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A second civil war flared up, once more requiring from Cromwell all his military ruthlessness.第二场内战爆发 克伦威尔再次要求 他的军队必须残酷无情With his annihilation of the Royalist Scottish army in 1648 at Preston,当1648年 保皇派的军队在普勒斯顿大败之后Charles#39;s final hope had gone.查理自知大势已去Any thought of conciliation with the king was now purest folly.至此 与国王妥协的想法变得愚蠢至极Those MPs who persisted in the idea that Charles could be reasoned with那些坚持认为 可以与查理理论的议员now had a furious and vengeful army to answer to.现在都听命于一个狂躁 图谋复仇的军队When Colonel Thomas Pride used his troops to weed out any MP suspected of going soft on Charles,当托马斯·普莱德上校以武力铲除了 对查理有恻隐之心的议员时the country realised there was a new power in the land.这个国家迎来了一个新的政权This was the soldiers#39; show now.现在是军人的天下了Britain belonged to them, and they belonged to God.不列颠听命于他们 而他们听命于上帝They had no desire to go back to a country of princes, lords and gentlemen.他们不愿回到 那个有王子 贵族和绅士的国家They wanted Jerusalem now.他们不再想听命于国王了And they wanted the biggest sinner of them all, the man of blood,他们想要那个万恶之源 那个残忍的人Charles Stuart, to feel the fire of God#39;s wrath.查理·斯图亚特 亲自领教上帝的愤怒The final question could be addressed what should happen to Charles?最后的问题浮出水面 查理会有何等下场 /201703/500106。

Our company has a new strategic initiative to increase market penetration, maximize brand loyalty, and enhance intangible assets. In pursuit of these objectives, we#39;ve started a new project for which we require seven red lines. I understand your company can help us in this matter.为了增加市场渗透率、最大化品牌忠诚度、加强无形资产,敝公司有个新的策略性创举。为了追求这些目标,我们已开始一项新企划,为了那像企划我们需要七条红线。我了解贵公司能够在这方面帮助我们。Of course! Walter here will be the Project Manager. Walter, we can do this, can#39;t we?当然!这里的Walter是专案经理。Walter,我们可以做这个,可以吗?Yes, of course. Anderson here is our expert in all matters related to drawing red lines. We#39;ve brought him along today to share his professional opinion.是的,当然。这里的Anderson是我们所有与画红线相关事务的专家。我们今天也带他一起过来分享他专业的看法。Nice to meet you! Well, you all know me. This is Justine, our company#39;s design specialist.很高兴见到你!嗯,你们全都认识我。这是Justine,敝公司的设计专员。Hello!哈喽!We need you to draw seven red lines, all of them strictly perpendicular, some with green ink and some with transparent. Can you do that?我们需要你画七条红线,它们全部都要完全垂直,有些用绿色墨水、有些用透明墨水画。你可以做到吗?No, I#39;m afraid...不,我怕...Let#39;s not rush into any hasty answers, Anderson! The task has been set and needs to be carried out. At the end of the day, you are an expert.先别妄下任何急促的,Anderson!任务已经设定,且需要被执行。到头来,你是一名专家。The term ;red line; implies the color of the line to be red. To draw a red line with green ink is, well if it#39;s not exactly impossible, it#39;s pretty close to being impossible.“红线”这词意指线条的颜色是红的。要用绿色墨水画出红线是,这么说吧,如果不是完全不可能的,也是满接近不可能的任务。What does that even mean? Impossible?那到底是什么意思?不可能?I mean, it is possible that there are some people, say, suffering from color blindness, for whom the color of the lines doesn#39;t really make a difference. But I#39;m quite sure that the target audience of your project doesn#39;t consist solely of such people.我是说,有可能有些人,比如说,罹患色盲症,对他们来说线条的颜色并不会有什么差异。但我满确定你们企划的目标群众并非完全由这种人组成的。So in principle this is possible.所以原则上来说是有可能的。I#39;ll simplify. A line as such can be drawn with absolutely any ink, but if you want to get a red line, you need to use red ink.我会简化。一条像这样的线可以当然用任何一种墨水画出来,但如果你想要一条红线,你需要用红墨水。What if we draw them with blue ink?如果我们用蓝墨水画呢?It still won#39;t work. If you use blue ink, you will get blue lines. And what exactly did you mean when you talked about the transparent ink?它还是行不通。如果你用蓝墨水,你就会得到蓝线。那当你提到透明墨水时,你确切的意思是什么?How to better explain?怎么样才能更清楚解释呢?I#39;m sure you know what ;transparent; means?我相信你知道“透明”是什么意思?Yes, I do.是的,我知道。And what a ;red line; means, I hope I don#39;t need to explain to you?还有“红线”是什么意思,我希望我不需要解释给你听吧?Of course not.当然不用。Well, you need to draw red lines with transparent ink.嗯,你需要用透明墨水来画红线。Could you describe what you imagine the end result would look like?你可以形容一下你想像中的最后结果看起来是什么样子吗?Come on, Anderson! What have we got here, kindergarten?拜托,Anderson!我们这里是什么,幼稚园吗?No, I#39;m trying to get the...不是,我是试着要...Let#39;s not waste our time with these unproductive quarrels. The task has been set; the task is plain and clear. Now, if you have any specific questions, then go ahead!我们别浪费时间在这些没生产力的争论上了。任务已经设定,任务很直接又明白。现在,如果你还有任何具体的问题,就问吧!You#39;re the expert here!你是这里的专家!Alright, let#39;s leave aside the color for the moment. You had something there also relating to perpendicularity?好的,我们把颜色先稍稍搁到一边。你这里也有一些关于垂直的问题吧?Seven lines, all strictly perpendicular.七条线,全都完全垂直。To what?垂直在哪?To everything, amongst themselves. I assumed you know what perpendicular lines are like!到处都垂直,在它们七条线之间。我想你知道垂直线长怎样吧!Of course he does. He#39;s an expert!当然他知道。他是位专家!Two lines can be perpendicular. All seven can#39;t be simultaneously perpendicular to each other.两条线可以垂直。所有七条线不能同时彼此垂直。I#39;ll show you. This is a line, right?我画给你看。这是条线,对吧?Yes.是的。And another one. Is it perpendicular to the first line?另外一条。它有没有和第一条垂直呢?Well...这个嘛...Yes, it is perpendicular.是的,是垂直的。Exactly!没错!Wait, wait, I#39;m not done. And a third one, is it perpendicular to the first line? Yes, it is! But it doesn#39;t cross the second line. They#39;re both parallel. Not perpendicular!等等,我还没画完。第三条,它和第一条有垂直吗?是的,它是的!但它并没有穿过第二条线。它们是平行的。没有垂直!I suppose so.我想是吧?There it is. Two lines can be perpendicular...就是这样。两条线可以是垂直的...Can I have the pen? How about this?我可以借个笔吗?这样如何?This is a triangle. It#39;s definitely not perpendicular lines, and there are three, not seven.这是个三角形。它绝对不是垂直线,且是三条,不是七条。Why are they blue?为什么它们是蓝色的?Indeed, wanted to ask that myself.确实,我自己也想问。I have a blue pen with me. This was just a demonstration...我带了一蓝笔。这只是示范一下...That#39;s the problem. Your lines are blue. Draw them with red ink!那就是问题所在。你的线条是蓝色的。用红墨水画它们!It won#39;t solve the problem.那不会解决问题啊。But how do you know before you#39;ve tried? Let#39;s draw them with red ink and then let#39;s see.但你还没试怎么知道?用红色墨水画它们然后来看看结果。I don#39;t have a red pen with me, but I#39;m completely certain that with red ink the result will still be the same.我身上没有红笔,但我完全肯定用红墨水结果还是一样的。Didn#39;t you tell us earlier that you can only draw red lines with red ink? In fact, yes, I#39;ve written that down here! And now you want to draw them with blue ink. Do you want us to call these red lines?你稍早不是才跟我们说你只能用红墨水画出红线吗?事实上,是的,我在这里写下来了!现在你想要用蓝色墨水画出它们。你想要我们叫这些红线吗?I think I understand. You#39;re not talking about the color now, right? You#39;re talking about that, what do you call it? Per-pern-dick...我想我了解了。你现在不是在讲颜色,对吧?你在讲那个,你怎么叫它?垂、垂、直...Perpendicularity, yes!垂直线,是的!That#39;s it! Now you#39;ve confused everyone. So what exactly is stopping us from doing this?够了!现在你把大家都搞混淆了。所以到底是什么阻碍我们做这件事?Geometry.几何学。Just ignore it!就忽略它!We have a task. Seven red lines. It#39;s not twenty; it#39;s just seven. Anderson, I understand you#39;re a specialist of a narrow field. You don#39;t see the overall picture. But surely it#39;s not a difficult task to draw some seven lines!我们有个任务。七条红线。不是二十条、只是七条。Anderson,我了解你是一个小领域的专家。你并没有看到整体状况。但当然画出某七条线不是一项困难的工作!Exactly. Suggest a solution that any fool can criticize, no offence. But you#39;re an expert. You should know better!没错。提出一个任何笨蛋都能的解决方式,没有冒犯的意思。但你是个专家。你应该更清楚!OK. Let me draw you two perfectly perpendicular red lines, and I will draw the rest with transparent ink. They#39;ll be invisible, but I#39;ll draw them.好的。让我画给你们两条完美垂直的红线,然后我会用透明墨水画出剩下的线。它们会是隐形的,但我会画它们。Would this suit us? Yes, this will suit us.这合我们的意吗?是的,这合我们的意。Yes, but at least a couple with green ink. Oh, and I have another question, if I may. Can you draw one of the lines in the form of a kitten?是的,但至少有些用绿墨水。喔,我还有另一个问题,如果我可以问的话。你可以把其中一条线化成小猫的形状吗?A what?什么的形状?In the form of a kitten. Market research tells our users like cute animals. It#39;d be really great if...小猫的形状。市场调查告诉我们我们的使用者喜欢可爱的动物。那会很棒如果...No...不行...But... but why?但...但为何?Look, I can of course draw you a cat. I#39;m no artist, but I can give it a try, but it won#39;t be a line any more. It will be a cat. A line and a cat—these are two different things!是这样的,我当然可以画只猫给你。我不是艺术家,但我可以试一试,但那就不再是一条线了。它会是一只猫。一条线和一猫--这些是两个不同的东西!A kitten. Not a cat, but a kitten. The little, cute, cuddly. Cats, on the other hand...小猫。不是猫,而是小猫。小小只的、可爱的、让人想抱抱的。猫咪呢,另一方面...It won#39;t make a difference.那没有差。Anderson, at least hear her out! She hasn#39;t even finished speaking, and you#39;re aly saying, ;No!;Anderson,至少听她说完!她甚至还没说完,你就已经在说“不”了!I got the idea, but it is impossible to draw a line in the form of a cat...ten.我懂她的意思,但不可能画出一条形状是小...猫的线。What about a bird?那一只鸟呢?So, where did we stop? What are we doing?所以,我们刚讲到哪?我们在说什么?Seven red lines, two with red ink, two with green ink and the rest with transparent. Did I understand correctly?七条红线,两条用红墨水,两条用绿墨水,剩下用透明墨水。我理解正确吗?Yes.是的。Excellent! In which case that#39;s everything, right?很好!也就是说那是全部的细节了,对吧?I almost forgot, we also have a red balloon. Do you know if you could inflate it?我差点忘了,我们也有一颗红气球。你知道是否可以帮它充气吗?What do I have to do with balloons?我要拿气球做啥?It#39;s red.那是红色的。Anderson, can you or can you not do this? It#39;s a simple question.Anderson,你可不可以做这件事?这是个很简单的问题。As such, I can of course.这样的话,我当然可以。Excellent. Organize a business trip. We#39;ll cover the expenses, go over to their location, inflate the balloon. Well, this is very productive, thank you all!太好了。安排出差。我们会负担出,到它们的地点,帮气球充气。嗯,这非常有生产力,感谢你们大家!Can I ask one more question, please? When you inflate the balloon, could you do it in the form of a kitten?请问我可以再问一个问题吗?当你帮气球充气时,你可以用小猫的形状充气吗?Of course I can! I can do anything, I can do absolutely anything. I#39;m an expert!当然我可以!我可以做任何事,我绝对可以做任何事。我是个专家! Article/201501/353284。

It is thought to improve muscle strength and据说,它能够改善肌肉力量immune function and reduce inflammation.提高免疫功能,以及治疗炎症People at risk for vitamin D deficiency include容易缺乏维生素D的人群breastfed infants, older adults, people包括母乳喂养的婴儿,老人with limited sun exposure, people with dark skin接受日照有限者,深肤色的人and people with fat malabsorption. People age 50以及脂肪吸收不良的人and older are at increased risk of developing50岁以后,缺乏维生素D的几率会增大vitamin D deficiency because as they age因为随着年龄的增长the skin loses its ability to synthesize vitamin D皮肤会失去有效率地合成维生素D的能力as efficiently and the kidneys also convert肾脏向激活型的转化也会减少less to its active form. People living in居住北半球的人们,居家人士the northern latitudes, homebound individuals以及那些因为宗教原因and women who wear long robes and穿长袍,带头巾的妇女head coverings for religious reasons may not也许无法获得来自于阳光的充足的维生素Dobtain adequate levels of vitamin D from sunlight.也许无法获得来自于阳光的充足的维生素DPeople with darker skin have more pigment melanin肤色较深的人们有更多的黑色素which reduces the skin#39;s ability to produce黑色素会降低皮肤在太阳照射下vitamin D after sun exposure.生成维生素D的能力Prolonged inadequate intake of vitamin D长期的维生素D摄入不足will lead to impaired bone metabolism.会导致骨骼新陈代谢受损In children under mineralization of bone causes对于处于骨骼矿化时期的孩子soft and deformed bones and can lead to维生素D摄入不足会导致软骨和畸形骨骼the condition known as rickets. Rickets is rare可能会发展成为佝偻病in the US today but was fairly common佝偻病在今天的美国是很少见到的as recently as 100 years ago. When children developed但是在100年前,这一疾病在美国是很常见的rickets their legs were too weak to hold their weight当儿童患有佝偻病时,他们的腿会疲软无力resulting in bowed legs which often persisted不能够撑起他们的体重,最后导致双腿的弯曲into adulthood. Osteomalacia is the adult form这种情况会一直持续到成年时期of rickets and leads to impaired mobility软骨病是佝偻病成年化的形式and bone fractures. And osteoporosis is the condition会导致活动障碍和骨折that leads to weak and porous bones.软骨病会导致脆弱和疏松骨质Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body.钙是人体最为丰富的矿物质There are two major roles for calcium.它有两个主要用途By far the majority of calcium found in the body到目前为止,研究发现is stored in the bones and teeth providing身体里大部分钙都贮藏在骨骼和牙齿中structural support. However there is a very small起到撑身体结构的作用and tightly controlled amount of calcium that然而,还有一小部分钙在血液里循环circulates in the blood. This calcium is required for血液钙含量得到严格的控制muscles to contract, blood vessels to expand血液里的钙质帮助肌肉收缩and contract, secretion of hormones and enzymes帮助血管扩张和收缩and transmission of impulses throughout促进荷尔蒙和酶的分泌the nervous system. All these functions are supported并且帮助传播神经系统里的脉冲with less than 1% of the total body calcium.所有这些功能只用到了人体中全部钙质的1%A wide range of people may be at risk for许多人也许会因为缺钙calcium deficiency. Children and youth require而威胁身体健康adequate amounts of calcium to ensure proper儿童和青少年需要充足的钙量bone development. Consumption of dairy products,来保正常的骨骼发育,在骨骼发育的时期particularly milk, during these developmental years乳制品,尤其是牛奶的摄入是非常重要的is of great importance. As adults bone mineral loss在衰老过程中,成年人骨骼中矿物质的流失begins to exceed accumulation in the natural超过了它的积累aging process. Post-menopausal women and绝经后的妇女以及老年人the elderly can become at risk of calcium deficiency会出现钙缺乏associated with bone loss. People with poor diets,并伴随着骨质疏松,这会给健康带来威胁particularly lacking in dairy foods due to膳食质量差的人,尤其是因乳糖不耐症lactose intolerance or vegetarianism may also be而缺乏乳制品摄入的人,或者素食主义at risk for calcium deficiency. If dairy foods可能会因为钙缺乏而对健康造成隐患are not tolerated calcium supplements如果无法食用乳制品should be considered at any age.那么很早的年纪就应该考虑食用钙补充剂 Article/201508/391408。

Children diagnosed with soft tissue sarcoma,被诊断有软组织肉瘤、神经母细胞瘤、neuroblastoma, non Hodgkin’s lymphoma, brain tumors,非霍奇金淋巴瘤、脑瘤的孩子male survivors of leukemia, non amputated females白血病的幸存男士,患有骨癌with bone cancer, Wilms tumors and survivors of但没被截肢的女士和肾母细胞瘤、霍奇金病Hodgkin’s disease are more likely to be underweight幸存者在以后的生活中更有可能消瘦不已later in life whereas children diagnosed with acute而患有严重的淋巴细胞性白血病的孩子lymphoblastic leukemia and those receiving cranial和接受颅放射治疗的脑瘤患者radiation therapy for brain tumors were at a higher极有可能会变得risk of becoming overweight and even obese.超重甚至肥胖The reasons behind these trends are still being造成这些趋势的原因researched however possible implications associated还在研究之中with being underweight include being malnourished但是,与消瘦有关的可能原因有while receiving total body radiation, treatment with一是在接受全身辐射和腹部辐射治疗时abdominal radiation and being at a very young age营养不良,二是在很小的时候when treatment begins.就接受治疗The use of aranthrocyclenes and atinomyasin后期的生活中变得消瘦which are powerful chemotherapy drugs are also可能与药效大的化学药物—associated with becoming underweight later in lifearanthrocyclenes和atinomyasin有关because they cause structural and functional injuries因为他们会造成胃肠道的结构和功能损伤to the gastro intestinal tract preventing an adequate以致在后来的生活中oral intake even later in life.口食物得不到充足的营养This chart gives an overall comparison of the short这个图表对在儿童癌症时期营养不良的term and long term consequences of malnutrition during短期和长期影响做了全面的比较childhood cancer. The ones that we have aly我们上面讨论过的那些副作用是粗体的discussed are bolded and some other important另外一些重要的结果包括consequences include the wasting of muscle and消耗掉肌肉和脂肪量fat mass, drug dose alterations, retardation of药物用量改变、阻滞了骨骼肌的发展skeletal muscles and even an increased risk for甚至增加了二次癌症的危险secondary cancers. So clearly avoiding malnutrition显而易见,在治疗期间避免营养不良during treatment is extremely important. We will now是极其重要的turn our focus to the nutritional interventions that我们将把注意力转移到can be used to avoid malnutrition. We will now turn可以避免营养不良的our attentions to the nutritional interventions营养干预上 这种营养干预最常用在most commonly used in a clinical setting.临床环境中There are 3 main feeding practices used in healthcare在医疗保健设施中有三种主要的喂养方式facilities, supplemental or oral feeding, enteral or补授法或经口喂养,肠内管饲和tube feeding and parenteral or IV feeding.肠内或静脉注射Oral feeding is the best method of support for对营养缺乏不严重的病人,patients with a low nutritional risk. Some children口喂养是最好的方式will still need dietary supplements due to an increase由于对营养的需求增大,如钙in nutrient needs such as calcium. Ideally there一些孩子通常需要膳食补充剂 理想状况下should be flexibility in choice and meal times.对菜单的选择和吃饭时间应该灵活安排Studies have shown that a more flexible meal service研究表明,相比而言灵活的进餐务对can lead to a significant increase in children’s food,孩子们的食物、蛋白质和能量吸收protein and energy intakes.有重要的作用Enteral nutrition is a practical method when oral儿童在口营养,体重仍然持续下降时intake and the weight of a child continue to decrease.肠内营养是个很实用的方式Enteral nutrition works well if the child’s gut is如果儿童的肠道功能如果仍然很好的话still functioning properly. Enteral feeding also has那么肠内营养就能起到很好的作用the advantage of preserving the integrity of the肠道喂养对于保持肠道粘液的完整也是intestinal mucousa. Parenteral nutrition is best used非常有益的 而在儿童肠道功能不再正常when the child’s gut is no longer functioning的情况下,肠胃外的营养则是最好的方法correctly. This bypassing the usual process of eating这种肠胃外营养是避开正常的进食及消化and digestion and feeding the child intravenously.通过对儿童进行静脉注射来喂养他们Research has indicated that when normal oral intake研究表明,在不能正常口时,肠内营养is not possible enteral nutrition has more在生理上比肠胃外营养更具有优势physiological benefits compared to parenteral nutrition这优势包括保持小肠绒毛including the maintenance of the heightened activity of及小肠刷状缘酶活性的提高intestinal villi and brush border enzymes,能更好地保护better preservation of specific gut nutrients such as小肠营养内特殊物质glutamine and short chain fatty acids and an upholding比如像谷酰酶、短链脂肪酸of the mucosal membrane surrounding the intestine.和撑小肠周围黏膜的薄膜Enteral nutrition is also associated with fewer肠内营养也和不少的传染病infections and complications however many studies are以及并发症相关continuing to show that parenteral nutrition is more许多研究不断表明,肠胃外营养successful at preventing and correcting malnutrition.在预防和改善营养不良这方面做的比较成功 Article/201501/351687。

栏目简介:;Shanghai Live; focuses on big events in the city and major issues around the world, and presents them in a practical and audience-friendly manner to meet the ever-evolving needs of Shanghai#39;s English-speaking viewers,both local and expatriate.《直播上海英语电台》集中报道城市大事件以及全球热点话题,并以观众喜闻乐见的方式呈现给大家,从而满足上海本地以及上海海外人士的英语需求。 Article/201509/400778。

l heard that my brother had passed away through my sister Janet,我珍娜告知我说 我弟去世了who asked me to pull over #39;cause l was rushing over to my mom#39;s.她要我先把车停在路边 因我正赶着去我妈那l just couldn#39;t believe it.我简直不敢相信so, l had to just sit in my car and pull myself together,我先坐在车里冷静下来you know, and l went over to my mom#39;s home.然后开到我妈家The entire family had met that evening,那晚召开家庭会议and was there condoling each other, you know.我们安慰着彼此lt was rough.Just the whole time was a rough time in my life.很难过 整段时期都很难熬lt#39;s so very difficult even to talk about it. lt really is.现在要聊这话题 还是很困难l was heartbroken.l was just totally heartbroken.我心都碎了 完全的心碎lt was probably one of the most surreal那可能是人生中最不真实and solemn days of life as we know it, l would think.也最沉重的一段日子吧 Article/201511/410384。