to treat,#39; said Brian T. Carlsen, a Mayo surgeon who was an author of the study. That#39;s particularly true with a hand injury because of the structure of the tendons and joints, he said.该研究的一名作者、梅奥诊所的外科医生布莱恩#12539;T.卡尔森(Brian T. Carlsen)说:“被猫咬伤会非常严重,当你真的感染后,将会很难治疗。”他还说,如果是手部被咬伤,因为其肌腱和关节的结构,情况更是如此。An estimated 45.3 million U.S. households had cats in 2012, up from 38.4 million in 2006, according to the American Pet Products Association. Pets may reduce stress in, and lift the mood of, their owners, some studies suggest. But a growing body of research, in fields ranging from psychology to parasitology, points to possible health concerns.据美国宠物产品协会(American Pet Products Association)称,2006年,全美有3,840万户家庭养了猫,这一数据在2012年估计升至4,530万。一些研究表明,宠物可能会减少主人的压力并改善他们的情绪。但越来越多的研究――从心理学到寄生虫学领域――都指出了宠物可能带来的健康问题。Cats#39; sharp teeth often penetrate deeply, creating punctures that may not appear serious but can easily harbor bacteria that live in the animals#39; mouths. Cat bites represent around 10% to 15% of emergency-room visits tied to animal bites, according to the Mayo paper. Cat scratches can also cause infections, doctors say.猫的尖牙经常会深深穿透被咬对象,造成一些可能看似并不严重的伤口,但它们却易成为生长在动物口中那些细菌的温床。梅奥诊所那项研究的论文指出,在因动物咬伤而到急诊室就医的患者中,有10%到15%的人都是被猫咬伤的。医生们还称,被猫抓伤也会引起感染。Dogs are involved in a far larger percentage of bite-related emergency-room visits, but they tend to pose a different type of hazard. They will often create a bigger wound, but they don#39;t have the needlelike effect of cat bites that can plant bacteria deep in the flesh, doctors say.在因动物咬伤而到急诊室就医的病例中,被咬伤占的比例更大,远远超过猫伤,但一般会造成另一种类型的危险。医生们说,咬的地方常常会形成一个更大的伤口,但它们不会像猫咬那样具有针扎似的效果,后者会将细菌深深地“种入”肉体内。For reasons that aren#39;t clear, research has suggested a possible link between cat bites and human depression. David A. Hanauer, an associate professor at the University of Michigan Medical School, analyzed electronic health records of around 1.3 million patients seen by the university#39;s health system and found that 41% of those treated for cat bites were also diagnosed at some point with depression. #39;There definitely is an association there,#39; said Dr. Hanauer. But, he said, #39;we don#39;t know why,#39; and the link doesn#39;t necessarily imply causation. The research was published in August in PLOS ONE.研究已表明,在猫咬伤和人类抑郁之间可能存在着某种关联,其原因目前尚不清楚。密歇根大学医学院(University of Michigan Medical School)副教授大卫#12539;A.哈诺尔(David A. Hanauer)分析了由该校医疗卫生系统收治的约130万病患的电子健康记录,结果发现因为猫咬伤而就诊的病人中有41%的人也被诊断为患有某种程度上的抑郁症。哈诺尔士说:“这其中绝对存在著有某种关联。”但他也称,“我们不知道原因”,而且这种关联并不一定就意味着因果关系。这项研究的论文于去年8月份发表在《公共科学图书馆综合卷》(PLOS ONE)上。Cats also pick up parasites from the environment and can pass those along to people. Around 10% to 20% of people in the U.S. are infected with Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite cats can get from eating infected animals, such as rodents and birds, and then shed in their feces. It typically has little impact on healthy people. But it poses a danger to the fetuses of pregnant women, which can get a syndrome whose symptoms include blindness and mental disability, and to people with weakened immune systems, who may suffer central nervous system damage.猫还会从外界中带来一些寄生虫并将其传染给人类。在美国,大约有10%到20%的人都感染了刚地弓形虫。如果猫进食了遭受感染的动物――如啮齿动物与鸟,猫就会染上这种寄生虫,然后通过粪便排出。对健康的人群而言,这一般没什么影响。但它却会对妇肚子里的胎儿以及那些免疫系统功能低下的人群构成危险,前者会患上一种综合症,其症状包括失明与智障,而后者的中枢神经系统则可能会遭受损伤。A number of studies in recent years have suggested a possible association between toxoplasma infections and an increased risk of serious psychological issues in humans, including schizophrenia and suicidal behavior. #39;There#39;s moderate evidence#39; of a link, said Robert H. Yolken, a professor at Johns Hopkins University who co-wrote a 2012 analysis examining research on toxoplasma and schizophrenia. One possible reason is that the parasite might boost the presence of the chemical dopamine in the brain, he said. Also, he said, any potential impact is likely more significant if the infection occurs at a young age.近年来大量的研究已表明,在弓形虫感染与人类严重心理问题风险攀升――包括精神分裂症和自杀行为――两者之间可能存在着某种关联。约翰霍普金斯大学(Johns Hopkins University)教授罗伯特#12539;H.约肯(Robert H. Yolken)说,“目前有一些据”表明这种关联的存在。约肯于2012年与他人合着了一篇探讨弓形虫与精神分裂症研究的分析。他说,一个可能的原因是,寄生虫也许会增加大脑中化学物质多巴胺的分泌。他还称,如果感染发生在幼年期,任何潜在的影响都可能会更为显著。Animal experts say proper precautions should minimize health risks from owning a cat. #39;The presence of a cat in the house poses very little risk#39; for toxoplasma infection, said Jeffrey L. Jones, an epidemiologist at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. People shouldn#39;t get infected if they are careful with litter boxes and wash and thoroughly cook their own food.动物专家们称,适当的防护措施应该能将养猫的健康风险降至最低。美国疾病控制与预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)流行病学家杰弗里#12539;L.琼斯(Jeffrey L. Jones)说:“让一只猫在家里出没几乎不会形成(弓形虫感染)的风险。”如果人们能够小心地处理猫砂盆,并彻底清洗、煮熟他们自己的食物,就应该不会染上弓形虫。#39;If you practice good hygiene, you#39;ll be fine,#39; said Aaron Glatt, an infectious-disease specialist who is chief administrative officer at Mercy Medical Center in Rockville Centre, N.Y.纽约洛克维尔中心区(Rockville Centre)莫西医学中心(Mercy Medical Center)首席行政长、传染病学专家亚伦#12539;格拉特(Aaron Glatt)说:“如果你能践行良好的个人卫生习惯,就没有问题。”One possible health benefit of cat ownership: a #39;pet protective effect#39; against allergies and asthma, which has surfaced in some studies. Kids who grow up living with a cat appear #39;less likely to develop allergy#39; to the animals, which, like other allergies, can be a trigger for asthma, said Matthew S. Perzanowski, an associate professor at Columbia University#39;s Mailman School of Public Health.养猫可能带来的一个健康好处是:一种能够抵御过敏和哮喘的“宠物保护效应”,一些研究已经指出了这一效应。哥伦比亚大学梅尔曼公共卫生学院 (Columbia University#39;s Mailman School of Public Health)副教授马修#12539;S.帕札洛斯基(Matthew S. Perzanowski)说,那些和猫咪一起长大的孩子似乎“更不易对动物产生过敏”。动物跟其他过敏源一样,可能会引发哮喘。Humans can avoid other cat-related health problems by treating the animals properly to reduce the danger of attacks. For instance, if a cat shows signs of stress, such as putting its ears back, lashing its tail or crouching, people shouldn#39;t approach it and should make sure it doesn#39;t feel trapped, said Katie Lisnik, an official with the Humane Society of the ed States.通过正确对待猫咪来减少它们袭击的危险,人类能够避免其它与猫相关的健康问题。比如,美国人道协会(Humane Society of the ed States)官员凯蒂#12539;利斯尼克(Katie Lisnik)说,如果一只猫表现出遭受压力的迹象,如竖起耳朵向后折拢、摆动尾巴或蜷缩蹲伏,人们就不该接近它了,而且应该确保不要让它觉得自己陷入了困境。Indeed, Ida Lyke blames herself for the bite she got from her cat Sylvester. After she broke up his fight with another cat, Ms. Lyke, who lives in Claremont, Minn., and was also part of the Mayo study, tried to pick him up. He latched onto the bottom of her right hand. Ms. Lyke ended up in the hospital with a serious infection. Still, the 79-year-old kept Sylvester after the incident. #39;He was just a lovable kitty,#39; she said.的确如此,艾达#12539;莱克(Ida Lyke)就因为被自己的猫咪西尔维斯特(Sylvester)咬伤而感到自责。现居明尼苏达州克莱尔蒙特(Claremont)的莱克也曾参与梅奥诊所的那项研究。在莱克将打架斗殴的西尔维斯特与另外一只猫拉开以后,她试图将他抱起来,他却紧紧揪住了莱克的右手根部。莱克因而严重感染,最终不得不入院治疗。即便如此,这位79岁高龄的老人在此次事故之后还是养着这只猫。她说:“他只是一只招人怜爱的小猫咪。” /201403/278744

  There is scientific evidence to suggest that life can continue after death, according to the largest ever medical study carried out on the subject。A team based in the UK has spent the last four years seeking out cardiac arrest patients to analyse their experiences, and found that almost 40 per cent of survivors described having some form of “awareness” at a time when they were declared clinically dead。Experts currently believe that the brain shuts down within 20 to 30 seconds of the heart stopping beating – and that it is not possible to be aware of anything at all once that has happened。But scientists in the new study said they heard compelling evidence that patients experienced real events for up to three minutes after this had happened – and could recall them accurately once they had been resuscitated。Dr Sam Parnia, an assistant professor at the State University of New York and a former research fellow at the University of Southampton who led the research, said that he previously that patients who described near-death experiences were only relating hallucinatory events。One man, however, gave a “very credible” account of what was going on while doctors and nurses tried to bring him back to life – and says that he felt he was observing his resuscitation from the corner of the room。Speaking to The Telegraph about the evidence provided by a 57-year-old social worker Southampton, Dr Parnia said: “We know the brain can’t function when the heart has stopped beating。“But in this case, conscious awareness appears to have continued for up to three minutes。“The man described everything that had happened in the room, but importantly, he heard two bleeps from a machine that makes a noise at three minute intervals. So we could time how long the experienced lasted for。“He seemed very credible and everything that he said had happened to him had actually happened。”Dr Parnia’s study involved 2,060 patients from 15 hospitals in the UK, US and Austria, and has been published in the journal Resuscitation。Of those who survived, 46 per cent experienced a broad range of mental recollections, nine per cent had experiences compatible with traditional definitions of a near-death experience and two per cent exhibited full awareness with explicit recall of “seeing” and “hearing” events – or out-of-body experiences。Dr Parnia said that the findings of the study as a whole suggested that “the recalled experience surrounding death now merits further genuine investigation without prejudice”。Dr Jerry Nolan, editor-in-chief of the journal which published the research, said: “The researchers are to be congratulated on the completion of a fascinating study that will open the door to more extensive research into what happens when we die。”人们的灵魂真的会出窍吗?据英国《独立报》10月7日报道,由英国研究人员开展的一项医学研究表明,在人死亡(心脏停止跳动)之后,生命其实并未停止,“灵魂”还在活动。研究人员在过去四年里致力于对心脏骤停患者的经验进行分析。结果发现,有40%左右的幸存者描述称,他们被宣布临床死亡时存在某种形式的“意识”。研究还获得了令人信的据,明患者在心脏停止跳动后仍经历了长达两到三分钟的真实事件,且恢复知觉后患者能清楚回忆起发生过的事情。目前,专家认为大脑在心脏停止跳动后的20到30秒就会停止工作,这意味着死者不可能再意识到任何事物。此项研究涉及来自英国、美国和澳大利亚15家医院的2060名病人,研究成果发表在医学杂志《复苏》上。在幸存者当中,46%的人经历了广泛的精神记忆,9%的人的经历符合濒死体验的传统定义,另有2%的人表现出充分的意识,可清楚回忆出“所看”和“所听”到的事情,也被叫做“灵魂出窍”的体验。纽约州立大学助理教授萨姆·帕尔尼亚是此次研究的牵头人,他表示自己此前认为濒死经历只是些幻觉事件,但一名男性患者给出了“非常可信”的解释,他所述的一切确确实实发生过。。这名患者是57岁的社会工作者索桑普顿,他说,在医生和护士尽力抢救他的时候,他感觉他正在房间的某个角落在注视自己的知觉复苏过程。“我们知道,心脏停止跳动后大脑就无法运作。但这个案例中,患者的自觉意识似乎在心脏停止跳动后持续了3分钟。他描述了发生在病房的所有事情,更重要的是,他听到了一台机器的两次信号声,而该机器每隔三分钟响一次。因此我们可以推断意识持续的时间。”帕尔尼亚说。《复苏》杂志主编杰里·诺兰表示,这项研究为将来对这个主题更广泛的研究开启了一扇大门。 /201410/334730。


  The point of articles such as these isn#39;t to dictate how you#39;re supposed to live. The point is to offer you different perspectives to consider, so you can make more conscious and deliberate choices for yourself.文章里的这些观点并不是要指示你如何生活,而是提供不同的思路供你参考,从而使你自己做出更为深思熟虑的选择。1. Get to know your authentic self.认清真实的自己。Discover the real you. Don#39;t blindly accept the role you were conditioned by others to fill. You have your own path to follow. Be your own independent person. Don#39;t allow peer pressure to force you into an inauthentic role。发现真实的自己。不要盲目接受别人习惯施加给你的角色。你有自己的路去走。成为独立自主的个体。不要在压力的屈从下扮演不真实的自己。 /201402/277626Stop for a moment and ask yourself if there was ever a time (or times) you’ve arrogantly said or thought: “I’m too smart for this.” If you’re someone who always believed that you’re Mr. Smarty Pants, you may want to take a step back and contemplate. That kind of thinking can work against you in life and in work.停下来扪心自问:你有没有高傲地自认为“太聪明”?如果你向来自恃聪明,或许该认真反省了。这种心态对生活和工作非常不利。So while it’s difficult to face the truth, let’s entertain the possibility that you may not be as smart as you think you are. Read on and check if you have the following signs:面对现实并不容易——为什么说你没有自认为的那样聪明?或许以下就是原因。请往下读,看看你是否也有这些表现吧:1. You’re more of a talker than a listener你爱倾诉,不擅倾听And that’s putting it nicely.一语点中要害。You like the sound of your own voice, with or without you knowing it. People don’t come to you to talk about their problems or even celebrate their successes because you always end up talking about your own problems and successes.不管是否意识到,你都喜欢表达自己。跟你在一起,别人根本就无法倾诉烦恼或庆贺成功,因为你一直在滔滔不绝谈论自己的烦恼或成功。If this sounds like you, consciously decide to listen and focus on the what the person is saying the next time you’re in a conversation with someone. Don’t try to upstage them, just listen.如果你是这种人,那么下次跟人交谈时,请下意识学着倾听、去关注别人在讲什么吧。不要总是抢着说话,请倾听!2. You show off only the good stuff and make some up你只炫耀好的一面,还会编造一些You hide your true personality. You fake it. Big time. While it’s good to always be at your best when meeting important people, you take it to a whole other level: You lie so that people have a better impression of you.你隐藏自己的真实性格,常常戴着面具。虽然约见重要人物时,展现自己最好的一面也无可厚非,但你会因此得寸进尺:为了给人留下好印象,你不停撒谎。Smart people value truth and know better than to hide for the sake of looking good. Showing only your good side and adding some special effects will tire you in the long run.聪明的人看重真实,不会为了看上去优秀而伪装自己。炫耀自己好的一面并加以粉饰,长此以往只会让你疲惫不堪。3. You’re always in the middle of a storm你总处在风暴中心You always find yourself in the middle of conflict. And when you think back on it, you either caused that conflict or you added fuel to the flames.你总陷入矛盾焦点。仔细回想,你发现:要么是你引发了矛盾,要么是你煽了风点了火。Smart people, on the other hand, either don’t get involved when there’s nothing they can do or do their best to help end the conflict. Try to do the same.相反,如果无济于事,聪明的人会避免牵扯进去;如果可以帮助,他们会尽量平息矛盾。请学着点吧。4. You discourage people instead of lifting them up你不鼓励别人,反倒打击别人You discourage people, not just by saying so outright but also by not giving them the time of day. In a way, you’re telling them that their ideas or their problems are not worth your time or your (perceived) intelligence.你说话露骨,不给人留余地;你总打击别人。你说别人的想法或问题太弱智,根本不值得你动脑筋。Smart people help encourage others by actually paying attention. They listen (note the first sign) and share what they know. If big shots like Richard Branson and Adm. William McRaven, commander in the U.S. special forces, can take the time to answer letters from kids, you can spend a few minutes encouraging people.聪明的人会实实在在关心鼓励别人。他们倾听(见第1条)并分享自己的心得。像理查德-布兰森、美国特种部队指挥官威廉-麦克纳文这样的大人物都还费心回信给小朋友,你为何不能花几分钟鼓励他人呢?5. You prefer lowbrow entertainment你喜欢低俗You don’t challenge yourself with difficult subjects and are content to stick to entertaining yet hardly thought-provoking ing material. You also spend hours watching bad reality TV.你宁愿读那些毫无意义的东西,也不肯尝试了解稍有深度的领域。你老追着看糟糕透顶的电视真人秀。Real smart people thrive on ing books and watching films that spark their creativity and make them think and question. A few hours of intellectual ing could open up your horizons so give it a shot. You can start by listening to audiobooks if the thought of ing thick books is daunting to you.真正聪明的人选择能激发创造力、发人深省的书籍或电影。阅读有深度的书籍可以开阔眼界,请尝试一下吧!如果一想到大部头书籍就头疼,你可以先听听有声书。6. You’re always so busy你总是忙忙碌碌Your work life consists of you running around like a headless chicken. There always seems to be a problem that takes up most of your work day. You also find yourself doing all the work, all the time.你工作起来总像只没头苍蝇似的到处瞎忙。好像每天都有费神耗时的烂摊子要收拾,你无时无刻不在应付杂七杂八的任务。Learn how to delegate and ask for help. It’s a little arrogant of you to think that you can do everything for everyone. Make it a point to rest and spend time on things that matter in life, not just work.学着分配任务、寻求帮助吧。觉得自己能单匹马包揽所有活计?太高估自己了!别只忙于工作,也要会休息,花时间做点真正有意义的事情。You may have been praised a lot when you were a child, a teen, or a college student because of your high grades and other academic achievements. That’s great. Ego boosts now and then are healthy and needed. But strive for more than just accolades.当你还是个孩子或学生时,因为考了高分或学业喜人,常常受人称赞,确实很不错。现在自我膨胀了,渴望更大了,但决不能仅仅流连于夸赞之辞啊。If you truly want to be smart but find yourself guilty of the signs above, now’s the chance to make a change. Be a smarter, better version of you.如果你愧然发现自己也有以上表现,但你又真心希望变得聪明,那么,现在就抓住机会去改变吧。做更聪明、更美好的自己! /201311/265465


  For the past few years, Mary Lou Guerinot has been keeping watch over experimental fields in southeast Texas, monitoring rice plants as they suck metals and other troublesome elements from the soil.在过去这几年里,玛丽·洛伊·格里诺特(Mary Lou Guerinot)一直在监测得克萨斯东南部的试验田,了解大米作物从土壤里吸收金属和其他让人担心的元素的情况。If the fields are flooded in the traditional paddy method, she has found, the rice handily takes up arsenic. But if the water is reduced in an effort to limit arsenic, the plant instead absorbs cadmium — also a dangerous element.她发现,如果稻田使用的是传统的灌溉法,稻米会快速吸附砷。可如果为了控制砷而减少灌溉水源,稻米则会吸附镉——这同样是一种危险的元素。;It#39;s almost either-or, day-and-night as to whether we see arsenic or cadmium in the rice,; said Dr. Guerinot, a molecular geneticist and professor of biology at Dartmouth College.格里诺特士是达特茅斯学院(Dartmouth College)分子基因学家、生物学教授,她说:“对于我们在大米中是会测出砷还是镉,这简直成了道非此即彼的选择题。”The levels of arsenic and cadmium at the study site are not high enough to provoke alarm, she emphasized. Still, it is dawning on scientists like her that rice, one of the most widely consumed foods in the world, is also one of nature#39;s great scavengers of metallic compounds.她强调指出,在试验田里检出的砷或镉浓度,还不足以拉响警报。不过,这已经足以令像这样的科学家惊觉:作为全球最广泛消费的食物,大米同时还是自然界中最主要的金属化合物吸附体。Consumers have aly become alarmed over reports of rice-borne arsenic in everything from cereal bars to baby food. Some food manufacturers have stepped up screening for arsenic in their products, and agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration now recommend that people eat a variety of grains to ;minimize potential adverse health consequences from eating an excess of any one food.;已经有很多报告指出,从麦片棒到婴儿食品的各类大米制品中检出了砷,这令消费者已经产生了警惕。一些食品加工企业已开始主动筛查产品砷含量,而像美国食品药品监督局(Food and Drug Administration)这类机构现在建议人们要确保所吃的谷物品种多样化,好“将过量食用单一食品导致的潜在负面健康影响最小化”。But it#39;s not just arsenic and cadmium, which are present in soil both as naturally occurring elements and as industrial byproducts. Recent studies have shown that rice is custom-built to pull a number of metals from the soil, among them mercury and even tungsten. The findings have led to a new push by scientists and growers to make the grain less susceptible to metal contamination.但令人忧心的还不仅仅是砷和镉,这两种物质既可能作为天然产生的元素出现在土壤中,也可能是工业副产品。近期的一些研究显示,稻米拥有从土壤中积蓄所有金属的能力,当中包括了汞甚至钨。这些发现促使科学家和种植者们采取新一轮行动,努力培育对金属污染不那么敏感的谷物。The highest levels often occur in brown rice, because elements like arsenic accumulate in bran and husk, which are polished off in the processing of white rice. The Department of Agriculture estimates that on average arsenic levels are 10 times as high in rice bran as in polished rice.糙米所含的重金属含量往往最高,这是因为像砷这类元素是在米糠和稻壳中积蓄,在白米的精加工过程中会被碾压脱除。美国农业部预测,平均来说米糠中所含的砷含量可高达大米的10倍。Although these are mostly tiny amounts — in the part per billion range — chronic exposure to arsenic, even at very low levels, can affect health. The F.D.A. is now considering whether a safety level should be set for arsenic in rice.尽管大米中含有的剂量通常极其微小——浓度单位是以1公斤中含有1微克计——但长期暴露于砷元素中仍然可影响健康,哪怕浓度很低。食品和药品监督局现在正考虑是否要对大米中的砷含量设定一个安全上限。;Rice is a problem because it#39;s such a widely consumed grain,; said Rufus Chaney, a senior research agronomist with the U.S.D.A.#39;s Agricultural Research Service, who is leading a investigation of metal uptake by food crops. ;But it#39;s also a fascinating plant.;“大米会带来问题,因为这是一种广泛食用的谷物,”美国农业部农业研究务方面的资深农学家鲁弗斯·查尼(Rufus Chaney)是一个农业作物金属积蓄调查项目的领导人。他说:“但它同时又是种十分吸引人的作物。”Like people, plants have systems for taking up and absorbing necessary nutrients. In plants, these ;transporter; systems work to pull minerals such as iron, calcium, zinc and manganese from the soil.跟人类一样,植物也拥有占据并吸收必需营养物质的系统。在植物中,这类“运输”系统可用来从土壤中吸收铁、钙、锌和锰这类矿物质。The rice plant has a well-designed system for taking up silicon compounds, or silicate, which help strengthen the plant and give stiffness and shape to its stems. Tissues generally referred to as phloem move such water-soluble nutrients throughout the plant.稻谷作物有一套巧妙的系统,可以吸收硅化合物,或称硅酸盐,以此来帮助植株健壮,茎杆强韧。茎皮部将水溶营养物质推运到植株各部分,用来保各个组织营养供应。But that delivery system also inclines the plant to vacuum up arsenic compounds, which are unfortunately similar in structure to silicate. And the traditional methods of growing rice, which often involve flooding a field, encourage formation of a soluble arsenic compound, arsenite, that is ily transported by the rice plant.糟糕的是,砷化合物的结构与硅盐相似,因此这种传输系统也使得水稻易于吸附砷化合物。同时,以传统方法种植水稻,往往需要灌溉整片农田,这种方式更容易产生水解砷化合物亚砷酸盐,并在水稻植株中传输。;The issue with the rice plant is that it tends to store the arsenic in the grain, rather than in the leaves or elsewhere,; said Jody Banks, a plant biologist at Purdue University, who studies arsenic uptake in plants. ;It moves there quite easily.;“水稻作物的问题在于,它往往会在稻米,而非叶片或其他部位积聚砷,”普度大学(Purdue University)植物生物学家乔迪·班克斯(Jody Banks)研究的领域是植物中的砷积聚,她说:“而且吸附的速度极快。”The highest concentrations of arsenic in rice-growing regions are mostly found in parts of Asia — including Bangladesh and India — where the underlying arsenic-rich bedrock contaminates groundwater used for both drinking and irrigation of rice fields.在产大米区,检出砷浓度最高的区域为亚洲部分地区——包括孟加拉和印度——这些地区陆壳下层的基岩富含砷,会污染地下水,而这些水源既用于饮用,又用于稻田灌溉。But arsenic at lower levels is found in all soils, including American fields. The fertile soils fanning out across the Mississippi River floodplain are up to five times as high in arsenic as other parts of Louisiana, Mississippi and Arkansas, according to studies done by the ed States Geological Survey.不过,较低浓度的砷已在世界各国,包括美国的土壤中检出。据美国地质调查局(ed States Geological Survey)的研究,密西西比河泛滥平原冲刷的肥沃土壤,其砷含量可高达路易斯安那、密西西比和阿肯色州其他地区的五倍。It#39;s for that reason, as well as for water conservation, that scientists have experimented with reducing the amount of water used for rice fields. But as Dr. Guerinot has found, that makes cadmium more available to the plant instead.正是基于此,同时考虑到保护水资源,科学家们曾尝试过减少稻田灌溉水量。但正如格里诺特士所发现的那样,这种作法又会使得水稻吸附过量的镉。Other plants also take up cadmium, Dr. Chaney noted, usually by the channels normally used to acquire zinc from the soil. But the rice plant, curiously, absorbs nearly all of its cadmium through a manganese transport system. And this route — discovered by a determined group of Japanese researchers — brings a new set of complications.查尼士指出,其他植物也会吸收镉,通常采用的是从土壤中吸收锌的那些管道。但有趣的是,稻米作物则是经由吸收锰的管道来吸附几乎所有镉。而这条管道——它是由一群坚韧的日本研究人员发现的——则会带来一系列新问题。While zinc is relatively common in soil, soluble manganese is less ily found. So cadmium has little competition in the rice plant#39;s transport system — meaning that it is accumulated with apparent enthusiasm.锌在土壤中相对常见,可溶性的锰则较少被人发现。因此在稻米作物的输送系统中,镉几乎碰不到任何竞争对手——这意味着,它会十分带劲地储存这种金属。The association between cadmium in rice and human disease goes back decades. Most scientists cite the identification of itai-itai (ouch-ouch) disease in Japan during the 1960s as the first recognition of this problem. The name comes from the painful effects of bone fractures, one of many health problems related to cadmium exposure.大米中的镉和人类疾病之间的联系,可追溯到几十年前。大部分科学家援引20世纪60年代日本出现的“痛痛病”(itai-itai disease),相信这是可确认的最早病例。人体接触镉会出现大量病征,其中一项是骨折,该病名就源于骨折带来的痛苦。Researchers eventually discovered that cadmium pollution from mines and other industry had sp into rice farming areas in Japan, causing the grain to be loaded with the toxic metal. A host of similar problems have occurred in China, setting off an uproar over tainted rice last year.研究人员后来发现,是矿井和其他工业带来的镉污染扩散到了稻田中,导致大米吸附了大量有毒金属。类似的问题也曾在中国出现,引发了去年民众对毒大米的抗议。Scientists say that the cadmium occurring naturally in American soil is not high enough to cause acute disease. Still, because rice is such an important food crop, scientists are searching for ways to block its metal-acquiring tendencies.科学家表示,在美国土壤中自然存在的镉浓度不足以引发急性疾病。但是,由于大米作为粮食作物的意义实在太重要了,科研人员一直在想办法阻断它吸附金属的趋向。There are efforts to breed rice plants that transfer more zinc and iron into the grain, which would both increase nutritional quality and reduce toxicity. There are also programs, including the experiment in Texas, that try to breed improved rice cultivars less prone to absorb toxic minerals.研究人员已经尝试培育将更多锌和铁输送到大米中的稻米品种,这既能提高作物营养水平,又可降低毒性。此外目前还有其他项目正在进行,包括德克萨斯州的一项试验,目标是培育不易吸收有毒矿物质的稻米品系。And researchers have explored the idea of genetic engineering to make the plant#39;s transport systems more precise so that cadmium or arsenic is filtered out.同时,研究人员还在尝试转基因技术,通过精确设计稻米作物的传输系统来阻断镉或砷。Finally, they are looking into using other plants to reduce the toxic elements in the soils themselves, a process called phytoextraction. Dr. Banks, for instance, is studying a fern that deftly pulls arsenic from the soil and stores it in the fronds.最终,他们在设法通过其他植物来减少土壤中的有毒成份,这个过程称为植物提取。比方说,班克班士正在研究用一种蕨类植物巧妙地吸附土壤中的砷,并储存在其叶片中。The plant, known as a Chinese brake or ladder fern, is so talented in this regard that the Chinese have approached American scientists about the feasibility of using it to clean up contaminated soils. Of course the ferns eventually have to be incinerated or taken to a toxic disposal site.这种植物称为蜈蚣草,又名肾蕨,因为它在吸收重金属方面十分出色,中国的科研人员接触到美方研究人员,讨论用它来治理污染土壤的可行性。当然了,这种蕨类最终需要焚毁或者送往专门的有害废物处理中心。;You definitely wouldn#39;t want to eat them,; said Dr. Banks.“你绝对不能吃它,”班克斯说。 /201409/326658



  Starting off a vacay with a flight delay or cancellation can turn things upside down — especially if you have limited time to visit with family and friends over the holidays. Instead of freaking out, here#39;s how to handle the situation.假期开始时遇到航班延误或取消会让心情很糟——特别是如果你在假日里只有有限的时间和家人、朋友见面。别抓狂,下面是处理这种情况的办法。Check in early! Make sure to check in online or via phone at least 24 hours ahead of time. Sure, that doesn#39;t mean things are always going to be perfect, but if you have aly checked in before arriving at the airport, then all your flight information is secure, and your seat is confirmed.尽早确认!确保至少提前24小时在网上或用电话确认信息。当然,这并不意味事情会一直很顺利,但如果你在到机场前已经确认过,那你所有的航班信息就不会有问题,你的座位也会被保留。Plan for it: While you#39;re packing your carry-on, prep for delays, and make sure to include your phone charger, a good book, a small bag of toiletries, and even fresh undergarments. You can also pack a few of your favorite snacks. That way, if there actually is a delay, you#39;re aly mentally prepped — and well fed.做好航班延误的准备:当你打包随身行李时,也做好延机的准备,并确保带了手机充电器、一本好书、一小袋洗漱品,甚至干净的内衣。你也可以备些喜欢的零食。这样的话,如果飞机真的误点,你已经有了心理准备——也能把自己喂饱。Take a deep breath: Getting news that your flight won#39;t be leaving for another six hours can feel like being dumped over the phone by your eighth-grade boyfriend. Take a deep breath, and compose yourself before taking action. These things happen, and there#39;s not much you can do about it. It#39;s best to focus on staying calm, even if you#39;re totally freaking out.深呼吸:知道还要再等6小时飞机才会起飞时,感觉像是在电话里被青梅竹马的男朋友甩了一样。深吸一口气,采取行动前先想清楚。事情已经发生,你也做不了什么。即使你已完全失控,也最好要尽力冷静下来。Make the call: When you find out there#39;s a delay or cancellation, instead of waiting in line and getting more frustrated, call your airline directly to check on alternate flights. Keep the number handy, so you are first on the line if things get chaotic. Just having the opportunity to talk things out sometimes makes everything better.打电话:当你发现航班误点或取消,不要在队伍里等着,让情绪越来越低落,而是直接打电话给航空公司看有没有别的航班。把电话留着,这样事态混乱时你就是第一个打进电话的人。有时只是有机会把事情讲出来就能让一切变得更好。Provide all information: The gate attendant is there to help, so taking your frustration out on her isn#39;t going to make things better. Give her any information that may help you get on another flight. If an alternate airport is close to your final destination, if you are willing to take ground transport, or if you have any pressing medical conditions, then now is the time to share. Once you#39;re done, walk away, and call a good friend to complain her ear off.提供所有信息:登机口的务员是提供帮助的,所以把你的不满发泄在她身上不会让事情有转机。告诉她任何可以帮助你登上其他航班的信息。如果降落的那个机场接近你的最终目的地,如果你愿意地面运输行李,或者如果你有任何紧急身体状况,那么现在是时候说出来了。一旦你提供好了信息就离开吧,打电话给好友狠狠抱怨下。Laugh: That#39;s right: laugh. Being stuck in an airport is no fun, but having a little levity about the situation makes things a bit easier to deal with. It#39;s much more enjoyable to have a positive attitude, and sitting and sulking isn#39;t going to get you out of there any faster. Who knows what might come form being stuck in the airport? You might make a new friend or actually have the chance to that book everyone#39;s been talking about.笑:对的,就是要笑。被困机场并不有趣,但是轻松面对境况会让事情更容易处理。呆坐着生闷气不会让你更快脱离困境,态度积极会更好些。谁知道自己会被困在机场呢?你可能会认识新朋友或有机会读那本每个人都在谈论的热门书籍。 /201312/270520


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