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原标题: 襄阳第四医院男科挂号飞管家快咨询
When a customer checks into a flight with ed Airlines UAL -0.30% , there is typically an array of potential add-on offers to navigate through: flight upgrades, access to the airline’s ed Club, and more.旅客搭乘美国联合航空公司(ed Airlines,简称“美联航”)的班机时,通常还会涉及一连串潜在的附加务,比如升舱、是否有权进入贵宾室等等。Under ed’s old “collect and analyze” approach to data, the airline would use information about customers’ choices about those items, in aggregated fashion to “see what the most successful products were, and market with those [insights] in mind,” said Scott Wilson, the company’s vice president of e-commerce and merchandising.美联航电子商务与经营副总裁斯科特o威尔森介绍说,按照公司过去采用的“收集与分析”数据法,美联航会把旅客选择这些务的信息汇总到一起,来看“什么才是最成功的产品,然后据此进行营销。”That approach has changed. As of the beginning of this year, “collect, detect, act” is ed’s new data-focused mantra, and it’s changing the way the airline serves its customers.现在,这种方法已经发生了变化。自从今年年初起,美联航已经把“收集、探测、行动”定为新的数据收集三步曲,同时还在革新务旅客的方式。“Now we look at who the customer is and his or her propensity to buy certain products,” Wilson explained. More than 150 variables about that customer—prior purchases and previous destinations among them—are now assessed in real time to determine an individual’s likely actions, rather than an aggregated group of customers.威尔森介绍说:“现在我们会研究旅客是谁,以及他是否有购买我们某种产品的倾向。”现在美联航为了实时评估一名旅客的可能动向,会加入150多个影响旅客消费的变量,以及旅客之前的旅行目的地进行计算,而不再只是把大量旅客数据汇总到一起。The result, delivered in about 200 milliseconds later, is a dynamically generated offer tailored to the individual. Its terms, on-screen layout, copy, and other elements will vary based on an individual’s collected data. For ed, the refined approach led to an increase in year-over-year ancillary revenue of more than 15 percent, he said.计算结果大概在200毫秒后就会得出,可以说它是根据一名旅客的实际情况量身打造并动态生成的务建议。另外,它的务条款、页面布局、拷贝和其它因素也会根据旅客的具体信息而有所不同。采用新的收据分析法后,联合航空的副业收入年增率超过了15%。‘Airlines evolved big data’“航空业催化大数据”Welcome to the big data era in the airline industry, which in many ways was one of its earliest participants.欢迎来到航空业的大数据时代。从很多方面来看,航空业都是大数据最早的参与者之一。“Airlines are awash in data, much of it unstructured,” said Bob Mann, an industry analyst with R.W. Mann amp; Co. But only recently have airlines been able to use big-data techniques “to solve, among other objectives, how to recognize and enhance customer value, and how to cultivate high-value customers,” he said.R.W. Mann amp; Co公司的行业分析师鲍伯o曼恩指出:“航空业是一个浸泡在数据中的行业,其中有大量数据是无组织的。直到最近,各大航空公司才能依靠大数据技术来“解决如何识别和提高旅客价值以及如何培养高价值的旅客等问题。”“Airlines have always been very good at collecting data, but they haven’t always been good at using it,” ed’s Wilson said. Now that the costs of storing and processing data have dropped—even as airlines collect more and more of it—it’s becoming easier for a company to act on it. At ed, roughly a terabyte of customer data is floating around at any given time within its systems. “We don’t keep it all,” Wilson said. “We have to be selective about what we grab.” For the data that is selected, a real-time decision engine does the crunching to turn it into something useful.美联航的威尔森指出:“航空业一直在收集数据上做得很好,但他们在利用数据上却并不是一直都很擅长。”现在尽管各大航空公司收集的数据越来越多,但存储和处理数据的成本却已经显著下降,因此也降低了航空公司运用数据的难度。联合航空公司的系统中无论任何时候都在处理着1兆兆字节左右的数据。威尔森说:“我们不会保存所有数据,我们必须有选择性地攫取有用的数据。”对于被选中的数据来说,会有一个实时决策引擎负责相关的处理工作,将它们变成有用的信息。It starts at the baggage carousel从行李传送带开始One area in which the effects of big data technology are visible is in the handling of customers’ luggage. “We have over a number of years invested millions of dollars in baggage tracking,” said Paul Skrbec, a spokesman with Delta Air Lines. “That was one of those core, behind-the-scenes services for our customers.”大家可以在处理旅客行李方面清楚地看到大数据技术的效用。达美航空(Delta Air Lines)发言人保罗o斯科贝克说:“我们花费了好几年的努力,在行李跟踪上投入了数百万美元的资金。它是我们为旅客提供的核心幕后务之一。”Millions of bags are checked each year with Delta DAL -0.33% —a total of 130 million are projected for 2014, Skrbec said—and “every customer has had the experience of boarding a plane after checking their bag and wondering if it was there.”达美航空每年都要处理成百上千万件行李。斯科贝克表示,2014年,达美航空预计总共将处理1.3亿件行李,而且,“每名旅客都有托运完行李上了飞机之后,担心行李是否会丢失的经历。”Through the use of hand-held baggage scanners used at passenger check-in, “we’ve had all this tracking data available,” Skrbec said. But “one of the things we realized about two years ago is that customers would benefit from having that information.”斯科贝克表示,通过在值机时使用手持式行李扫描仪,“我们可以获取所有的追踪数据。但是两年前我们意识到一个问题,那就是旅客也可以通过这些信息获得好处。”Which is why Delta was the first major airline to launch an application allowing customers to track their bags from their mobile devices, he said. Spanning the iOS, Google Android, BlackBerry and Windows Phone mobile operating systems, the free app has been downloaded more than 11 million times.因此,达美航空率先推出了一款移动应用,让旅客可以在自己的移动设备上追踪自己的行李。这款应用在iOS、安卓、黑莓、WP平台上均可下载,目前总下载量已经超过1100万次。In search of new revenue streams寻找新的收入流It’s a similar story at Southwest Airlines LUV 1.54% , which is using big data to determine which new customer services to implement.美国西南航空公司(Southwest Airlines)也在利用大数据技术来决定应该部署哪些新的旅务。“Southwest uses aggregated, anonymous customer data to promote products, services, and featured offers to customers on multiple channels, devices, and websites including Southwest.com,” said Dan Landson, a company spokesman. “By observing and looking into customer behaviors and actions online, we are better suited to offer our travelers the best rates and experiences possible. We also use this data to support the evolving relationships with our customers.”西南航空发言人丹o兰德森说:“西南航空利用汇总的匿名用户数据,通过多个渠道、多个设备以及包括公司官网Southwest.com在内的多个网站,向顾客推广产品、务以及各种个性化务。通过观察和研究旅客在互联网上的行为和活动,我们能更好地向旅客提供最优惠的机票和最好的旅行体验。同时我们也利用这些数据来进一步改善我们与旅客的关系。”For example, “we look at the city pairs that are being searched to help us determine what type of service we should have on a specific route,” Landson said.比如兰德森说:“通过研究旅客在网上搜索的直飞城市,可以帮助我们决定在某一特定航线上应该推出哪种务。”The payoff? “Our customer and loyalty segments grow year-over-year,” Landson said. “We believe that intelligent, data-based targeting has a lot to do with that growth.”这样做的成效如何呢?兰德森称:“我们的旅客人数和忠诚度都在逐年增加。我们认为,这种智能化的、基于数据的定位方法对公司的增长起了很大的促进作用。”‘ million per week’“每周100万美元”The benefits of a data-focused approach may be easy to understand, but execution is another matter entirely. For most airlines, the first problem lies in “bringing together all sorts of disparate silos of passenger information—booking information from transaction systems, web and mobile behavior (including searches, visits, abandoned carts), email data, customer service info, etc.—to create a single, consolidated view of the customer,” said Allyson Pelletier, vice president of marketing with Boxever, which offers a marketing platform focused on putting big data to work for the travel industry.以数据为中心的经营方式听起来似乎很好理解,但执行起来就全然是另一回事了。差旅业大数据营销平台Boxever公司的营销副总裁艾莉森o佩列蒂耶指出,对于大多数航空公司来说,第一个拦路虎就是“如何把各类孤立的乘客信息整合到一起——比如交易系统中的订票信息、网络和移动行为(包括搜索、访问、退订)、电子邮件数据、信息等等——以建立一个统一的顾客视角。”“Armed with this information, and the resulting insights, they can then take specific action that helps them convert more visitors on-site, secure more revenue, or increase loyalty across any channel,” Pelletier said.佩列蒂耶说:“有了这些信息和根据这些信息得出的见解,各大航空公司就可以采取相应的行动,帮助他们将更多消费者转化成自己的顾客,获得更多收益,提高一切渠道上的顾客忠诚度。”At Norwegian airline Wideroe, for example, a single customer view “enables agents in the call center to understand the full history of the customer—not just the customer service history, but also their recent visits to the website or promotional emails they’ve opened,” she explained. “After they solve the customer service issue at hand, they’re in a powerful position to then recommend the most appropriate ancillary service—driving add-on revenue—or offer a complimentary upgrade, thereby driving loyalty.”佩列蒂耶解释道,以挪威的威德罗航空公司(Wideroe)为例,一个统一的顾客视角“可以让呼叫中心的销售代表了解顾客的全部活动记录,而不仅仅是客户务历史。也就是说,销售代表还能了解顾客最近是否曾访问过公司官网,或者是否曾经打开过公司的营销邮件。因此,在解决完手头上的客户务问题后,他们处在一个非常有利的位置来推销最适合该顾客的附加务,这样一来就可以创造额外收入。或者他也可以根据手头上的信息向旅客提供免费升舱,这样一来也可以提高客户忠诚度。”Insights garnered from a single customer view can also drive personalized messaging into various communications channels, and email is a popular starting place, Pelletier noted.佩列蒂耶指出,航空公司通过统一顾客视角获得的见解也可以转化成务信息,通过各种通讯渠道传递给旅客,而电子邮件正是一个非常热门的出发点。“One of our largest clients in Europe uses Boxever to understand abandoned carts and then trigger personalized emails to the abandoners,” she said. “They reported back subsequent bookings of million per week from these communications.”佩列蒂耶说:“我们在欧洲有一个最大的客户,它利用Boxever平台来了解机票的退订情况,然后向退订者发送电子邮件。据这个客户反映,在发送了这些邮件之后,有很多退订的人随后又重新在他们那里订购了机票,由此每周都为它多创造了100万美元的收入。”Boxever also cites a 21 percent reduction in customer-acquisition costs on paid media “by understanding who the customer was, where they came from and whether or not they were aly a customer,” said Dave O’Flanagan, the company’s chief executive. “This way they could start to move those customers away from expensive acquisition channels to retention channels, like email, which is much cheaper.” There is also potential for a 17 percent uplift in conversion on ancillary cross-sells, such as adding hotel or car to a booking, he added.Boxever公司首席执行官戴夫o奥o弗拉纳根还称:“由于了解了顾客是谁,来自哪里,他们是否已经是自己的顾客”,有些航空公司花在付费媒体上的获取顾客成本降低了21%。“通过这种方式,航空公司可以把这些顾客从昂贵的顾客获取渠道转移到成本低得多的电子邮件等顾客保留渠道上。”另外弗拉纳根还表示,各大航空公司通过附带的交叉销售(比如酒店、租车等),这方面的收益还有提高17%的潜力。‘Few companies are really leveraging big data’“只有极少的公司真正利用了大数据”Exciting though those benefits may be, there’s an even bigger pool of potential payoffs remaining untouched. “Surprisingly few [airline] companies are really leveraging big data today,” O’Flanagan said.不过弗拉纳根还指出,虽然大数据的这些好处令人兴奋,但是大数据的更多潜能仍然没有得到挖掘。“令人惊讶的是,目前只有极少的航空公司真正利用了大数据。”Indeed, “I’ve not seen a single major airline with an integrated ‘big data’ business solution, nor an airline with a plan to integrate such a program,” said Richard Eastman, founder and president of The Eastman Group, which builds travel software.差旅软件公司Eastman集团创始人兼董事长理查德o伊斯曼也认同这个观点。他说:“我还没见过任何一家主流航空公司出台了完整成的‘大数据’业务解决方案,也没有任何一家航空公司有整合这样一个方案的计划。”That depends on how one defines big data, however. “The airlines will tell you they ‘have it all’ without really knowing or understanding what ‘big data’ really is,” Eastman said. “Airline managements remain so focused on selling seats with their existing inventory systems that they have ignored buyer information needs as well as the tools that would enable them to reach out to buyers and travelers to serve those needs—let alone, reach buyers at decision-making moments.”不过这还得取决于一家公司怎样定义“大数据”。伊斯曼说:“不少航空公司可能会告诉你,他们‘该有的都有了’,但事实上他们并不了解‘大数据’究竟是什么。各大航空公司的管理层仍然非常重视通过现有的库存管理系统销售机票,因此可能忽视了消费者的需求信息,以及那些能够帮助他们满足消费者与旅客需求的工具,更不用说在决策层面去接近消费者了。”Marketing, flight operations and crew operations are all areas of rich opportunity, O’Flanagan said.弗拉纳根表示,营销、航班操作与机组人员操作等领域也蕴含着大数据的大量机会。“I think there’s still a huge unmet need in the marketing and customer experience area,” he said. “Companies like Google are trying to be the ultimate assistant with technologies like Google Now. I think there’s a huge opportunity for airlines to create a helpful travel assistant that knows what I need before I do by combining data with mobile—helping people through airports, in-destination, right throughout the whole travel journey.他说:“我认为,在营销和旅客体验等领域,仍然有大量的需求没有得到满足。像谷歌(Google)等公司正在通过Google Now等工具,试图成为航空业的终极助手。我认为如果航空公司构建一个有用的差旅助手,通过将数据与移动整合到一起,能够提前知道我的需求的话,这对航空公司来说将是一个巨大的机会。另外,它也能在从出发地到目的地的整段旅程为人们提供帮助。”“Imagine a travel application that knows where I am, that I’m traveling with my family and that the weather is bad on our beach holiday. It could start to offer alternative itineraries close by that are family-friendly and not weather-dependent. These are truly valuable things an airline could do for me if they could use big data effectively and join the dots between me, my travel experience and environmental factors affecting that.”“想象一下,如果有这样一款旅行应用,能够知道我在哪,知道我要和家人一起旅游,知道我们要去的海滨城市正好天气很糟糕,而且它可以为我们提供一个替代行程,既适合全家人旅游,又不那么依赖于天气。一家航空公司如果能够有效利用大数据,考虑到我的旅行体验和环境因素,替我把所有的点连在一起,那么它对我来说的确会非常有价值。” /201406/307773President Obama has signed off on the nomination of Vice Adm. Michael S. Rogers to lead the embattled National Security Agency and the Pentagon’s cyberwarfare organization, according to sources familiar with the decision.In an unusual move, Obama himself interviewed Rogers last week, in a reflection of the job’s high profile at a time when the NSA has drawn fire for the scope of its surveillance practices.White House spokeswoman Caitlin Hayden declined to comment, but people familiar with the matter said an announcement is expected soon.Rogers, a Navy cryptologist, had long been seen as the frontrunner to succeed Gen. Keith Alexander, who has been NSA director since 2005. Alexander, who will retire March 14, is the longest-serving NSA head. He is also the first commander of U.S. Cyber Command, which launched in 2009.Rogers, whose Navy career spans more than 30 years, is “uniquely qualified” to take on the job, said Terry Roberts, a former Naval intelligence official who worked with Rogers when he served as a special assistant to the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) and JCS director of intelligence. She cited his background in intelligence and his experience heading Fleet Cyber Command, the Navy’s cyber unit that also works for U.S. Cyber Command.据美国《华盛顿邮报》1月26日报道,知情人士透露,美国总统奥巴马已经签署文件,准备提名密码专家、海军中将迈克尔?S?罗杰斯担任备受争议的美国国家安全局(NSA)局长。罗杰斯是美国海军密码专家,军衔中将。罗杰斯在海军有30年的经验,曾主管舰队网络司令部,熟悉信号情报和网络攻击,也对军用、民用情报需求了如指掌。另外,罗杰斯还长期给军、政两界高级官员提供简报,参与过网络攻击、防御的决策工作。不过,NSA日前被指违反监控、隐私相关法律,甚至违宪,无疑给罗杰斯带来新的挑战。考虑到NSA的“知名度”,奥巴马上周罕见地亲自面试罗杰斯。白宫发言人凯特林?海登拒绝发表。知情人士称,美国很快将就提名一事发布官方声明。前美国海军情报官员特丽?罗伯茨盛赞亚历山大,说他是“那种拥抱挑战,能够在数字时代带领NSA在安全、隐私和自由方面达到理想平衡的领袖人物”。Alexander, who supported Rogers as his successor, has long argued that Cyber Command and the NSA need to be under one leader and closely linked because the military cyber mission depends heavily on the NSA’s networks and capabilities.Some military cyber personnel say that Cyber Command will never fully mature as an organization unless the leadership roles are split.In a 2012 interview, Rogers told The Washington Post that he was comfortable with the current “dual-hat” arrangement. “I think it is a sound one,” he said.He said that fostering a “culture of accountability and responsibility” was one of his goals as Fleet Cyber commander. “We need to make sure that commanders understand cyber is a core facet of operations and warfare of the 21st century,” he said, adding that “it is not a silver bullet. It is not going to replace other capabilities.”基思?亚历山大2005年起担任NSA局长,即将于3月14日退休,是NSA历史上任职时间最长的局长。亚历山大还是2009年设立的五角大楼美国网络司令部的首任司令。罗杰斯出任NSA局长后,也会同时担任网络司令部主管。此前,包括美国国家情报总监詹姆斯?R?克拉珀在内的多名官员呼吁让两者“分家”。不过,在亚历山大的持下,奥巴马上个月否决这个提议,沿用旧制。另外,NSA成立62年来一直由军人担任局长,奥巴马此番提名罗杰斯,也沿袭了这个传统。亚历山大持罗杰斯接替自己,他一直坚称网络司令部和NSA必须由同一人领导,并且和军方网络项目保持紧密联系。也有军方情报人员认为,如果不“分家”,网络司令部将永远无法成为成熟的组织。 /201402/274788

The developers in the audience at WWDC may have missed the significance of the attention Apple AAPL 1.41% paid Monday to Spotlight — the little magnifying glass on the top right hand corner of the Mac’s home screen — but Ad Age didn’t.周一召开的苹果全球开发者大会(WWDC)上,开发者们可能忽略了苹果对于Spotlight的重视程度,但行业资讯网站广告时代Ad Age却注意到了这一点。Spotlight是Mac电脑主屏幕右上角的一个小放大镜图标。When it was released in 2005, Spotlight was simply a quick and convenient way to search the contents of your local hard drive — to locate a document, say, or a lost e-mail. It’s been quietly gathering power with each new iteration: doubling as a calculator or a dictionary and offering Boolean (and/or) searches.苹果2005年就推出了Spotlight,最初只是一种搜索本地硬盘内容的便捷方式——比如查找文件或丢失的邮件等。而它每一次改版,都伴随着功能的不断增强:如今的Spotlight既可用作计算器或词典,也可提供布尔(和/或)搜索。But in OS X Yosemite, the new Mac operating system unveiled Monday, Spotlight comes front and center — literally. When you tap on the magnifying glass, a search window pops up in the middle of the screen. And when you type a few characters, it doesn’t just search your local computer, it searches the Internet as well, delivering maps, Wikipedia articles and Web results stripped of their ads. Repeat: Stripped of their ads.而在周一发布的最新Mac操作系统OS X Yosemite中,Spotlight被推到了台前的中心位置——至少从形式上看确实是这样。点击放大镜后,屏幕中央会弹出一个搜索窗口。输入文字之后,Spotlight不仅会搜索本地计算机,还会进行互联网搜索,提供地图、维基百科(Wikipedia)文章和去除广告后的网页搜索结果。注意:是去除广告后的搜索结果。Microsoft MSFT -1.23% is delighted that Apple is using its Bing service to search the Web. “Last year Bing became the default web search for Siri, and will now also be the default web search provider in the redesigned Spotlight search feature for the next generation of iOS and OS X,” a Microsoft spokesperson told Ad Age. “We’re excited about extending the Bing platform to help iOS and Mac customers find what they need to get things done.”微软(Microsoft)很高兴看到苹果利用必应(Bing)提供网页搜索务。一位微软发言人告诉Ad Age:“去年,必应成为语音助手Siri的默认网页搜索引擎;而在新一代iOS与OS X中,必应将作为改版后的Spotlight搜索务的默认网页搜索务提供商。能够扩展必应平台,帮助iOS与Mac用户查找他们需要的信息,我们感到非常兴奋。”Google GOOG -1.62% will not be so happy. Advertising — especially U.S. search advertising — pays for nearly everything Google does, from building driverless cars to wiring whole cities with fiber optics. According to eMarketer estimates, Google took in 70.8% of the .92 billion spent on U.S. search advertising last year.但谷歌(Google)恐怕不会开心。从设计无人驾驶汽车,到建设光纤城市,谷歌每一个项目的资金,几乎都来自广告业务,尤其是美国搜索广告业务。据市场调查公司eMarketer估计,美国去年的搜索引擎广告开为199.2亿美元,其中约70.8%被谷歌收入囊中。If Apple hopes to disrupt Google by giving the information away for free, it’s got its work cut out for it. As Ad Age poins out:苹果如果希望通过免费提供信息来扰乱谷歌的运营,那它还有很长一段路要走。正如Ad Age指出:“Apple’s search tool shows only a few results per query, meaning a lot less real estate for results. That means Apple would have to prove that its small number of results are accurate enough to fulfill someone’s query. Good-enough search has never been enough to unseat or take share from Google.”“苹果搜索工具每次查询只显示很少的几个结果。。这意味着,苹果必须明,它寥寥可数的搜索结果就已经足够准确,可以满足用户的查询需求。一款搜索引擎如果只是足够好,那它不足以撼动谷歌的地位,也不足以抢占谷歌的份额。” /201406/303473

Working out at the gym might not be enough to stay fit if you spend much of the rest of the day sitting down.如果一天到晚老是坐着,光靠在健身房里做做运动,恐怕是难以保持良好体型的。Americans are more sedentary than ever, government surveys show. That is a problem even among people who exercise regularly.利用日常活动充分运动官方调查显示,美国人久坐不动的情况比以往更加普遍。哪怕是经常锻炼的人,也存在着这样的问题。An increasingly popular way people are trying to coax more exercise into their lives is by tracking their movements using a bevy of small electronic devices from companies like Fitbit Inc., Jawbone and Nike. Some devices are pedometers, tracking steps. More sophisticated gadgets, known as accelerometers, measure the rate at which a person moves and convert this into calories expended.现在越来越流行的一种做法是,用Fitbit Inc.、Jawbone、耐克(Nike)等公司出产的一些小型电子设备跟踪记录自己的运动量,以此鼓励自己多做运动。这其中,既包括记录步数的计步器,也包括一些更复杂的仪器,如加速计,它可以测量走路的速度,并计算出对应的卡路里消耗量。#39;We#39;ve been very focused on exercise and making sure you get your half-an-hour a day of moderate and vigorous physical activity. But what we#39;ve not focused on so much is how you spend the rest of your day,#39; says Bonnie Spring, director of the Center for Behavior and Health at Northwestern University.西北大学(Northwestern University)行为与健康中心(Center for Behavior and Health)主任邦尼#8226;斯普林(Bonnie Spring)说:“一直以来我们都非常关注运动,确保自己每天能有那么半个小时做一些强度适中或较大的运动。但我们没有注意到的是,每天其余的时间我们都在干些什么。”Americans on average take 5,117 steps a day, according to a 2010 study published in the journal Medicine amp; Science in Sports amp; Exercise. A good daily goal, by contrast, is 10,000 steps, according to the American Heart Association and other experts. Research studies have found that such a regimen results in modest weight loss, improved glucose tolerance in people at risk of developing diabetes and other benefits, says David Bassett Jr., co-author of the 2010 study and a professor in the department of kinesiology, recreation and sport studies at the University of Tennessee.《运动与锻炼中的医学与科学》(Medicine amp; Science in Sports amp; Exercise)杂志2010年刊登的一篇研究论文指出,美国人平均每天走5117步。而美国心脏协会(American Heart Association)及一些专家表示,每天的理想走路步数应为10,000步。上述2010年研究论文的作者之一、田纳西大学(University of Tennessee)运动机能学、休闲与体育研究系教授小戴维#8226;巴西特(David Bassett Jr.)称,研究发现,每天的步行数达到理想水平,可以帮助糖尿病患病风险高的人群适当减轻体重、改善葡萄糖耐受性,此外还有其他一些好处。Walking a mile roughly equals 2,000 steps. Climbing a flight of stairs─roughly 10 steps─is equivalent to taking 38 steps on level ground, Dr. Bassett says.巴西特士指出,步行一英里(约1.6公里)需要走大约2000步。爬一层楼梯(大约10级)相当于在平地行走38步。A study that followed more than 240,000 adults over 8#189; years found that watching a large amount of television was associated with a higher risk of death, including from cardiovascular disease─even for participants who reported seven or more hours a week of moderate-to-vigorous exercise. The research, published in 2012 in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, used TV viewing and overall sitting time as a proxy for sedentary behavior.一项在八年半的时间内持续跟踪了24万多名成年人的研究发现,看电视时间长的人因罹患心血管等疾病而死亡的风险更高,哪怕是自称一周进行七个小时或更长时间中高强度锻炼的人也不例外。此项研究采用看电视时间和总计坐着的时间作为评估久坐行为的指标,研究结果于2012年发表在《美国临床营养学杂志》(American Journal of Clinical Nutrition)上。#39;Our results suggest that exercise alone may not be enough to eliminate risks associated with too much sitting,#39; says Charles Matthews, lead author of the study and an investigator with the National Institutes of Health. He says estimates from government surveys indicate that people#39;s sedentary time outside of work has increased by about 40% between 1965 and 2009.该研究论文的第一作者、美国国立卫生研究院(National Institutes of Health)的研究员查尔斯#8226;马修斯(Charles Matthews)说:“我们的研究结果表明,运动本身不足以消除因久坐而导致的(各种健康)风险。”他称,官方调查所得估计数据显示,从1965年到2009年,人们在工作之外的久坐时间上升了大约40%。People who live in Colorado, where obesity rates are relatively low, take an average of 6,500 steps a day, a 2005 study found. By contrast, residents of Tennessee and Arkansas, where the obesity rates are much higher, take an average of 4,500 steps a day. #39;We don#39;t know that it#39;s cause and effect obviously, but the states with lower obesity rates have the higher number of steps,#39; says James Hill, executive director of the Anschutz Health and Wellness Center at the University of Colorado.2005年的一项研究发现,在肥胖率相对较低的科罗拉多州,人们平均每天步行6500步。而在肥胖率相对高得多的田纳西州和阿肯色州,人们日均步行4500步。科罗拉多大学(University of Colorado)安秀兹健康中心(Anschutz Health and Wellness Center)执行主任詹姆斯#8226;希尔(James Hill)说:“我们不清楚这其中有什么明显的因果关系,但肥胖率较低州的居民日均步行数确实较高。”All the movements a person does during the day─from getting up to close the garage to rocking in a chair─are non-scheduled physical activities that can make a big difference in terms of daily calorie expenditure by causing a person#39;s metabolism to increase, says Gabriel Koepp, program manager of the Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis (NEAT) laboratory at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn. While walking is the main NEAT activity, other things can include washing the dishes instead of using a dish washer, making b dough by hand rather than using a mixer, and even chewing gum, he says.明尼苏达州罗切斯特(Rochester)的梅奥诊所(Mayo Clinic)有一个非运动性日常活动热效应(Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis, 简称NEAT)实验室,该实验室的项目经理加布里埃尔#8226;克普(Gabriel Koepp)表示,人们的日常起居活动(从起床到结束一天的工作回家坐到椅子上)不属于既定的体育锻炼,但同样能够加速新陈代谢,因此对每日卡路里的消耗量也会产生巨大影响。他说,除了走路这种主要的NEAT活动,我们可以做的事情还包括不用洗碗机自己动手洗碗、不用和面器自己动手和面,甚至嚼口香糖(也有帮助)。Health experts say people still need moderate to vigorous exercise, which has been shown to reduce risks of cardiovascular disease and other disorders. Dr. Bassett says a doctoral student in his department conducted a study in which 58 people watching 90 minutes of television marched in place in front of the TV during commercial breaks. #39;They increased their steps by about 3,000 per day just by doing this during commercials,#39; says Dr. Bassett. #39;That#39;s equivalent to about 30 minutes of walking.#39; The study was published last year in the International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity.健康专家表示,人们还是需要进行一些适度或高强度的运动,事实表明这种运动有助于降低罹患心血管和其他疾病的风险。巴西特士称,他们系一个士生进行过一项研究,要求58名参与者看电视90分钟,中间遇到广告时就进行原地踏步运动。巴西特士说:“通过在广告时间这么做,他们每天的步行数增加了3000步左右。这相当于大约30分钟的走路时间了。”这项研究成果已于去年发表在《国际行为营养与体力活动期刊》(International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity)上。Pedometers have been shown, at least in the short term, to motivate some people to increase their daily activity if they chart progress toward a goal in a diary. More sophisticated accelerometers, with wireless synchronization, effectively log your progress for you.实践表明,计步器至少可以在短期内鼓励一些人增加日常活动量,只要他们能用计步器记录自己在锻炼上每天所取得的进步。更复杂、带无线同步功能的加速计可以有效地记录使用者每天的进步情况。In a 2007 analysis of several studies, people who used pedometers increased the number of steps taken by an average 2,491 a day and boosted overall physical activity by about 27% from previous levels, says Dena Bravata, a senior science affiliate at the Center for Primary Care and Outcomes Research at Stanford University.斯坦福大学(Stanford University)基础护理与效果研究中心(Center for Primary Care and Outcomes Research)的高级研究员德娜#8226;布拉瓦塔(Dena Bravata)介绍说,2007年一个基于几项研究的分析显示,使用计步器者可日均增加步行数2491步,总体活动量较使用计步器前水平提高约27%。Participants#39; body-mass index, a common measure of healthy weight, and blood pressure also declined, she says. The analysis, published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, involved a total of 2,767 participants who were followed on average for 18 weeks.她说,参与者的体质指数(BMI,一个衡量人体体重是否健康的常用指标)和血压也均有所下降。该分析发表于《美国医学会杂志》(Journal of the American Medical Association),共涉及2767位参与者,他们平均被跟踪研究的时长为18周。Eric Lent, of Atlanta, says starting to use an accelerometer made him #39;aware of how much time I was sitting in my office.#39; The device─after he lost his Nike FuelBand, he replaced it with a Jawbone UP─motivates him to regularly work out and to be less sedentary through the day, says the 44-year-old chief marketing officer for an entertainment company.亚特兰大的埃里克#8226;伦特(Eric Lent)表示,开始使用加速计令他“意识到自己坐在办公室的时间有多久”。他先是使用的Nike FuelBand,丢失后换成了Jawbone UP。这种仪器鼓励他定期锻炼,减少一天当中坐着的时间。伦特今年44岁,在一家公司担任首席营销长。Mr. Lent says he makes a point of parking in the farthest spot from the entrance to work. And he sets the Jawbone UP to vibrate if he is idle for 30 minutes or more. He aims to do 10,000 steps each day.伦特表示,他会把车停在离办公楼入口最远的车位上。他还把Jawbone UP设置成“偷懒”30分钟以上就发出振动提醒的状态。伦特的目标是每天行走10,000步。Carrie Mundy, a stay-at-home mom and photographer in San Diego, bought her Fitbit in February. She says she is regularly hitting 15,000 steps a day and has aly lost 4#189; pounds. To accumulate more steps, the 36-year-old says she walks down every aisle in the grocery store and makes extra trips back and forth when folding and putting away her laundry.圣地亚哥的卡丽#8226;芒迪(Carrie Mundy)现年36岁,是一个居家妈妈和摄影师,她在2月份买了个Fitbit。她说自己每天定量走15,000步,已经减掉了4.5磅(约两公斤)的体重。她说,为了提高自己的步行数,她会把杂货店里的每条过道都走上一遍,还会在洗衣机前边收拾衣边在原地颠步走。Ms. Mundy says her Fitbit also motivates her to get out and walk. #39;I#39;m constantly chasing these two people who I haven#39;t caught up to,#39; she says, referring to two friends whose total number of steps she can view on her device#39;s display screen.芒迪说,Fitbit还促使她更多地出去走动。她说她可以在自己的Fitbit显示屏上看到两个朋友的步行数,“我一直在追赶这两个我还没有赶上的家伙”。#39;It#39;s like a game. I have such a competitive personality, so I#39;m going to beat these people today.#39;她说:“这就像玩视频游戏。我这个人非常好强,今天我就要打败他们。” /201304/235047Japanese firm NEC Avio Infrared Technologies has announced the development of a mirror that can detect flu-like symptoms, such as a fever.  日本电气株式会社红外技术公司最近研发出一款“体温镜”,可以“照”出发烧等流感症状。  The Thermo Mirror has a built-in thermometer, but an individual does not need to make any physical contact with the device for it to measure their temperature, making it a handy reusable instrument for measuring flu.  这款“体温镜”配有内置体温计,可以在无需接触的情况下测出体温,使之成为方便快捷而且可重复使用的流感测量仪。  While a person admires their beauty or fretsabout how much extra weight they put on over Christmas, the mirror displays their temperature and an alarm sounds if they are deemed feverish.  当你对镜欣赏容貌,或者为圣诞节长胖了不少而烦恼时,“体温镜”就可以显示出你的体温,如果发烧还会发出警报。  NEC Avio said that it expects that the device will be used in corporate receptions, schools, hospitals and public facilities, but it could also replace more expensive technology used in airports. Many airports currently use thermography cameras to detect feverish travellers to prevent them from travelling in a constricted air space, a perfect condition for sping disease.  日本电气株式会社表示,这款“体温镜”可在公司接待处、学校、医院、以及其它公共场所使用,而且还可以替代机场使用的更昂贵的体温测量仪。很多机场目前使用热成像摄像机来检测发烧旅客,禁止其登机,因为狭小的机舱极易传播疾病。  These devices are expensive, however, usually costing well over ,000 each, but the Thermo Mirror can be bought for either 98,000 yen (,180) or 120,000 yen (,445), depending on the version, which means you can get a lot more for your money.  机场使用的热成像摄像机非常昂贵,每台的单价常超过1万美元,但此次研发出的两款“体温镜”单价仅为9.8万日元(1180美元)和12万日元(1445美元),可以省下一大笔钱。  NEC Avio plans to sell 5,000 units of the Thermo Mirror this year.  日本电气株式会社计划今年售出五千面“体温镜”。  With the recent increases in cases of swine flu, we may in future ditchthe doctor to turn to our trusted mirror and say: “Mirror, mirror, on the wall, do I have the flu at all?”  最近甲流病例增加,但将来我们可能不再去看医生,而是照着我们信赖的镜子说:“墙上的镜子,你告诉我,我得流感了吗?” /201101/123310

DARJEELING, India — The tea plantations here in the shadow of the cloud-shrouded valleys of the Himalayan mountains may be the last place to find technological innovation. Many of the colonial-era practices involved in tea-growing and processing still follow the time-honored manual labor and handwritten bookkeeping.印度大吉岭——这里的茶叶种植园位于喜马拉雅山麓云雾笼罩的山谷里,从这样的地方找到科技创新的影子恐怕并不容易。很多殖民地时期就已经采用的茶叶种植及加工方法依然沿用至今,比如人工采摘茶叶和手写的账目。But as global consumers increasingly become connoisseurs of high-quality products, one entrepreneur is seeking to give the industry a Silicon Valley makeover.但是随着全球愈来愈多的消费者成了品鉴高档茶叶的行家,一位创业者正在尝试对茶叶产业开展一番硅谷式的改造。India is the world#39;s second-largest tea grower after China. Yet, even as the country produces quality specialty varietals that are as highly regarded as wines from France and whisky from Scotland, its industry is antiquated.印度仅次于中国,是全球第二大茶叶种植国。虽然印度出产特有品种的优质茶叶,可与法国的葡萄酒和苏格兰的威士忌相媲美,但是当地的制茶产业已经过时了。With the backing of one of Silicon Valley#39;s biggest venture capital firms, Accel Partners, Kaushal Dugar, a Singapore-trained financial analyst, is among those slowly bringing the sector into the modern era via his online tea retailing start-up, Teabox.曾在新加坡受过教育的金融分析师考沙尔·杜伽尔(Kaushal Dugar),在硅谷最大的风险投资企业之一,阿克塞尔合伙公司(Accel Partners)的持下,正在通过在线销售茶叶的初创企业Teabox逐步让制茶产业现代化。The bulk of India#39;s production — about one billion of the total 1.2 billion kilograms (2.6 billion pounds) — is consumed by the domestic market, where mass-market brands from the Indian conglomerate Tata and the multinational Unilever hold sway. But the remaining 200 million kilograms is a market ripe for shake-up.大部分印度出产的茶叶都由国内市场消费,在12亿公斤(约合26亿磅)的总产量里,印度消费者购买了约10亿公斤。其中,大众市场由印度塔塔集团(Tata)和跨国企业联合利华(Unilever)这样的品牌控制,而余下的2亿公斤所面向的市场则亟需变革。;We grow some of the best teas in the world, but our processes are archaic and marketing is nonexistent,; said Arun Kumar Gomden, a tea industry consultant who managed tea estates for 35 years.As is the case with other successful e-commerce sites, technology forms the core of Teabox#39;s online operations. Algorithms predict demand based on such factors as past sales, internal ranking of tea varieties and pricing. Information about a tea#39;s picking date, season and origins is made available to online customers.制茶产业顾问阿伦·库马尔·戈穆登(Arun Kumar Gomden)说,“我们种植的茶叶在全球名列前茅,但加工手段落后,也谈不上有什么营销,”戈穆登已有35年管理茶园的经验。与其他成功的电子商务网站一样,科技是Teabox网络运营的核心。该公司利用算法,根据价格、以往销量,以及内部对茶叶品种的评级等因素,来预测消费者的需求。消费者可以在网上查看茶叶的采摘日期、季节和产地等信息。Taking a cue from the successful wine industry, Teabox is bringing in wine tasters to provide engaging online descriptions for its products. Gone are the flowery but opaque descriptions like ;distinctly high-grown character; and ;surprising malty nuance.; They have been replaced by more consumer-friendly taster phrases like ;light-bodied tea with a slight woodiness in its flavor,; along with detailed steeping instructions.Teabox借鉴葡萄酒行业的成功经验,邀请品酒师为网站编写引人入胜的产品介绍。那些辞藻华丽但晦涩难懂的描述不见了,例如“鲜明的高海拔种植特征”、“有一丝出人意料的麦芽口感”。取而代之的是一些读者比较容易明白的措辞,例如“含有一丝木头清香的淡茶”,还附有详细的冲泡说明。Teabox, which started in mid-2012, is introducing a subscription model offering personalized tea selections, replicating similar successes of online sites selling wine, razor blades, cosmetics and organic products.创立于2012年中期的Teabox,还效仿销售葡萄酒、剃须刀片、化妆品和有机产品的网站的成功做法,推出了一套提供个性化选择的订购模式。All of these steps aim to hook a new generation of customers in countries such as Russia and the ed States. As consumers on a quest for the latest niche food products veer toward drinking the brew in upscale salons and tea bars, Indian tea could tap into the large addressable global tea market, estimated to be billion in size.这些举措的目的是从俄罗斯、美国等国家,吸引新一代的顾客。对新近流行的小众饮食趋之若鹜的消费者们,现在开始在高档沙龙或茶吧里喝茶,因此印度茶有望打入全球商机巨大的潜在市场,其规模估计高达900亿美元(约合5500亿元人民币)。;Tea is a time-sensitive product, but the industry#39;s supply chain is quite broken and has many intermediaries,; said Prashanth Prakash, a partner at Accel India, which along with Singapore#39;s Horizon Ventures has provided some million in early-stage funding to Teabox. ;The business is ripe for disruption, both in terms of price and quality,; he said.阿克塞尔印度公司的合伙人普拉申特·普拉卡什(Prashanth Prakash)说,“茶这种产品对时间很敏感,但业内的供应链相当低效,而且涉及过多中间环节。”这家公司连同新加坡的Horizon Ventures为Teabox提供了100万美元的前期资助。他说,“从价格和质量两方面而言,颠覆这个行业的时机都已经成熟。”The venture capital approach is helping Teabox change operations. It was Accel Partners that suggested the wine industry method to ;product discovery; — industry jargon for helping shoppers discern and select products online.风险投资的持,帮助Teabox改变了经营模式。正是阿克塞尔建议采用葡萄酒行业的“产品发掘”手段。“产品发掘”是指帮助顾客在网站上查看和选择产品的过程。;By employing tactics used by the wine industry, we want to demystify tea and present it in a more accessible manner along with how-to brewing directions so that buyers can explore varieties, regions and flavors,; said Mr. Dugar, 31, founder and chief executive of Teabox, which is based in Siliguri, Darjeeling, the heart of India#39;s tea-growing region.杜伽尔表示,“通过使用葡萄酒行业的手法,我们想让茶在顾客眼中不再陌生,以更容易领会的方式推介茶,并且给出冲泡指示,这样一来顾客就能探究茶的品种、产地和口味。”31岁的杜伽尔是Teabox的创始人和首席执行官。这家公司的总部位于印度产茶区域的中心,大吉岭的西里古里(Siliguri)。His family#39;s trade connections go back four decades and give Mr. Dugar access to high-quality teas from the estates of Assam and Darjeeling. From his childhood summers spent on plantations, he recalls the tea pluckers picking two leaves and a bud that was transformed into brewed tea within hours. ;I imagined that the workers in tea plantations were magicians.;Mr. Dugar had worked for a few years as a corporate finance analyst at consultancy firm KPMG in Singapore, but he then returned to India to become an entrepreneur. He and his backers quickly discovered that the industry first organized by British colonizers about 200 years ago has not changed at all. Many plantations are controlled by third- or fourth-generation owners, using machines dating back a half-century or more.杜伽尔家族与茶的渊源已有40年了,这也让他在栽种阿萨姆茶和大吉岭茶的茶园里,品尝到了优质的茶叶。杜伽尔童年时,夏天会在茶园里度过。他回忆起当时情景说,采茶工摘下两片叶子和一朵花蕾,几个小时后就变成了沏好的茶。“我觉得茶园里的工人都是魔法师。”杜伽尔曾在咨询公司毕马威(KPMG)的新加坡分公司工作数年,担任企业财务分析师,后来返回印度开始创业。他和投资人很快就发现,这个大约200年前由英国殖民者组织起来的产业,至今仍然没有任何改变。很多茶园都是由第三或第四代老板经营,他们所用的机器已有至少半个世纪甚至更长的历史。;Traditional processes such as withering, rolling, drying are all manually monitored just like it was when the tea industry was first established in this region centuries ago,; said Amar Nath Jha, a senior manager of the 162-year old Steinthal Tea Estate in Darjeeling, a supplier to Teabox.阿马尔·纳特·杰哈(Amar Nath Jha)说,“传统的制茶工序,例如萎凋、揉捻、干燥都是人手处理,就像很多个世纪以前,这个产业刚刚在这里形成时一样。”杰哈在大吉岭已有162年历史的斯坦塔茶园(Steinthal Tea Estate)担任高级经理,这家茶园也是Teabox的供应商。Because of the lengthy auction and distribution process, it can take up to six months for the tea to reach a consumer overseas.由于拍卖和分销茶叶所需时间很长,因此可能需要长达六个月的时间才能到达海外消费者手上。;The lack of modern infrastructure leads to tea quality deteriorating and losing aroma along the way,; said Mr. Gomden, the tea consultant.制茶产业顾问戈穆登表示,“在整个过程中,由于缺乏现代化的设施,茶叶的质量会下降,茶香也会流失。”To change that, Teabox set up sourcing centers in Darjeeling and Assam, within a few hours from the gardens where the leaves are plucked and processed. (Other buyers have also begun to bypass the auction system and buy premium teas directly from producers).为了改变这种情况,Teabox在大吉岭和阿萨姆邦设立了采购中心,距离采摘和加工的茶园只有数小时路程。(其他买家也开始跳过拍卖体系,直接通过生产商采购优质茶叶。)Almost as soon as the teas are procured fresh from the production centers, Teabox stores them in temperature- and humidity-controlled warehouses. Then, within 48 hours, the teas are checked, vacuum-packed and dispatched to fulfillment centers in major markets such as Russia, the ed States and Australia.Teabox从生产中心将新鲜的茶叶采购到手,就会立即储存在能够调节温度和湿度的仓库里。然后在48小时以内,茶叶就会经过检查和真空包装,发往俄罗斯、美国、澳大利亚等主要市场的配送中心。Data analytics also help. When they log into the website, buyers are served personalized recommendations according to one of Teabox#39;s 53 tea profiles.数据分析也很有帮助。买家登录之后,网站便会依据Teabox供应的53种茶叶的特征,给出个性化的推荐。Customer feedback goes quickly back to the producers. For example, Teabox now sells tea only in 100-gram vacuum packs after complaints that tea in larger packs lost aroma.生产商很快就能收到顾客的反馈。比如,由于有顾客投诉称,包装容量太大以致茶香流失,Teabox现在只出售100克真空包装的茶叶。The company tries to win over customer share its audience by offering high-end teas at a discount to established brands like Twinings and upscale European, Asian and American tea salons, all of which sell online (Teabox#39;s products can sell for as much as ,099 per kilogram).Teabox试图通过以优惠价格出售川宁(Twinings)等知名公司,以及欧洲、亚洲和美洲的高档茶店所出售的茶叶,来吸引消费者。这些产品都在网上出售。(Teabox产品的售价每公斤可高达1099美元)。For instance, a French tea salon called Palais des Thés sells the Mission Hill tea at 0 per kilogram, but Teabox sells the same product about 60 percent less at 6 per kilogram. TWG, a high-end tea bar in Singapore, sells the Okayti at 0 per kilogram while Teabox sells it as 0, less than half the price.例如,一家名为茶宫(Palais des Thés)的法国茶庄以每公斤340美元的价格销售Mission Hill的茶叶,而Teabox的售价是每公斤126美元,价格低近六成。新加坡的高级茶吧TWG以每公斤390美元的价格出售欧凯帝(Okayti)茶园的茶叶,而Teabox则只售180美元,低于其价格的一半。Teabox is still a small player in the industry: It has shipped 10 million cups#39; worth of tea to customers in 65 countries so far. The challenges are many. Traditional distributors have blocked access to plantations and Teabox has had to counter rumors from rivals that it is an unreliable buyer.Teabox在茶叶产业中仍然是个小角色。迄今为止,它已向65个国家的顾客出售了相当于1000万杯的茶。该公司面临很多挑战:传统分销商阻挠他们接触茶园,竞争对手造谣称他们是个不可靠的买家,Teabox需要进行反驳。Mohan Chirimar, 53, of Raghunath Exports, a bulk supplier to Starbucks as well as retail chains and supermarkets in 30 countries, said Teabox was chasing a big opportunity that had room for other entrepreneurs.拉古拿夫出口公司(Raghunath Exports)向星巴克(Starbucks)以及全球30个国家的零售商和超市供货。该公司现年53岁创始人莫汉·其利马(Mohan Chirimar)说,Teabox正在追求的这个巨大商机,其他企业也可以参与其中。Raghunath Exports is itself gearing up to compete online as Mr. Chirimar#39;s 23-year old son, Aditya, a recent graduate from Cornell University, has returned this month to join the business. ;He is going to expand our business online; it offers more opportunities and will speed up our growth,; Mr. Chirimar said.拉古拿夫出口公司正准备参与网上竞争。其利马23岁的儿子阿迪蒂亚(Aditya)最近刚从康奈尔大学(Cornell University)毕业,并于本月回国参与公司经营。其利马说,“他将会扩展网上业务,这能给我们提供更多机会,加快业务增长。”Teabox does have an early-mover advantage but must now build its name. Regular access to financing will help Teabox ramp up its brand in crucial markets like the ed States where tea drinking growth rates are overtaking coffee. The start-up aims to grow 300 to 500 percent in the coming year and cross million in annual revenue.Teabox的确有率先进入这一市场的优势,但它现在必须建立自己的品牌。定期融资能帮助Teabox加速进军美国等重要市场,美国的茶叶消耗增长率正在赶超咖啡。这家初创公司明年的业务增长目标是300%到500%,年收入超过100万美元。;With cash in the bank and support from investors, we can dream about quickly building a billion-dollar tea brand from India, something that has never been attempted before,; Mr. Dugar said.杜伽尔说,“利用里的现金和投资者的持,我们希望可以迅速建立一个价值十亿美元的印度茶叶品牌,以前没人尝试做过这些。” /201409/325538

The idea of an Alipay and Apple Pay partnership in China —suggested by Jack Ma this week—didn’t make a lot of sense when he said it.上周,马云提出要让付宝(Alipay)和苹果付(Apple Pay)在中国合作,不过当时他的这个提议显得并不合理。Alipay is China’s most popular online payment system used for online purchases including Taobao orders, paying utility bills, movie tickets, and other shopping sites. It is not like Visa, Mastercard, or China’s own UnionPay, which have a network of tens of thousands of merchants and swipe stations. Walk around Beijing or Shanghai and you’ll see plenty of signs for UnionPay, the state-owned processor that enjoys a monopoly within China, and barely any for Alipay.付宝是中国当下最热门的在线付系统,人们用它付淘宝(Taobao)上的订单,缴纳物业费,购买电影票,还可在其他购物网站上消费。然而,付宝的地位与拥有数万个商家和刷卡网络的Visa、万事达(Mastercard)或中国银联(UnionPay)不尽相同。漫步在北京或者上海的街头,你会发现银联的标志随处可见——作为国有付处理机构,银联在中国具有垄断地位——而付宝的标志却寥寥无几。Apple’s new Apple Pay, meanwhile, is a mostly physical experience. You forgo the hassle of swiping a credit card at the cash register for the ease of touching the iPhone’s home button at two hundred thousand locations that have signed on with Apple. Yes, it has an online component that makes online shopping easier, but its allure is the physical component, just as Alipay’s allure is online.与此同时,苹果(Apple)的新产品——苹果付——更多的是一种实地体验。你无需在结账柜台刷卡,而只需在与苹果签约的20万家门店内,轻松按下iPhone的home键就能完成付款。是的,苹果手机上的在线组件让在线购物变得更方便了,但它的关键还是物理组件,而付宝的特色则是在线付。So when Ma brought up a partnership, it wasn’t clear what Alipay could offer Apple in China: it doesn’t have payment installations across the country and even where it did—in some stores it previously setup QR codes at cash registers that customers scanned with Alipay—UnionPay told Alipay to route them through UnionPay’s network.所以当马云抛出橄榄枝时,我们并不清楚付宝在中国能给苹果带来什么:它在国内没有付设施,尽管曾经有过——付宝曾在一些商家的收银台前提供二维码,顾客可以扫描二维码来付款,而银联随后表示,付宝必须通过银联网络才能完成付处理。But Jack Ma doesn’t choose his words lightly. What he says carry weight even if it is difficult to understand. Just two days after he spoke on a stage with Tim Cook in the audience, China’s government announced a massive change to the payments system that supported Ma’s idea of a partnership.但马云并不是轻率地开腔,这番话极有分量,即便你很难理解。就在马云在众目睽睽下与蒂姆o库克的对话刚过去两天,中国政府就宣布了将对付政策做出巨大改变,马云的合作设想随之得到有利持。Late Wednesday, China’s State Council, the Communist Party’s 35-member policy board led by Premier Li Keqiang, announced China would open its payment system to foreign companies like Visa, Mastercard, and American Express, which it had long discriminated against. It might have well have added Alipay, which has also been disadvantaged. China has blocked foreigners for more than a decade from issuing their own cards and forced them to use UnionPay’s network, handing over a cut of the fees. During that time, UnionPay grew into a full-blown monopoly.上周三,由李克强总理领导的中国国务院宣布,中国将对Visa、万事达和美国运通(American Express)等国外公司开放付系统。一直处于弱势地位的付宝也有可能位列其中。十多年来,中国一直禁止这些公司发放自己的卡,强迫他们使用银联网络并缴纳费用。在此期间,银联成长为一家羽翼丰满的垄断巨头。Alipay has similarly faced off against UnionPay. Last August, Alipay abruptly said it shut down its offline point-of-sales service—the limited physical locations it had—for “obvious reasons” after UnionPay said Alipay’s transactions must be integrated into its network. It was a bold power grab, but one with state support.付宝在面对银联时遭遇了类似困境。去年8月,在银联表示付宝的交易必须纳入银联网络后,付宝突然宣布,由于“明显的原因”,将关闭线下销售点的务——尽管数量非常有限。“Alipay decided to quit offline payments altogether because it does not want to subject itself to UnionPay’s control,” China’s business magazine Caixin ed a source saying at the time.中国商业媒体财新(Caixin)当时引用了一个消息源的说法:“付宝决定彻底退出线下付领域,因为它不想受到银联的控制。”Jack Ma stopped short of submitting to UnionPay’s rules when it came to online payments, however, because the stakes were too big. Alipay handled almost half the 0 billion online payments in China last year, according to iResearch.在在线付领域,马云并没有受到银联的管控,因为这块蛋糕太大了。研究公司iResearch的数据显示,去年中国在线付的总额达到9,000亿美元,其中几乎一半都是通过付宝完成的。Jack Ma is known for staying a step or two ahead of the government without creating feuds. The way he sidestepped UnionPay’s monopoly in the mid-2000s by setting up Alipay’s online system with 200 banks is one example. Teaming up with Apple Pay looks like another. A partnership made little sense until China’s government announced it was opening up payments for everyone, which reduces UnionPay’s influence on the market and on Alipay. It remains to be seen how the rules will be implemented, but overnight UnionPay’s has less sway over Alipay.马云著名之处,在于他总能快政府一到两步,却不会越线。其中一个例子是他在2004年创立了付宝在线付系统,并与200家签约,一举打破了银联的垄断。与苹果付的合作似乎会是另一个成功案例。这次合作起初意义不大,但随着中国政府宣布将放开付领域的限制,因而减少了银联对市场和付宝的影响力,情况就大不同了。这一规定究竟将如何实施仍有待观察,但一夜之间,银联对付宝的影响大大减少了。Ma’s suggestion of an Apple Pay partnership, knowing a policy change would help it advance, looks prescient. An Alibaba spokeswoman declined comment.马云似乎在官方发布消息之前就已经知道政策即将变化,因此才提出了和苹果付合作的建议。阿里巴巴(Alibaba)的发言人拒绝对此发表。Even though China’s government is intent on allowing foreigner card companies, and by extension Alipay, into the market, it will be years before any build scale to compete with UnionPay, which has tens of thousands of agreements with stores, restaurants, and shops.即便中国政府有意让外国卡公司甚至付宝都进入市场,但它们要成长到足以同银联竞争仍需要好几年时间。后者已经与成千上万家超市、餐厅和商铺签订了合作协议。Forrester vice president Bryan Wang in Beijing sees a potential Alipay agreement as a hedge. “The high-end iPhone 6 user wants to buy something at a department store, and they say, ‘Sorry we don’t accept Alipay—that’s probably not the experience Apple want to bring customers,” he says.位于北京的弗雷斯特研究公司(Forrester)副总裁王平表示,付宝要达成这一合作仍存在障碍。他表示:“高大上的iPhone 6用户想要在百货商场买点东西,结果店员说:‘对不起,我们不持付宝’——这可能不是苹果想要带给顾客的体验。”The first conversations Apple had about coming to China happened with UnionPay. But the negotiations have been slow to form. For now, Apple Pay is deactivated on iPhones sold in China. Caixin has reported that negotiations are still advancing.就进入中国的问题,苹果首先选择与银联展开对话。但磋商的进展十分缓慢。到目前为止,苹果付功能仍然未能在中国的iPhone上启用。据财新报道,双方仍在洽谈。It may be that the potential tie up between Jack Ma and Apple has little to do with China. “What Alibaba may be trying to do is…gain entry into the huge U.S. offline retail market and in return integrate Apple Pay into Alibaba’s online footprint from app stores to online retail stores in China,” says Neil Shah, who tracks the China mobile market for Counterpoint Research.马云和苹果公司的潜在合作可能与中国关系不大。Counterpoint Research公司的尼尔o沙哈负责研究中国的移动市场,他表示:“阿里巴巴想做的,可能是进入美国巨大的线下零售市场。作为回报,阿里巴巴的在线产品将植入苹果付功能,借此将其从苹果应用商店带入中国的在线零售商店。”Apple doesn’t need Alipay and Alipay doesn’t need Apple. But at least now it’s clearer how they would work together.苹果并不是非得和付宝合作不可,而付宝也不是“非君不嫁”。但至少,双方可能的合作方式现在变得更明晰了。 /201411/341210

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