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来源:度排名好医生    发布时间:2020年01月22日 15:31:34    编辑:admin         

Stop for a second and notice the way you are sitting. Back curved, shoulders slumped, maybe legs crossed? For people who spend the day staring at a computer screen, this position is fairly typical. But what is it doing to your spine, if anything? Do we need to sit up straight to focus, like that mean math teacher once insisted? Here’s some straight talk from one expert, Mladen Golubic, medical director for the Center for Lifestyle Medicine at Cleveland Clinic’s Wellness Institute.停下手里的事情,注意一下你的坐姿吧!驼背、缩肩,说不定还翘着二郎腿?对于整天盯着电脑屏幕的人来说,这个姿势相当典型。然而,如果这种坐姿会伤害你的脊柱呢?另外,我们真的必须坐直了才能集中精力吗,就像小时候严厉的数学老师要求的那样?克里夫兰诊所健康协会(Cleveland Clinic’s Wellness Institute)生活方式医疗中心(Center for Lifestyle Medicine)的医学主任穆雷登#8226;戈卢比奇(Mladen Golubic)就坐姿问题畅谈了自己的看法。Degrees of Comfort舒适的坐姿角度Little research has been done on the best way to sit upright. One American meta study in 1999 concluded that sitting at an angle of 110 to 130 degrees was optimal for spine comfort. A Scottish study published in 2007 found that leaning back at 135 degrees is ideal to prevent back strain. While interesting, this sort of precision may be impractical for most people, Dr. Golubic says.至今,围绕最佳坐姿的研究仍寥寥可数。美国的一项于1999年进行的整合分析研究指出,身体躯干和大腿呈100度至130度角的坐姿最能令脊柱放松。苏格兰的一项于2007年发表了论文的研究发现,角度为135度的后仰坐姿对防止背部酸痛最为有利。戈卢比奇士表示,虽然这些研究令人颇感兴趣,但对于大多数人来讲,如此精确地拿捏坐姿角度或许并不可行。Sitting to Death?久坐伤身His clinic sees patients with multiple chronic illnesses. Nearly all of them sit for long periods each day. The term Sedentary Death Syndrome was coined by the President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports in 2002 to address the growing consequences of a seated lifestyle. ‘There are studies on Sedentary Death Syndrome that show that sitting for hours can cause anything from lower back pain to high cholesterol, diabetes and obesity,’ he says. In other words, no matter what position you’re sitting in all day, it is pretty bad for you.克里夫兰诊所治疗过患有多种慢性疾病的病人。几乎所有这类患者都是每天久坐不动。2002年,美国总统健康及运动委员会(President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports)为应对久坐的生活方式所带来的日益严峻的问题创造了一个新词──体力活动缺乏综合症(Sedentary Death Syndrome)。戈卢比奇士称:“有关体力活动缺乏综合症的研究表明,久坐数个小时可能引发腰痛、高胆固醇、糖尿病及肥胖症等多种疾病。”换句话说,不管用哪种坐姿整天坐着,对你的身体都颇为有害。The Perfect Pose最佳坐姿Body posture determines the efficiency of your breathing. ‘Relaxed, straight sitting’ — with the core strong, shoulder blades active but not tight and spine erect — ‘expands your chest, allowing you to take in a larger breath . . . and you’ll have more energy and focus,’ Dr. Golubic says. To achieve this, sit away from the back of your chair so you don’t slump, with your feet placed firmly on the ground. He sometimes sends patients home with a blue dot to put on their computer screens as a reminder to sit up straight and stretch and take a deep breath when they feel pain. There is also an app called PostureTrack that alerts users when they’re slumping.身体姿势是对呼吸效果起决定性作用的因素。戈卢比奇士说,“放松,坐直”──保持身体核心稳定、打开但别绷紧肩胛骨并挺直脊柱──“挺胸,深呼吸……你会感觉到更有活力,更能集中精力”。为保持这样的坐姿,你需要和椅背保持一定距离,以防止自己瘫靠在椅子上,同时你的双脚应该稳稳地踩在地上。有些时候,他会让患者把一个蓝色的圆点贴纸带回家贴到电脑上,以此提醒患者在感觉到酸痛时,应该坐直、舒展身体并深呼吸。另外,有一款名为PostureTrack的应用程序可以在用户弯腰驼背时发出警报。Slump to a Hump弯腰驼背的害处It’s not as though slouching will give you a hunchback in a day, but ‘if you do this day after day, and your muscles are not strong, the whole skeleton changes,’ Dr. Golubic says. ‘I’m not aware of any studies that look at the changes in the volume of organs like the liver and spleen when you sit straight or slump forward. But we do know that when you slouch, you project an attitude of depression and low motivation.’ When you sit up straight, he adds, ‘psychologically, your attitude is better.’并不是说坐没坐相会让你在一天之内变成驼背,但戈卢比奇士称:“如果长此以往,你的肌肉又不够强壮,你全身的骨骼就会变形。据我所知,还没有哪项课题就人坐直时和驼背时内脏(如肝脏和脾脏)的体积变化进行过研究。但是我们知道的是,当你驼背时,你会传递出令人感觉你萎靡不振和情绪低落的信号。”他补充道,当你坐直时,“给人感觉你的心理状态比较好”。Core Message腰痛发出的信号If you’re not used to sitting up straight, you may feel lower back pain — an indicator that you need to strengthen your core and work on general fitness. Dr. Golubic almost always advises his patients to start yoga: ‘The first thing we learn in yoga is how to sit properly.’如果你还不习惯于直坐,你可能会感觉到腰痛──这说明你需要进行核心力量训练并提高身体的综合素质。基本上,戈卢比奇会建议所有的患者开始练习瑜伽:“在瑜伽课上,我们最先学习的就是正确的坐姿。”Walk, Don’t Sit多走并避免久坐The bottom line: How you sit is less important than how long you sit, Dr. Golubic says. He tries to get up from his desk often, doing ‘walking meetings’ with colleagues and taking phone calls outdoors. ‘If you cannot walk,’ he says, ‘At least stand.’底线:戈卢比奇士称,坐姿如何远不及坐的时间长短对身体的影响大。他本人会尽可能频繁地离开书桌,和同事们“边走路边开会”,并到室外接打电话。他说:“如果你没有条件走动,至少该多站站。” /201311/262934。

How to Get 6-Pack Abs如何练出6块腹肌Every man ds and awaits the albatross of the elusive 6 pack abdomen. Call it the ills of Pornography or heightened ideals of women,but every man is being subjected to the prospect of having the perfect body and a ripping 6pack is the right way to stay ahead of the obese curve.Here’s how you can get your own.每个男人对诡秘的6块腹肌是又爱又恨。称之为色情的弊端或是女人的理想。但每个男人都期待着完美体形,而且漂亮的六块腹肌乃是远离肥胖曲线的好方法。这里详述了你该如何练就6块腹肌。 /201407/314199。

To shield any future children from the fear she harbors of getting breast cancer, Katie Dowdy underwent a controversial procedure to select embryos of hers that were free of a genetic mutation linked to the disease. 为了不让孩子将来像自己一样害怕患上乳腺癌,凯蒂·道迪(Katie Dowdy)做了一项充满争议的检查,以挑选出不携带一种被认为与乳腺癌相关的基因突变的胚胎。Deciding to have the procedure, called preimplantation genetic diagnosis, or PGD, wasn#39;t easy, says Ms. Dowdy. Her husband initially #39;worried about playing God,#39; she says. #39;I thought, if I could have a healthy baby who doesn#39;t have to worry about the same thing I did, why wouldn#39;t I?#39; says the 34-year-old, who hasn#39;t had cancer. The couple, who live in Castle Pines, Colo., now have two young girls, both born using PGD. 道迪说,决定做这项名叫“着床前遗传学诊断”(简称PGD)的检查并不是一个容易的过程。她说,起初丈夫“担心自己是在扮演上帝的角色”。现年34岁、没有得过癌症的她说:“我想,如果我能有一个健康的孩子,不需要担心我所担心的事情,那我为什么不做呢?”夫妇俩家住科罗拉多州派恩堡,现有两个年幼的女儿,都是在做了PGD之后出生的。Preimplantation genetic diagnosis has long been available during IVF, or in vitro fertilization, to eliminate the risk of passing on severe disorders such as spinal muscular atrophy and cystic fibrosis. Now, fertility clinics say they are seeing a small but increasing number of women choosing PGD to avoid giving birth to children who carry mutations in the BRCA genes, which increase the risk for breast and other cancers. 防范于未然着床前遗传学诊断(PGD)检查胚胎有没有某种可能会从父母身上遗传而来的遗传缺陷。以下是PGD检查的一些疾病:#39;It#39;s on the rise because more people are becoming aware that there#39;s a genetic component to breast cancer,#39; says Mark Hughes, founder of Genesis Genetics, in Plymouth, Mich., which offers reproductive-genetics-diagnosis services to fertility clinics nationwide. 囊性纤维化Critics fear genetically vetting embryos can be used to create so-called designer babies. Embryos with the gene mutation may be discarded, which some critics also oppose. Gender selection is one form of embryo-testing that stirs ethical questions. Some clinics will agree to select for a specific sex only for health reasons -- to avoid a disease such as hemophilia, for example, which typically is passed only to boys. Opponents of PGD for breast cancer also say that having a BRCA-gene mutation doesn#39;t mean a person will necessarily get the disease and that there are options for detecting and treating the cancer. 血友病A parent with a mutation on the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes has a 50-50 chance of transmitting it to the next generation. Between 45% and 65% of women with the mutations are expected to be diagnosed with breast cancer by age 70, according to the National Cancer Institute. That compares with about 12% of women in the general population. 亨廷顿氏舞蹈症BRCA mutations, which also increase the risk for ovarian, prostate and other cancers in men and women, are relatively rare, accounting for 5% to 10% of all breast cancers. Some women undergo prophylactic mastectomy to reduce their chances of getting the disease. 马方氏综合征In Ms. Dowdy#39;s family, the specter of breast cancer hovers. Her paternal grandmother died in 1979, five months before Ms. Dowdy was born. Several of her grandmother#39;s sisters also got breast cancer. Ms. Dowdy#39;s father had a genetic test and found he had inherited the BRCA1 mutation. When she was 27, a test showed Ms. Dowdy also had the mutation. 肌肉萎缩After her aunt, who shares the same mutation, had a prophylactic mastectomy, Ms. Dowdy researched her options and learned about PGD. Ms. Dowdy says she and her husband had struggled to conceive. Figuring they would need fertility assistance, also doing PGD to avoid passing on the BRCA mutation seemed like an obvious precaution. 地中海贫血The PGD process begins with standard IVF. After two weeks of hormonal stimulation, eggs are retrieved, fertilized and left to multiply for five days. Then a laboratory scrutinizes several cells, looking for gene mutations. The analysis isn#39;t believed to harm the embryo. Embryos without BRCA mutations are earmarked for transfer into a woman#39;s uterus. 黑蒙性白痴Two of Ms. Dowdy#39;s seven embryos were BRCA-mutation free. Both were transferred to her uterus. One implanted and grew to become a daughter, Reagan, born in 2010. Ms. Dowdy and her husband opted for PGD again to conceive another child, Mackenzie, born in March. 脊髓性肌萎缩Only recently have some doctors started discussing PGD with women who have a breast-cancer mutation. More often, BRCA-positive women learn about the procedure on their own. #39;We write about it in our newsletter and we#39;ve done webinars on it, but not everyone knows about it,#39; says Sue Friedman, executive director of Force, a nonprofit patient-support group focused on hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. 镰状细胞贫血For women who have no trouble conceiving, the choice to do PGD involves the added hassle of fertility treatment. PGD can add about ,000 to the price of IVF, which runs at least ,000, depending on the clinic, plus thousands of dollars more for medications. 资料来源:纽约大学生殖中心(NYU Fertility Center)很久以来,在试管受精的操作过程中,都可以通过着床前遗传学诊断来消除将脊髓性肌萎缩、囊性纤维化等严重缺陷遗传下去的风险。而现在,据生殖医院说,数量不大但越来越多的女性都在选择做PGD以避免生下携带BRCA基因突变的孩子。BRCA基因突变会增加患乳腺癌和其他癌症的风险。#39;It#39;s by no means 100% [of eligible women] who are choosing to do it,#39; says William Schoolcraft, medical director of the Colorado Center for Reproductive Medicine in Lone Tree, Colo., and Ms. Dowdy#39;s doctor. Dr. Schoolcraft says he has done about 10 PGD procedures to eliminate a BRCA mutation in the past three years. He has heard some patients say #39; #39;My grandma had it, my aunt had it, my mom had it. I want to stop this train.#39; Others have the attitude that if my baby turns out like me, so be it.#39; 密歇根州普利茅斯堡的Genesis Genetics为全国生殖医院提供生殖遗传学诊断务。创始人马克·休斯(Mark Hughes)说:“之所以数量在上升,是因为越来越多的人懂得乳腺癌包含遗传成分。”Even after an embryo selected through PGD is successfully implanted, some doctors recommend an amniocentesis or another prenatal test called CVS to make sure there isn#39;t a BRCA-gene mutation. 批评者担心,经过遗传学检查的胚胎有可能被用于制造“定制婴儿”(designer baby)。含有基因突变的胚胎可能被抛弃,这也是一些批评者所反对的。性别选择是激起伦理争议的胚胎检查形式之一。一些医院只会同意出于健康原因而选择某个性别,比如说规避常常只遗传给男孩的血友病等。乳腺癌PGD反对者还说,携带BRCA基因突变并不意味着人一定会得这种病,而且乳腺癌的侦测和治疗还有其他方法。#39;You have to think of it from the perspective of a woman whose life has been turned upside down by breast cancer and the guilt associated with choosing to have a baby that could have those same problems,#39; says James Grifo, director of the Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility at NYU Fertility Center. 携带BRCA1或BRCA2基因突变的父母有50%的概率将它遗传给下一代。根据国家癌症研究所(National Cancer Institute)数据,45%到65%携带这些突变的女性预计会在70岁之前被诊断出乳腺癌。相比之下,一般女性的这个概率在12%左右。Bonnie RochmanBRCA突变也会增加男性和女性罹患上卵巢癌、前列腺癌等癌症的风险。这类突变相对少见,占所有乳腺癌的5%到10%。有些女性通过做预防性乳房切除术来降低患乳腺癌的风险。 /201404/291935。

COSTA MESA, Calif. — On a hot summer day, nearly two dozen Chinese tourists descended from a white shuttle bus for an afternoon of shopping at one of Southern California#39;s signature upscale malls.加利福尼亚科斯塔梅萨——一个炎热的夏天,20多名中国游客从一辆白色班车上下来,打算花一下午的时间,在南加州最具标志性的一座高端商场购物。One tourist conferred with a salesman at South Coast Plaza about a plum-colored, 0 Prada handbag while fellow visitors on the 10-day tour sauntered through the mall, each with their sole child in tow, after a morning of whale watching off the California coast.一名游客在南海岸广场(South Coast Plaza)与售货员谈论一只紫红色的售价610美元(约合3754元人民币)的普拉达(Prada)手提包,而其他参加这个10天旅程的游客则在商场里闲逛,每个人都牵着独生的孩子。他们上午刚刚在加州海岸观看了鲸鱼表演。It#39;s a common scene at the popular destination in Orange County, which is doing what it can to keep buses filled with Chinese tourists coming. To make them feel at home, it accepts China#39;s UnionPay card and provides Mandarin-speaking salespeople.这在热门旅游目的地奥兰治县(Orange County)是常见景象。奥兰治县正在竭尽所能地让满载着中国游客的大巴不断到来。为了让中国人有宾至如归之感,它还接受中国银联卡,并配有讲普通话的销售人员。From the mall#39;s shops to tourist spots that offer maps and brochures in Mandarin to hotels serving congee, or rice porridge, for breakfast, businesses in California are trying to entice the growing numbers of Chinese tourists coming to the U.S. to visit the state — and spend money.从商场里的商店,到提供中文版地图和宣传册的旅游景点,再到提供粥当早餐的酒店,加州企业正试图把越来越多来美国旅游的中国游客吸引到加州——并让他们花钱。Tourism from China to the U.S. has soared since the countries signed an agreement in 2007 promoting travel. More than 1.8 million Chinese visited last year, a three-fold increase in five years. By 2018, the number is expected to surpass 4 million, according to the U.S. Department of Commerce.自从2007年中美两国签订一项旨在推动旅游业发展的协议以来,前往美国的中国游客就开始大量增加。去年共有180万以上的中国游客来到美国,在五年内增加了三倍。美国商务部(Department of Commerce)表示,这个数字预计到2018年将超过400万。California, the No. 1 destination, holds particular allure due to its proximity to China, theme parks and sunny weather. Nearly half of all Chinese tourists make a stop in the state.作为最受欢迎的目的地,加州因为邻近中国,再加上它拥有主题公园和阳光灿烂的天气,所以极具吸引力。有将近一半的中国游客都要在加州停留。Haybina Hao, of the National Tour Association, which qualifies U.S.-based tour operators to receive Chinese tour groups under the 2007 agreement, said the tourists are keen to see how a relatively young country like the U.S. developed so quickly and became so prosperous.美国国家旅游协会(National Tour Association)是根据2007年的协议为接待中国旅游团的美国旅行社颁发资格的组织。该组织的赫比娜·郝(Haybina Hao)说,游客非常想看看一个像美国这样相对年轻的国家为何会发展得这么快,又为何会变得如此繁荣。;Until they have visited U.S.A., they don#39;t feel they have done their international travel yet,; Hao said. ;They need to see it and put themselves in the photograph, so they can prove they have done this.;“如果没有来过美国,他们觉得自己好像没出国旅游过一样,”赫比娜·郝说。“他们要亲眼看看美国,然后把自己拍进照片,这样他们才能明自己做过这件事。”During their travels, they each spend an average of ,400, 21 percent more than the average for all overseas tourists.在此次旅行中,他们每人的平均花费为5400美元,比所有外国游客的平均值高21%。;We see tremendous potential,; said Nick Hentschel, vice president of AmericanTours International LLC. He said 15 percent of the company#39;s business now stems from China compared to virtually none a little more than five years ago.“我们看到了巨大的潜力,”美国国际旅游有限责任公司(AmericanTours International LLC)的尼克·亨切尔(Nick Hentschel)说。他说目前公司业务有15%都来自中国,而五年多以前几乎为零。Hentschel said China is the only country where ATI, which originally focused on tourism from Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, has opened a local office. ;But it is cutthroat,; he said, adding that some tour operators slashed prices to vie for a place in the Chinese market.ATI开始关注的是来自西欧、澳大利亚和新西兰的旅游业务。亨切尔说,中国是唯一一个ATI在当地设有办公室的国家,“但是很残酷,”他还说为了在中国游客市场争得一席之地,一些旅行社大幅降价。At first, tours from China mostly included older people, some who had saved for years to make the trip. But now more also include middle-aged parents bringing their only child to see America and school groups of teens who tour during summer break.最初,中国来的游客大多是上了年纪的人,其中一些人为了一趟旅行积攒了很多年。但现在,游客中带独生子女来见识美国的中年父母,以及放暑假的青少年组成的学校团体更多了。Many are eager to visit Disneyland and snap photographs at landmarks such as the Hollywood sign and San Francisco#39;s Golden Gate Bridge. They enjoy trying American foods — steak is a favorite — and taking advantage of cheaper prices for designer goods.许多人渴望去迪士尼乐园(Disneyland),在好莱坞标志以及旧金山的金门大桥(Golden Gate Bridge)等标志性建筑旁拍照。他们乐于尝试美国食物——牛排最受欢迎——购买价钱更实惠的名牌商品。;It#39;s shopping paradise,; said 35-year-old Cici Chen on a stop at Disney California Adventure. Chen said she planned to fill up her suitcases on her California vacation before returning to Shanghai.“这里是购物天堂,”35岁的陈琦琦(音译)说。在迪士尼加州冒险乐园(Disney California Adventure)游玩的她说自己打算在结束在加州的度假、回上海之前,把几个箱子都装满。In the early years, Disney officials traveled to China to try to explain to the elder generations what the park was about since many weren#39;t as familiar with American stories and movies as are younger visitors today.早年,迪士尼的员工前往中国,尝试向老一代人解释迪士尼乐园是怎么回事,因为许多人不像如今更年轻的游客那么熟悉美国的故事和电影。;A challenge was many of our Chinese guests were not familiar with the Disney stories,; said Nicky Tang, director of Asia Pacific sales for Disney Destinations, of the older generation of tourists. ;They grew up not knowing who Snow White is or Cinderella or Peter Pan.;“当时的挑战是,我们的中国游客中许多都不熟悉迪士尼的故事,”迪士尼亚太地区销售总监邓庆玲(Nicky Tang)指的是老一辈游客。“他们在成长过程中不知道白雪公主(Snow White)、灰姑娘(Cinderella)和彼得·潘(Peter Pan)是谁。Many Chinese tourists see America from large tour buses, while some travel in smaller groups or rent cars to explore on their own. Others come on trips sponsored by employers as job-related perks, and travel in huge groups.很多中国游客从旅游大巴上欣赏美国,还有一些则是跟着规模小一些的旅游团,或是自己租车游历。其他一些人的旅行则是和工作有关的特殊待遇,由雇主出资赞助,会成群结队地出行。A 7,000-strong contingent held a two-day meeting in Southern California earlier this year and then fanned out to travel across the region. A group more than twice that size is expected in California next year, said Ed Fuller, president of the Orange County Visitors Association.今年早些时候,一个7000人的庞大团体在南加州举行了一次为期两天的会议。会议结束后,这些人四散而去,在加州各地旅行。奥兰治县旅游观光协会(Orange County Visitors Association)主席埃德·富勒(Ed Fuller)表示,明年加州预计会迎来一个规模是其两倍多的团体。Zhang Huan, 42, was among those touring Disney California Adventure with his wife, mother-in-law and 11-year-old son. He said he budgeted ,000 for the family#39;s first U.S. trip. While the itinerary mostly focused on leisure, Zhang said he was also looking forward to making a stop with his son at a college campus.42岁的张欢(音译)是迪士尼加州冒险乐园的游客之一。和他同行的有妻子、岳母和11岁的儿子。他说自己为一家人的首次美国之旅安排的预算是2万美元。尽管旅行计划主要重在休闲,但张欢说他也期望和儿子去某个大学校园看看。He hopes it#39;s not the last visit there.他希望这不是最后一次美国之旅。;If he can study hard, he can go to Stanford,; Zhang said.“如果努力,他或许能上斯坦福,”张欢说。 /201408/324670。

As a water planner in Utah, Pat Crowley had grown frustrated that his message of conservation was being largely ignored by an agriculture industry intent on siphoning off the Colorado River to keep crops in California and other Western states succulent.帕特·克劳利原本是美国犹他州的一名水资源规划师,他一直热衷于传播水资源保护理念。但农业界一心只想着如何从科罗拉多河抽取河水来滋养加利福尼亚州和西部其他州的农作物,对于他的理论基本上置若罔闻,这让克劳利非常沮丧。Then a few years ago, the 34-year-old whitewater rafting enthusiast was listening to a TED talk on edible insects, which touted the critters as a surprising potent source of protein. The more he heard about the potential water savings from swapping insects for traditional protein like soy and grains, the more he realized it might be time to change professions.几年前,这位34岁的漂流爱好者有机会聆听了一场TED演讲,主题是可食用昆虫。演讲者把这些小动物誉为惊人的蛋白质来源。而且,放弃诸如大豆和谷物这类传统的蛋白质来源,转而利用小昆虫,显然具有节约用水的巨大潜力。他越听越觉得,可能是时候改变职业了。After toying with farming insects in 2011 for animal feed, Crowley, his wife Erica Koltenuk, co-founder Dan O’Neill and several friends set up shop in a local restaurant in Salt Lake City and began experimenting with making flour from crickets. Yes, crickets– through a process whereby the bugs are roasted, ground into a powder, and added to a mixture that also includes organic dates, nuts and spices.2011年,在抱着玩玩的心态饲养了一些用于动物饲料的昆虫之后,克劳利和妻子埃里卡o科尔特努克、联合创始人丹o奥尼尔以及几个朋友在盐湖城开设了一家餐厅,开始尝试着以蟋蟀为原料制作面粉。是的,以蟋蟀为原料。具体流程是,先焙烧这些小虫子,研磨成粉,然后将它们添加到一种还包括有机枣,坚果和香料的混合物之中。A year later, they unveiled Chapul cricket bars, the first-ever energy bar made from cricket flour. The bars, each containing the equivalent of 25 crickets and claiming to contain twice the protein of their competitors, are now in over 200 health food, bike and extreme sports stores nationwide—the latest being Colorado-based Natural Grocers, a chain of 100 stores in the Midwest and West.一年后,他们推出第一款使用蟋蟀粉制作的能量棒——Chapul蟋蟀棒。每个能量棒包含大约25只蟋蟀,其蛋白质含量据说是竞争对手的两倍。现在,这款能量棒已经进入200多家位于全美各地的保健食品、单车和极限运动商店。最新一家合作伙伴是总部位于科罗拉多州,在中西部和西部地区拥有100家门店的Natural Grocers连锁零售公司。“I decided to create a consumer product that would make it a very easy first step for people to try insects in a way that wasn’t a novelty but incorporate it into a staple food – make it more of a nutritional product,” says Crowley, who has long blond hair and bears a passing resemblance to the late Kurt Cobain. “This was definitely a mission-driven endeavor. It turns out the market has been responsive to it.”克劳利说,“我决定创建一种消费产品,让人们很容易迈出品尝昆虫的第一步,因为这种食品把昆虫融入一种主食,这样它就更像是一种营养产品,这种吃法不算特别新奇。”留着一头金色长发的克劳利看上去颇像已故歌星科特o柯本。“这是一次完全受使命感推动的尝试。事实明,市场对我们的努力做出了响应。”The bar got a huge boost when Crowley, dressed in a Chapul T-shirt and carrying a container of crickets, was selected to appear in March on the entrepreneur show Shark Tank, the hit business competition show on A in which entrepreneurs pitch their ideas to a panel of judges. After initial reactions of “you gotta be kidding” and “there is no way I’m eating that,” the panel warmed to the product—and panelist and Dallas Mavericks owner Mark Cuban agreed to invest ,000 for a 15 percent stake in the business (“Let’s eat some crickets,” he told Crowley).3月份,当克劳利身穿Chapul T恤,携带一个装满蟋蟀的容器出现在A电视台收视率极高的创业节目《鲨鱼坦克》(SharkTank) 时,这种能量棒的知名度瞬间暴涨。参与这档商业竞争节目的创业者往往需要使出浑身解数,向一组评委推销他们的创业点子。乍一听克劳利介绍完,评委们纷纷表示,“你肯定是在开玩笑,”“我绝对不会吃这玩意,”但他们随后对这款产品产生了浓厚兴趣。担任评委的达拉斯小牛队 (Dallas Mavericks)老板马克o库班当场拍板,承诺将投资5万美元购买这家公司15%的股权(“让我们吃一些蟋蟀吧,”他告诉克劳利)。“It’s a solution to a problem,” Cuban said via Twitter. “We need better sources of protein and over time I think consumer habits will change.”“这是一个解决问题的方法,”库班通过Twitter表示。“我们需要更好的蛋白质来源,假以时日,我认为消费习惯会发生变化。”In fact, Chapul is just one of a dozen or more new companies attempting to change the way Americans look at bugs. Brooklyn-based Exo is making protein bars, Boston-based-Six Foods is planning to sell tortilla chips made from cricket flour, and All Things Bugs, a Gainesville, FL-based firm founded by an entomologist, is looking to sell its own cricket flour to this burgeoning market. EnviroFlight in Ohio and AgriProtein in South Africa, meanwhile, are among at least four companies globally producing insects for the pet food, aquaculture or animal feed markets.事实上,除了Chapul之外,还有十几家新公司正在尝试着改变人们看待小昆虫的方式。布鲁克林的EXO公司正在制作蛋白质能量棒。波士顿Six Foods公司打算销售用蟋蟀粉制作的墨西哥炸玉米片。总部位于佛罗里达州盖恩斯维尔,由一位昆虫学家创建的All Things Bugs公司也计划向这个新兴市场销售自己的蟋蟀粉。与此同时,至少有四家公司正在全球各地针对宠物食品,水产养殖或动物饲料市场生产昆虫,比如俄亥俄州的EnviroFlight公司和南非的AgriProtein公司。The big opportunity they see: the consumption of insects as protein is much less taxing on the environment—growing, harvesting and processing them takes far less resources than chickens, cows and pigs, one percent of the greenhouse gasses of cattle and 100 times less water—so they tap into the current sustainability craze. They’re rich in protein and other key nutrients like omega-3 acids. And the products can be made at a low cost—until now, with very little competition.他们看到了一个大机遇:消费昆虫蛋白质对环境的损害要远低于传统蛋白质来源——与鸡、牛和猪相比,饲养、收获和加工昆虫耗费的资源要少得多。因此,这类食品特别容易拨动热衷于可持续发展理念的当代人的心弦。昆虫含有丰富的蛋白质和诸如ω-3脂肪酸这类关键的营养素。这类产品的制作成本相对较低,而且直到目前,竞争对手寥寥无几。But convincing Americans to eat anything containing creepy crawlers is not an easy sell. Unlike the developing world, where the U.N.’s Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that two billion people depend daily on as many as 1,900 insect species for food, Americans and much of the West have long considered spiders, grasshoppers, crickets, flies and bees to be a nuisance that must be swatted away or stamped out.但要说美国人吃任何一种以令人毛骨悚然的爬虫为原料的食物,可不是一件容易做到的事情。不同于很多发展中国家——联合国粮农组织(Food and Agriculture Organization)估计,有20亿发展中国家人口每天依靠多达1,900种昆虫为食——美国人和其他西方国家一向认为蜘蛛、蝗虫、蟋蟀、苍蝇和蜜蜂皆是令人不胜其扰的小动物,必须赶紧驱离,或者干脆当场歼灭。But Crowley and other edible insect aficionados are counting on younger, environmentally-conscious Millennials to move the sector beyond gag gifts like lollipops with scorpions or one-off bug buffets to become a staple in health food stores, snack stands and the larger food chain. The key, they say, is playing up the health benefits of eating products with insects while emphasizing bugs’ small environmental footprint.但克劳利和其他可食用昆虫爱好者正在把推动这个行业的希望寄托在更年轻,更具环保意识的千禧一代身上,希望他们不只是把昆虫食品当作类似蝎子棒棒糖这种恶作剧礼物,或者一次性自助餐,还会推动这类食品成为健康食品商店、小吃店和大食品连锁店销售的一种主食。他们声称,关键是要大力宣扬吃昆虫产品对健康的好处,同时要强调昆虫食品的环境足迹要远小于传统蛋白质来源这一事实。“We are trying to set up future generations with a more sustainable food system, one that is more resource efficient and one that is more adaptable to a more changing climate,” Crowley says.“我们正在努力为子孙后代建立一个更具可持续性,更节约资源,更适应气候变化的食物系统,”克劳利说。Rose Wang, co-founder of Six Foods, which in May raised ,000 on Kickstarter to make its Chirps cricket chips and hopes to have the product in stores by fall, agrees. “It’s all about the vision of what eating insects can be,” Wang said in an e-mail interview, pointing out that the bugs are high in protein, low in fat, and can be raised humanely in small spaces, without antibiotics or growth hormones. “There is no question that insects are the most humane way to eat meat,” she says, “And as people become more cognizant of where their food comes from and how it is produced, they are becoming more open to new sustainable foods like insects.”露丝o王认同这种看法。五月份,这位Six Foods公司联合创始人在众筹平台Kickstarter上筹集了7万美元,开始制作Chirps蟋蟀条,她希望这款产品能够在今年秋天进入食品店。在接受电邮采访时,王女士表示,“这就是吃昆虫能够带给我们的美好愿景。”她指出,昆虫不仅具有高蛋白,低脂肪等特质,而且可以在小空间内人性化饲养,无需使用抗生素或生长激素。“毫无疑问,昆虫是最人性化的吃肉方式,”她说。“随着人们对于食物的来源和生产方式有了更深入的了解,他们越来越愿意接受像昆虫这种全新的可持续性食物。”Glen Courtright, CEO and founder of EnviroFlight, is going even further with the environmental approach. His company takes some of the estimated 36 million tons of food waste that ends up in landfills each year and feeds it to the larvae of black soldier flies. A protein meal and oil derived from the dehydrated fly larvae are then packaged and shipped to the pet trade–as well as fish and pig farmers who are clamoring for a protein substitute for fishmeal, which comes from aly overfished oceans.在环保之路上,EnviroFlight公司创始人兼CEO格伦o考特赖特走得更远。他的公司每年利用估计3,600 万吨运送至垃圾填满场的食品垃圾,来喂养被他称为黑士兵的苍蝇幼虫。然后,衍生自脱水蝇蛆的蛋白粉和油被打包运送到宠物市场,以及养鱼户和养猪户。这些农民一直吵着要求获得一种能够替代鱼粉的蛋白物质——海洋已经被过度捕捞,难以为继。EnviroFlight is also partnering with the feed industry around the world to provide its technology and know-how on raising insects for animal feed. Courtright expects to see growth of 50 percent this year, adding that he is struggling to keep up with demand.此外,EnviroFlight正在与世界各地的饲料行业合作,为后者提供养育昆虫饲料的技术和专业知识持。考特赖特预计今年的业务量将增长50%,他正在努力跟上不断增长的需求。“Big business understands there has to be a fish meal replacement, a sustainable fish meal replacement,” said Courtright, who initially explored producing oil from insects, bacteria and then algae for biofuels before shifting to the feed sector. “They are seeing the viability of the product and they are understanding insect technologies are real and they are coming.”考特赖特声称,“大企业明白,必须找到一种传统鱼粉的替代物,一种具有可持续性的替代物。”在转向饲料行业之前,他起初尝试着从昆虫、细菌和藻类中提炼生物燃料。“他们将发现这种产品是可行的,意识到昆虫技术不是骗局,就会找上门来。”But will insects catch on as pizza did after World War II or sushi did in the 1970s?但这些小动物能否像比萨饼在二战后,或寿司在20世纪70年代那样风行一时?Some experts think the deluge of new insect-related companies could be a turning point in entomophagists’ (that’s those who advocate for insects as food) decades-long battle to get the six and eight-legged critters onto the plates of consumers.数十年来,食虫学家(即那些主张食用昆虫的人士)一直在竭力推动六条腿和八条腿的小动物进入消费者的餐盘。有专家认为,与昆虫相关的新企业不断涌现,或将成为这种努力的转折点。“This is more than a blip. This is the beginning of a curve that will go steadily up,” said Montana State University Associate Prof. Florence V. Dunkel, a leading edible insect expert who organizes an annual bug buffet on campus each year featuring delicacies like wax moth larvae quesadillas, curried mealworms and Chinese stir fry made with crickets.“这种现象不是昙花一现,而会成为一条将稳步上升的曲线的开端,”蒙大拿州立大学(Montana State University )副教授弗洛伦斯o邓克尔说。这位著名的食用昆虫专家每年都在校园组织一场昆虫自助餐,其中的特色佳肴包括蜡蛾幼虫油炸玉米饼、用咖哩粉烹调的黄粉虫和爆炒蟋蟀。“There was the environment,” she says, ticking off forces that are driving interest in the new food group. “There was the need to have more nutrients. And then there was the openness of the Millennial generation to search out better ways to live,” she added. “It’s a no-brainer to begin to incorporate insects into our diet as a protein source.”她列举驱动人们对这种全新食物类别产生兴趣的力量,“当时的环境,对更多营养物质的需要,还有就是千禧一代在搜寻更好生活方式时抱有的开放心态,”她补充说。“在这些因素的推动下,人们开始不假思索地把昆虫作为一种蛋白质来源融入我们的饮食。”But while Dunkel predicts that shoppers in the next few years could find bags of frozen moth larvae next to the frozen shrimp, others, including the FAO, are more cautious. They say consumer products will remain a “niche market” for at least another generation, mostly attracting thrill-seeking Westerners as well as immigrant communities in the West pining for traditional insect favorites like grasshoppers from Mexico or Mopane worms from southern Africa.不过,虽然邓克尔预测称,在未来几年,冷冻蛾幼虫将与冷冻虾一道出现在消费者的购物袋之中,但其他人,包括联合国粮农组织,都比较谨慎。他们表示,至少对下一代人来说,昆虫消费类产品将依然是一个“缝隙市场”,其主要受众是寻求刺激的西方人,以及西方国家中渴望享受墨西哥蚱蜢或南部非洲可乐豆木蠕虫等传统昆虫美食的移民社区。The FAO’s Paul Vantomme, who coordinates the agency’s insect program, says he thinks the greatest potential is in the animal feed sector, noting that insects could represent up to 10 percent of the 150 million tons of protein sold each year in two decades. The insects would replace fishmeal and supplement soybean meal, Vantomme said.负责协调粮农组织昆虫项目的联合国官员保罗o旺托姆表示,他认为最大的潜力将是动物饲料领域。他指出,在未来20年每年售出的大约1,500万吨蛋白质中,昆虫的占比有望达到10%。在他看来,昆虫将取代鱼粉,还将成为大豆粉的补充。“China imports 30 million tons of soybean meal in order to supply its chicken and pig farms,” Vantomme says. “The average Chinese eats meat once a week, and that is expected to double in the next five years. That means they will be importing 60 million tons. Even China is looking for alternatives for these imports. For them, it’s a big problem.”“为了满足养鸡场和养猪场的需要,中国每年进口大约3,000万吨大豆粉,”旺托姆说。“中国老百姓通常一周吃一次肉,他们的肉食需求预计将在未来5年翻一番。这意味着,他们将进口6,000万吨。就连中国也开始为这些进口饲料寻找替代品。对他们来说,这是一个大问题。”EnviroFlight’sCourtright also says he expects the animal feed sector to offer the most potential for investors. “For animal feed, definitely. For human feed, I don’t think the West is y,” Courtright says. “We’re not that hungry yet. We are not starving and insects are not part of our culture.”此外,EnviroFlight公司的考特赖特表示,他预计饲料行业将成为最有潜力吸引投资的领域。“对于饲料产业来说,肯定如此。但我不认为西方公众已经做好了食用昆虫的准备,”考特赖特说。“我们还没有饿到那份上。我们目前还没有体会到挨饿的滋味,也不具备吃昆虫的文化传统。”Some of that trepidation was on display the other day at Fortune when several reporters said they were scared to even try samples of the Chapur coconut, ginger and lime or the peanut butter and chocolate bar. Much of the apprehension came from expecting to bite into a cricket, as famously seen on the TV show Fear Factor, although the bars have no visible cricket parts and lack the woodsy flavor of chirping insects. The taste and consistency are closer to a chocolate or tropical power bar.前几天,就在《财富》(Fortune) 杂志社,当几位记者绘声绘色地描述他们颤颤巍巍地品尝Chapul椰子、姜汁、酸橙或花生酱和巧克力棒样品的经历时,有好几位编辑都露出了惊恐万分的表情。其中很大一部分忧虑恐怕跟有可能咬到一只蟋蟀有关——就像他们在电视节目《谁敢来挑战》(Fear Factor)中看到的那个著名场景——尽管这些能量棒看不到明显的蟋蟀痕迹,也缺乏这种吱吱叫的昆虫身上特有的那股木香味。这些食物的口味和一致性更接近于巧克力或热带棒状食品。A few blocks away, the bars were on sale at midtown Manhattan’s Westerly Natural Market natural foods store. Positioned alongside a protein bar featuring Chia seeds and another one claiming to save lives with each sale, staffers said the Chapul cricket bars were selling mostly to “hard-core” customers trying to tap into the latest health food trends. Sales have been slow due to limited marketing and the foreign concept of edible insects, they said.几个街区之外,在曼哈顿中城的西风自然市场 (Westerly Natural Market),有不少天然食品商店正在销售这些棒状食品。其中有一款蛋白质棒包含野鼠尾草籽,和另一种据称每销售一笔就能拯救许多生命的草籽。站在一旁的销售人员表示,Chapul蟋蟀棒主要卖给了那些尝试着迎合最新保健食品趋势的“死忠”顾客。由于市场营销活动有限,再加上公众对食用昆虫的概念还非常陌生,这些产品的销售一直非常迟缓,他们说。For his part, Chapul’s Crowley has grown accustomed to the naysayers and acknowledges he still has work to do to help consumers overcome their fears of eating products like his with insects. But he believes his company has plenty of room to grow, predicting that it could see million in revenue in 2015 and more than million in five years.不过,对于各种反调,克劳利早已习以为常,并且承认在帮助消费者克对昆虫食品的恐惧方面,他依然需要做大量工作。但克劳利相信他的公司有足够大的成长空间,他预计公司营收将在2015年达到100万美元,并且将在五年内突破1,000 万美元大关。“I have no doubt that the industry will continue to grow,” Crowley says, noting that he expects Chapul to be in 10,000 stores in five years. “We need to diversify our food system,” he says. “We are not trying to eliminate food sources. We are just trying to add insects to the of the American diet.”克劳利说,“这个行业将继续增长,我对此坚信不疑。”他预计Chapul将在五年内进入1万家商店。“我们需要丰富我们的食品系统,”他说。“我们不是在尝试着消除食物来源。我们仅仅是想把昆虫添加到人们的饮食菜单之中。” /201407/315747。