2018年10月19日 17:54:20|来源:国际在线|编辑:飞度新闻权威医院
New York University, in the midst of a review of how laborers were treated during the construction of its Abu Dhabi campus, has acknowledged that procedures intended to protect workers at its other major foreign outpost, in Shanghai, were not followed.纽约大学(New York University)正在就该校阿布扎比(Abu Dhabi)校区建设过程中工人的待遇问题而开展调查。现在该校承认,针对该校在上海的另一个海外校区,旨在保护工人的相关规程没有得到遵守。According to a university spokesman, N.Y.U. hired a company to perform an array of services while the new campus was being built, including monitoring working conditions and publishing its findings in annual reports. But the company “did not perform as expansive a compliance review as N.Y.U. desired, nor did they produce the detailed report that N.Y.U. requested,” the spokesman, John Beckman, said in an email.该大学的一位发言人透露,在新校园建设期间,纽约大学聘请一家公司开展了一系列务,包括监督工作条件,并在年度报告中发表其调查结果。不过,纽约大学发言人约翰·拜克曼(John Beckman)在电子邮件中说,该公司“并没有像纽约大学希望的那样,开展广泛的合规审核,也没有出具纽约大学要求的详尽的报告。”Several years ago, in response to criticism that it was building campuses in authoritarian countries without strong labor protections, the university created “statements of labor values” that pledged fair wages, reasonable hours and the right to resolve labor disputes, and forbade forced labor or employment discrimination.数年前,为了回应该校在缺乏有力劳工保障的威权主义国家建设校园的批评,该校作出了“劳工价值声明”,承诺要给予公平的工资、合理的工时,以及解决劳动纠纷的权利,此外还禁止强迫劳动或就业歧视。During the construction of the Abu Dhabi campus, the engineering firm Mott MacDonald was hired to oversee compliance and to issue annual public reports about its findings. Those reports offered consistent praise for the way laborers on the vast new campus were being treated. But an investigation by The New York Times later found that many of the workers, who were largely South Asian migrants under contract to local companies, had been charged high fees to obtain their jobs, were forced to work overtime and were not being paid what they had been promised. Some were warehoused in squalid and cramped apartments, and some were beaten or arrested for going on strike.在阿布扎比校区建设期间,该校聘请了工程顾问公司莫特麦克唐纳(Mott MacDonald)开展合规监督,并就其监督结果发布公开报告。这些报告对于规模宏大的新校园建设期间,劳工得到的待遇给予了普遍的赞誉。然而《纽约时报》之后开展的调查显示,参与建设的劳工主要是与当地企业签约的南亚移民,他们在获取工作之前都被收取了很高的费用,被迫加班,拿到的报酬也没有承诺的多。一些人挤在肮脏拥挤的公寓里,还有一些人因为罢工而遭到殴打或逮捕。John Sexton, the president of N.Y.U., called such conditions “if true as reported, troubling and unacceptable.” The university, along with the Abu Dhabi government, which financed the campus and oversaw its construction, announced an inquiry, which is continuing.纽约大学校长约翰·塞克斯顿(John Sexton)表示,“如果报道属实”,这种情况“令人不安,是不能接受的”。纽约大学与阿布扎比政府宣布开展调查,目前仍在进行当中。校园是阿布扎比政府出资并负责建设的。N.Y.U. Shanghai, a joint venture with East China Normal University, is the university’s second major outpost. The real estate consulting firm Jones Lang LaSalle was hired in March 2012 to perform a variety of functions on the building site.上海纽约大学(NYU Shanghai)作为纽约大学在海外的第二座大型校区,是与华东师范大学共同开办的。2012年3月,校方聘请了房地产咨询公司仲量联行(Jones Lang LaSalle)在建设现场开展一系列工作。“After some miscommunications — for which we share responsibility — and delays — during which we nevertheless thought a report would ultimately be completed — it became clear that a report with the level of detail we wanted was not going to be forthcoming,” Mr. Beckman said in an email last week.拜克曼上周在一封电子邮件中表示,“发生过一些沟通不畅(我们在其中也负有一定责任),以及延误(那段时间我们仍然以为最终会完成一份报告)之后,显然不会产生一份具有我们期望的那种详尽程度的报告了。”Anthony Couse, a managing director for Jones Lang LaSalle in East China, said there was no miscommunication. “Compliance review with the Statement of Labor Values was not part of our original scope,” he said. “During the summer of 2013 we were contacted by N.Y.U. about labor compliance monitoring; we carried out that monitoring, as agreed.”仲量联行华东区董事总经理顾东尼(Anthony Couse)表示,并不存在沟通不畅。“就劳工价值声明开展合规核查,并不属于我们最初的职责范围,”他说。“2013年夏,纽约大学联系我们核查劳动规章的遵守情况。我们依照双方的约定开展了核查。”He added, “The project is regarded as a success on several levels by both N.Y.U. and J.L.L.”他还说,“纽约大学和仲量联行都认为,这个项目在很多方面都取得了成功。”This summer the university hired the law firm Paul Hastings L.L.P. to perform a retroactive audit of working conditions at the Shanghai campus. The results, which will be made public, are expected by the end of the year.今年夏天,纽约大学聘请普衡律师事务所(Paul Hastings L.L.P.)对上海校区的工作条件开展事后审核。预计审核将于年底完成,结果会对外公开。Mr. Beckman added that “the conditions on the site for workers were in overall compliance with the Statement of Labor Values of N.Y.U. Shanghai.”拜克曼说,“工人在建设现场的工作条件大体上符合纽约大学上海校区的劳工价值声明。”Faculty members in New York who have been scrutinizing the overseas construction projects said that information about the Shanghai campus had been all but impossible to get. An email th between members of the local chapter of the American Association of University Professors and the university administration, in which the professors repeatedly asked which firm had been hired to monitor compliance and what standards it would employ, dated to 2011.身在纽约负责监督海外建设项目的教师表示,几乎无法取得关于上海校区的信息。美国大学教授协会(American Association of University Professors)当地分会的成员,与大学的行政部门之间的一些电子邮件讨论可以追溯到2011年,其中教授们曾反复询问聘请了哪家公司做合规监督,采用的是怎样的标准。Three years later, Jeffrey S. Lehman, the vice chancellor of N.Y.U. Shanghai, wrote to members of a faculty advisory committee to say that “notwithstanding what we understood last summer,” Jones Lang LaSalle “was not able to produce a thorough review of compliance with the worker rights that are set forth in our statement of labor values,” and that Paul Hastings had been hired “to do the kind of thorough review that J.L.L. could not.”三年后,纽大上海校区常务副校长杰弗瑞·S·雷蒙(Jeffrey S. Lehman)给一个教师顾问委员会的成员发邮件表示,“与我们去年夏天的理解不同”,仲量联行“未能出具一份全面的文件,陈述我校劳工价值声明中列举的工人权益是否得到了遵守。”校方聘请了普衡律师事务所“开展仲量联行没能开展的全面审核”。Mr. Lehman added, “Paul Hastings is writing up their report and (not surprisingly) they say they have seen no red flags, no evidence of material noncompliance, etc., etc.”雷蒙还说,“普衡正在撰写报告,而且(并不出人意料的是)他们称审核过程中没有出现问题,也没有重大违规的据,等等。”Anna McCarthy, a professor of cinema studies who was a part of that three-year exchange, expressed frustration that an effective system of oversight was not in place while the campus was being built. “I’m not satisfied,” she said. “I really do think there needs to be a lot more transparency.”电影研究教授安娜·麦卡锡(Anna McCarthy)参与了长达三年的电子邮件交流。她表示,在校园建设过程中,没有建立有效的监管系统,这让她很失望。“我并不满意,”她说。“我真的认为透明度应该高得多才行。”The Shanghai campus, in that city’s Pudong neighborhood, and the Abu Dhabi campus, on Saadiyat Island, are part of what N.Y.U. calls the Global Network University, a constellation of degree-granting campuses and smaller study-abroad sites through which students and faculty members are encouraged to cycle. The concept has won admiration from many other colleges and universities, which have scrambled to establish overseas footholds of their own. It has also attracted criticism from students and faculty members, who say that development of this kind jeopardizes academic freedom and workers’ rights.上海校区位于浦东新区,阿布扎比校区位于萨迪亚特岛,这两个校区都是纽约大学所说的全球教育体系(Global Network University)的组成部分。这一体系中包括一系列可以颁发学位的校区,以及规模较小的海外学习场所,校方鼓励学生和教师在整个体系中轮换。这种设想在其他许多学院和大学中赢得了赞誉,它们也都在匆忙建立自己的海外分校。不过这种设想也受到了师生的批评,他们表示这种开发项目妨碍了学术自由和工人的权利。The inquiry into conditions in Abu Dhabi, conducted by Nardello amp; Company, an investigative firm led by a former federal prosecutor, was to be completed this year. It is now expected in early 2015.针对阿布扎比校区工作状况的调查是由Nardello amp; Company开展的,这家调查公司的负责人是一位前联邦检察官。调查预计将于今年结束,结果将在2015年初发布。 /201412/346759What should western politicians be most worried about: growth, inequality, the environment, education? To judge from today’s discourse, the answer seems to be none of the above. Instead, in the past month, both Barack Obama, US president, and David Cameron, UK prime minister, have made big speeches on immigration. At the weekend Swiss voters rejected a proposal virtually to end the flow of incomers to their country. But anti-immigration parties have made strong gains in a variety of other European nations, including Sweden and Italy, in the past year.西方政界人士最应该担忧的是什么?增长、不平等、环境还是教育?从当前流行话题来判断,似乎不在其中。相反,一个多月来,美国总统巴拉克#8226;奥巴马(Barack Obama)和英国首相戴维#8226;卡梅伦(David Cameron)都就移民问题发表了重要讲话。日前,瑞士选民否决了一项几乎不再接纳新移民的提案。但在过去一年中,反移民政党在其他多个欧洲国家——包括瑞典和意大利——取得了重大进展。Immigration is now clearly at the very centre of political debate in the west. But, in the past couple of weeks, the European and US debates have branched off in different directions.眼下,移民问题显然是西方政治辩论的核心。但在过去几周内,欧洲和美国在这一问题上的辩论走向出现了分化。Two weeks ago Mr Obama announced plans to shield millions of illegal immigrants from potential deportation. For all the bitter divisions his proposals stirred up, the likelihood is that they will ultimately help to push the American debate in a more liberal direction.不久前,奥巴马宣布了将使数百万非法移民免于被驱逐的计划。尽管他提议采取的措施激起了很大争议,最终却可能有助于推动美国移民辩论朝着自由主义的方向演变。In Europe, by contrast, the rise of populist anti-immigration parties, such as Britain’s UK Independence party and France’s National Front, is still driving the debate to the right.相比之下,英国独立党(UKIP)和法国国民阵线(National Front)等欧洲民粹主义反移民政党的崛起正将移民辩论推向更右倾的方向。Mr Cameron announced plans to restrict welfare benefits for legal migrants from the rest of the EU and to force those who fail to find a job to leave the country. Across the Channel, meanwhile, Nicolas Sarkozy, the former (and possibly future) president of France, has called for the repeal of the Schengen rules that have dismantled frontier controls within the EU.卡梅伦最近宣布的计划将限制来自欧盟其他国家的合法移民的福利,并强制那些没有找到工作的移民离境。与此同时,在英吉利海峡的另一边,法国前总统(或许以后还会再度担任总统)尼古拉#8226;萨科齐(Nicolas Sarkozy)呼吁废止在欧盟境内取消边境管控的申根协定。Despite the differences in rhetoric, the immigration numbers across the rich world are strikingly similar. Estimates by the OECD of the foreign-born population in its member states in 2011 was 11-13 per cent for the US, the UK, Germany and France. Switzerland, with a foreign-born population of 27.3 per cent, is a real outlier – which might account for the special vehemence of the debate there.尽管论调不同,发达国家的移民数据却惊人地相似。据经合组织(OECD)估测,2011年在其成员国中,美国、英国、德国和法国的外国出生人口比例均在11%到13%之间。而瑞士的这一比例达27.3%,是发达国家中真正的异数,或许这也解释了为何瑞士的移民辩论格外激烈。Rich countries are clearly a magnet for migrants from poorer nations and the pull is growing stronger. According to the OECD, the flow of global migration doubled between 2000 and 2010, compared to the preceding decade.对来自较贫穷国家的移民来说,富裕国家显然就像一块磁石,而且吸引力还在不断增强。根据经合组织的数据,2000年到2010年间,全球移民的流动规模比上个十年翻了一番。Globalisation has made both travel and communication much easier. The comparative wealth of western Europe or North America is broadcast across the world. Established immigrant communities in developed nations can help newcomers and provide legal routes into the country. And, where there is no legal route, there are always people- smugglers and the black economy.全球化使旅行和通讯更加便利。西欧和北美的相对富裕在世界各地可谓家喻户晓。发达国家成熟的移民社区能帮助新来的移民,并提供进入该国的合法途径。而且,就算没有合法途径,也总会有蛇头和黑市经济。Immigrants often do jobs that locals are unwilling or unable to perform. But they are also routinely blamed for holding down wages and for putting pressure on public services and housing. With levels of inequality rising in the west, it is not hard for populist politicians to argue that limousine liberals are benefiting from cheap, immigrant labour– while evading the social consequences.移民常常从事本地人不愿或不能从事的工作。但人们也时常指责移民拉低了薪资水平,增大了公共务和住房的压力。随着西方的不平等程度持续上升,民粹主义政治人士也就可以很方便地宣称,坐豪车的自由派人士从廉价的移民劳动力中获益——同时还能不引起社会后果。So far, so similar. But the US and European approaches are diverging. Mr Obama has taken on the anti-immigration lobby, casting them as un-American and inhumane. In Britain and the rest of Europe, however, many governments are still promising to “crack down” on immigration, in some form or another – even if political leaders such as Mr Cameron refrain from challenging the EU’s commitment to free movement of labour.到这里,美国和欧洲的情况还很相似。但美欧的策略正在出现差异。奥巴马与反移民游说团体展开了较量,称他们是反美国精神和不人道的。而在英国和欧洲其他地方,许多政府还许诺以某种形式“打击”移民,尽管卡梅伦等政治领袖仍避免挑战欧盟关于劳动力自由流动的承诺。The difference partly reflects the fact that Mr Obama is a centre-left politician and Mr Cameron is a conservative. The US Democrats also see an electoral advantage in luring the Republicans into taking a hard line on immigration, which will alienate Hispanic voters.这种差异部分源于奥巴马是中左翼的政治人士,而卡梅伦是保守主义者。美国民主党人也发现,诱使共和党人在移民问题上采取强硬态度,会让他们疏远西班牙裔选民,在选举上对民主党有利。In Europe the political calculations point in the opposite direction. Mr Cameron fears losing support to Ukip, which has made opposition to mass immigration its central theme. Other centre-right politicians in the EU, such as Mr Sarkozy, also seem most concerned about the threat from the far right.在欧洲,政治考量则指向了相反的方向。卡梅伦担心选民会转而持以反对大量移民为中心议题的英国独立党。欧盟其他中右翼的政治人士,如萨科齐,似乎也极担忧来自极右翼政治势力的威胁。Behind the politics, however, there is also an emerging difference in philosophy. Mr Cameron, Mr Sarkozy and politicians to their right still stress the language of “control”. Their argument is that voters are unhappy about high levels of immigration and that it is their duty to respond.然而,在政治的背后,美欧之间的理念差异也开始浮现。卡梅伦、萨科齐和比他们更偏右的政治人士依然强调“控制”这种措辞。他们的论点是,既然选民对大量移民不满,他们就有责任做出回应。Mr Obama, though, is taking an approach that sounds more fatalistic. He says he will strengthen border controls but adds that “tracking down, rounding up and deporting millions of people isn’t realistic”.奥巴马采取的策略听起来更顺其自然一些。他表示将加强边境管控,但他也说“追查、围堵和驱逐数百万人是不现实的。”Implicit in the Obama argument is the idea that, in the era of globalisation, rich nations are just going to have to get used to the notion that they will continue to be a magnet for migrants from poorer parts of the world. The alternative is to start turning your country into a fortress or a police state.奥巴马的论点中隐含的意思是,在全球化时代,对来自世界更贫穷地方的移民来说,富国将继续保持磁石一般的吸引力,而富国只能去适应这一点。否则就会把国家变成一个堡垒或者极权国家。There are several reasons why the Obama argument might work in the US. As the president pointed out, America was built by immigrants. It is also a continent-sized country that has plenty of space. And it has an established two-party system that makes it harder for single-issue, anti-immigration parties to gain ground.奥巴马的论点可能在美国行得通有几点原因。正如他指出的,美国是移民建立起来的国家,幅员辽阔,地方很大。而且,两党制在美国建立已久,这使单一议题的反移民政党更难在美国取得进展。But none of those conditions prevail on the other side of the Atlantic. As a result, the populist right is likely to make the running in Europe’s immigration debate for some years to come.而大西洋彼岸的国家都不具备这些条件。因此,在接下来的许多年里,民粹主义右翼势力可能还将主导欧洲的移民辩论。 /201412/347318

In his farewell speech capping a historic trip to Kenya and Ethiopia, U.S. President Barack Obama hailed Africa#39;s extraordinary progress, while noting that such progress can only be sustained through continued development and democracy for all.美国总统奥巴马在结束非洲之行前的告别讲话中赞扬非洲取得的非凡成就,但他同时指出,只有通过继续发展和让所有的人享有民主,这种进展才能够持续下去。While not naming China, Mr. Obama emphasized what sets the ed States apart in its investment in Africa. “Economic relationships cannot simply be about other countries building infrastructure with foreign labor or extracting Africa’s natural resources. Real economic partnerships have to be a good deal for Africa—they have to create jobs and capacity for Africans. That’s the kind of partnership America offers,” he said.奥巴马没有点名中国,但强调了美国与其他投资非洲国家之间的不同。他说,经济关系不仅仅是其他国家用外国工人在非洲修建基础设施或开采非洲的自然资源。真正的经济伙伴应当对非洲有利,为非洲人创造就业机会和能力。这就是美国给予的伙伴关系。The White House announced the ed States intends to provide at least million in assistance related to countering violent extremism in East Africa.白宫宣布,美国准备提供至少4千万美元,用于与东非反恐相关的援助项目。Obama told reporters Monday Ethiopia has played a vital role in fighting the Somali militant group Al-Shabab.奥巴马星期一对记者说,埃塞俄比亚在打击索马里激进组织青年党的斗争中发挥了重要作用。 /201508/389946

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