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襄阳四医院新地址度排名养生在线襄樊哪一家医院男性外科比较好

来源:度排名好医院    发布时间:2019年06月16日 18:58:07    编辑:admin         

5.Circadian Clocks Are As Old As Time5.生物钟像时间一样古老The Salisbury Cathedral in England is said to be home to the world#39;s oldest clock. The mechanical device#39;s wrought iron hands are believed to have been tracking the passage of time since at least 1386. The clock survived war, fire and inattention before being rediscovered in the early 20th century and restored.英格兰的索尔兹伯里大教堂据说是世界上最古老的钟的发源地。至少自1386年来,装有铁的时针的机械设备就被认为是用来记录时间的。在20世纪早期被重新发现之前,索尔兹伯里大教堂里的这口钟受过战火的洗礼,以及人们的忽视,但是最终还是保存了下来。The Salisbury Cathedral clock is but a wee whippersnapper when compared to the natural clocks that track our circadian rhythms. Scientists believe internal clocks evolved more than 3 billion years ago in cyanobacteria (what we also call blue-green algae), but they don#39;t know exactly why it happened. Some say this was nature#39;s way of leveling the playing field for organisms all competing for the same sources of energy. Circadian rhythms developed so that some creatures feed during the day and others do it at night. Others say the body clock evolved in algae to stagger the sludge#39;s processes for photosynthesis—converting light into energy to be stored for later—and nitrogen fixation—in which plants convert nitrogen from the air into energy — so as not to counteract one another.和记录我们昼夜节律的生物钟相比,索尔兹伯里大教堂里的钟根本是微不足道的。科学家认为在30亿年前的蓝细菌(我们称之为蓝藻)时期生物钟就开始演变了,但是科学家们并不知道生物钟开始的确切时间。有的人觉得这其实只是一种自然的竞争机制,因为所有的生物体都需要同样的能量。生物钟的存在确保了有些生物可以在白天觅食,有些可以在晚上觅食。而另外一些人认为在蓝藻时期就演变的生物钟利用光合作用缓慢发展,把光转换成能量,储存在身体后,又释放出氮化物,这样的话植物就把空气中的氮化物固定在体内了,以免消耗。4.Sleep, It Does a Body Good4.睡眠对身体有益Perhaps the reason for circadian rhythms in humans is simpler: They help you sleep, and sleep is good for you.或许,人类具有生物钟的原因很简单——生物钟有助于你入眠,而睡眠对你有益。When you lay your head down and nod off to the feather ball, your body is restoring itself. That includes basic upkeep and repair like muscle growth, tissue maintenance, protein production and the release of growth hormones. Those hormones help children develop naturally — exhibit A in the case against little Johnny staying up to watch Jimmy Fallon — but also play a key role in helping adults rebuild tissue over time. In fact, it#39;s believed that some of these functions only happen during sleep hours. Animals deprived of sleep will lose all immune function and die in just a few weeks. If you#39;ve ever popped out of bed after a nice long slumber and felt mentally refreshed, it#39;s probably not just because you spent the night dreaming about being fanned and fed grapes by models poolside at an Italian villa. Sleep helps humans restore their mental energy and cognitive functions that often get tapped out during waking hours. Our circadian rhythms naturally make us sleepy at night.当你安然平躺,枕着松软的枕头酣然入眠时,你的身体便开始进行自我修复,即一些基本的维护保养,如肌肉的增长、组织的修复、蛋白质的生成及生长激素的释放。生长激素对儿童的茁壮成长具有促进作用,总是熬夜看吉米·法伦节目的小不点儿就是个典型的反面例子。不仅如此,生长激素还在促进成年人的组织修复过程中起着关键作用。有分析认为,以上机能中有部分仅在睡眠时才起作用,因此,被剥夺睡眠的动物会丧失所有的免疫能力,在几周内死亡。你在经过了长时间的优质睡眠后会觉得精神焕发,或许不仅仅是因为置身豪宅、名模环绕的黄粱美梦之中。因为睡眠有助于恢复人们在清醒时消耗的心理能量及认知功能。而且,夜里那排山倒海的困意也是生物钟这只“幕后黑手”所致。3.The Post-Lunch Dip is Natural3.午餐后犯困很正常Ever wonder why you have to fight the urge to sleep after lunch (unless you#39;re lucky enough to work from home and can give into it)? Your body#39;s circadian rhythm is in a natural resting place after your noontime meal. There#39;s also another system called the sleep/wake homeostatis that tells your body when it#39;s time to sleep, which also occurs after you#39;ve been awake for a long time. By 2 p.m., you#39;ve usually been awake for at least eight hours. Put those two systems together, alongside a heavy lunch, and it#39;s no wonder you want to take a nap.你可曾想过,为何你在午餐后总是得对抗那绵绵困意(除非你是个在家办公的幸运儿,困倦来袭便可安然入睡)?那是因为午餐过后,你体内的生物钟已经指向了休息时分。而且,睡眠/清醒体内平衡系统会在到点睡眠时或保持长时间清醒状态后,向你的身体发出讯号。到下午2点时,你至少已经保持了8个小时的清醒状态,这时,丰盛的午餐、生物钟以及体内平衡系统三管齐下,你不想打盹才怪呢!Not everyone has this feeling to the same degree but it is a natural one. In fact, for most adults, their strongest sleep drives are at 2 p.m. and 2 a.m., thanks to their circadian rhythms. However, if you got a good night#39;s sleep, your urge to nap at lunchtime will be lessened.每个人的困倦程度有所不同,这很正常。由于生物钟的作用,大多数成年人往往在下午2点及凌晨2点时困意最浓。但如果夜间的睡眠质量好,午餐后的困倦会有所减轻。2.Electronic Light Warps the Body Clock2.电子产品的灯光会扰乱生物钟If we#39;ve learned anything so far, it#39;s that the body clock is wound generally to correspond to light and dark. When it starts to get dark at night, the brain tells the body it#39;s time for a rest by releasing melatonin into the bloodstream. So, what happens when you literally flip the (light) switch in the evening?就我们目前所了解到的,生物钟一般来说会与光明和黑暗相对应。当夜幕开始降临,大脑通过释放褪黑激素到血液中,告知身体已到休息的时间。那么,当你在晚上拨动(电灯)开关会怎样呢?Artificial light can send mixed signals. Yes, a small and strategically located night-light may be necessary for navigating from bedroom to bathroom when duty calls. But other lights could throw your body clock into disarray. That includes illumination coming from a television, computer or smartphone. Many people like to wind down for the night by watching the ol#39; boob tube -- or streaming entertainment through their computers and tablets. If you bring those devices, and the artificial light that they give off, into bed, however, you may be tricking your brain into thinking it should stay awake.人造光线会传递出复合信号。没错,也许一盏在特定位置的小小夜明灯对指引人们从卧室到卫生间以解决日常需要来说是必要的,但是其它的光线会打乱你的生物钟,这些光线来自电视机、电脑和手机。许多人喜欢在晚上通过看电视来放松自己或者将玩电脑和平板作为活动。如果你将这些电子设备带到床上,它们散发出来的人造光会影响大脑原先的运作方式。1.The Body Clock Can Impact the Biological Clock1.生物钟会影响生理钟We#39;ve come right back to the ;biological clock.; Research shows that women who are pregnant or hoping to conceive should listen to their circadian rhythms and avoid artificial light at night. Sleep doesn#39;t just help the body rejuvenate and promote growth in kids; it also protects a woman#39;s eggs from stress. That#39;s because melatonin is believed to have antioxidant qualities and defends the body against inflammation while stimulating the immune system, particularly during ovulation .让我们回到“生理钟”这个话题上。研究人员表示妇或者期望怀上孩子的女性应该遵循她们的昼夜节律以及在夜晚避免接触人造光线。睡眠不仅仅有助于身体自我修复和儿童的成长发育,还可以保护女性的卵巢免受情绪压力影响。这是因为褪黑激素有抗氧化的功能,并且可以通过刺激免疫系统来抵御炎症以保护身体,尤其是在女性排卵期。When the lights go on at night, melatonin production slows or stops. Experts say that women who are expecting should maintain steady sleep patterns that conform with the light and dark cycles going on outside. That means eight hours of darkness with little or no interruptions each night. The dark, not actual sleep, is the key. The body produces melatonin as a reaction to darkness and will continue doing so, even if you can#39;t sleep. Among other effects, researchers have found that disruptions in this routine can lead to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism-related disorders in young children.在夜晚有光亮时,褪黑激素会减慢甚至停止生成。专家认为想要怀的女性应该养成与外界日夜交替保持一致的固定的睡眠模式。也就是说在每晚八小时的睡眠时间中,应该很少或者完全避免受到光线的干扰。保持黑暗的睡眠环境是关键,而非睡眠本身。身体产生的褪黑激素是对黑暗的条件反应,就算你没有进入睡眠,褪黑激素的产生仍会继续进行。至于其他方面的影响,研究人员发现对于幼儿来说,夜晚睡眠中受到光线的干扰会导致注意力缺陷障碍和自闭症等相关疾病审校:围巾、烟囱 编辑:listen 来源:前十网 /201602/427098。

;Grin; is the most popular emoji on the instant messaging tool QQ in China, and was used more than 52 billion times in 2015, according to a report released by Tencent.腾讯公司发布的一份报告称,“龇牙”表情是即时聊天工具QQ上最受欢迎的表情,在2015年使用次数超过520亿次。The report was based on the data of more than 860 million QQ users, for whom means polite, cute, and friendly, and has become the best way to say hello when chatting online.该报告的数据采集自超过8.6亿QQ用户,他们认为“龇牙”表情礼貌、可爱而又友好,因而是网上搭讪的不二之选。Different people prefer different emojis. Though not listed in the top 5, icons of crying are popular among women and kids.当然,各人自有各人钟爱的聊天表情。哭泣类表情虽未能入驻前五,却赢得了女性和儿童的青睐。Females like the emoji ;sob; most, which is also used to represent acting like a child. Kids and teenagers between the age of 5 to 15 favor ;whimper;, which is frequently used for an icon representing tears.女性最喜欢“流泪” ,让人觉得她们童心未泯。5到15岁之间的青少年喜欢“大哭” ,常用来代表泪水。Meanings of emojis change over the years, too.各个表情的意思也在逐渐变化。The emoji ;smile; used to represent kindness, but now indicates unhappy and dismissive. For example, one can reply with when he disagrees with and makes fun of others.“微笑” 曾经表示友好和善,如今却代表不开心和鄙视。例如,在反对并取笑对方时就可以用这个表情。The emoji ;wave; used to mean goodbye, but now is more often used to mean to pretend that ;we are no longer friends;. For example, one can say ;I don#39;t want to see you anymore;, which is usually not taken seriously.“再见” 曾经用来告别,如今却往往用来佯装“我们不能愉快地做朋友了”。比如,我们可以说“再也不见 ”,当然这一般是开玩笑的啦。The emoji ;laugh and cry;, which was chosen as the word of the year of 2015 by the Oxford English Dictionary, is a new star with several different meanings, for example laughing out loud, expressing extreme happiness, laughing helplessly, or embarrassment.“笑哭” 当选为牛津英语词典2015年度词汇,是一颗身负多重含义的新星,表达的含义可以有哈哈大笑、喜不自胜、无力苦笑、尴尬无语等。 /201602/426710。

Euthanasia, from the Greek word meaning ;good death;, is the practice of assisted suicide with the intention of relieving pain and suffering. Euthanasia is also known as mercy killing or physician assisted suicide. Like all things that deal with life and death, it has been a controversial subject of debate due to its seeming infringement of a person#39;s fundamental right to live. As a law, voluntary euthanasia is accepted in some countries, including some states in the ed States and provinces in Canada. Euthanasia is also one of the most actively researched and debated subjects in modern bioethics. Surveys taken in the ed States indicate that an estimated 46% of physicians agree that voluntary euthanasia should be allowed for certain situations, with 41% disagreeing altogether and 14% believe it to be circumstantial. Below are the key arguments for euthanasia, which highlight why it is our right as human beings as well as the benefits it presents.安乐死又名无痛死亡或医生协助自杀,它源于希腊文,意为;善终;,即通过协助自杀缓解疼痛和苦难。由于涉及人类基本的生存权利,安乐死跟其他对待生命和死亡的事情一样,也是饱含争议的话题。已经有一些国家从立法层面接受安乐死,其中就包括美国和加拿大的一些州省。在现代生命伦理学领域,安乐死也是饱受争议的主题和研究的热门方向之一。美国一项调查显示,约有46%的医生认为在特定的情况下应当同意实施自愿安乐死,而41%的医生则完全持反对意见,另外的14%认为应当根据具体情况而定。下面罗列一些关于安乐死的主要观点,重点阐释安乐死作为人类权利的原因及其带来的好处。10.People have the right to die.10.人们有选择死亡的权利Often, the discussion revolves around the right to life; anti-euthanasia proponents argue that euthanasia infringes on a person#39;s fundamental right to live. What they fail to see is that our ;life; as human beings implies death. Without death, we do not have ;human life; by its very definition. Like black and white or two sides of a coin, human life cannot occur without death. Therefore for those that argue that every man has the fundamental right to live, they unknowingly also agree that every man has the fundamental right to die.关于安乐死的讨论通常围绕着生存权展开,反对者常有的说辞是:安乐死践踏了人类基本的生存权利。他们会忽略死亡是我们人生的归宿,如果没有死亡,;生存;将无法定义。如同黑白相对、硬币具有正反面一样,人类生命的诞生与消逝本来就是一个整体。因此,那些持每个人都有基本生存权利的人们还没意识到自己也同意一个观点:每个人都有选择死亡方式的基本权利。Because we can determine the course of our lives by our own will, we have the right to live our lives and determine our own course. Naturally it follows that the same self-determining capacity we have as human beings also gives us the fundamental right to determine how we die. It is also important to consider that the right to life has no say over the right to die. The right to live and the right to die are two separate, although related rights. They are also mutually exclusive in the sense that the right to live concerns itself only with self-determined life and ends with the right to die. The right to die on the other hand begins where life ends in death. While you live, you exercise your right to life; when your life ends, you exercise your right to die. It is important to consider that we refer to self-determined or natural death and not death resulting from someone directly removing from you your life, thereby restricting your right to live. If such significant weight in this sense is given to our right to live, should we not also give equal weight to our right to die.我们可以自己决定生活的历程,我们有活得痛快的权利,我们可以规划自己生命的航向。自然地,人类自我决定的能力也赋予我们决定如何死亡的基本权利,需要强调的是,生存的权利并不高于选择死亡的权利。生存权和死亡权是相互独立而又相互关联的。生存权关乎自我选择生活而死亡权关乎自我选择生活的结束,在这个意义上二者是相互排斥的。从另一方面来看,选择死亡的权利在人们行将就木时开始。当你活着时,你行使的是生存权;当你的生命走时到终点,你行使的是选择死亡的权利。需要强调一点,我们这里谈论的是自杀或自然死亡而非命丧他手而被剥夺生存权利。我们如此重视保障自身生存的权利,那么,对于死亡权利的尊重是不是也应该置于同样的高度?9.People have the explicit right to choose.9.选择权是人的基本权利Beyond the philosophical implications of man#39;s right to live or die lies man#39;s explicit and fundamental right to choose. Everything is touched by this explicit right, from what you will have for breakfast to what you will believe, what your opinions are and what you do with your life. The society that man has built is founded on this very right, and evolves because our inherent nature is explored. Regardless of the outcome, no one can question our right to free will. The right to choose is fundamental and applies to all elements of ;human life;, which by the nature of human life, includes the right to choose how you die. As an example, a terminally ill individual who is currently under significant pain may choose to die with dignity, as is his right. To deny him this is to deny him his personal autonomy and is an act that is trespassing on his humanity. While concepts such as dignity are defined by social majority, an individual, possessing all the rights of a human being, may perceive a dignified death to be preferable to constant suffering. He may decide on euthanasia, and this choice should be available to him. Very simply, this is his right to choose, as equally as he made his choices when faced with circumstances in life. It cannot be questioned should he decide to act on it. In the case of euthanasia, we simply request assistance to facilitate this right of choosing how to exit this world.抛却哲学范畴的生存权和死亡权不谈,人们应明白;选择;是其生而为人的基本权利。一个人应知道选择权与一切事物息息相关,从你早餐要吃什么到你的信仰,从你的意见到你的生活。人类社会构建在这一特殊权利的基础上,社会的进步则依托于人类热衷探索的内在本质。无论结果如何,没有人可以质疑我们思想自由的权利。选择是我们的基本权利,存在于;人类生活;的方方面面。这一权利体现人的本性,包括选择死亡方式的权利。举个例子,一个身患绝症的人在长期忍受剧烈疼痛的情况下可以选择有尊严地死去,这是他的权利。而否认他具有选择死亡的权利,就是否认他个人的自主权,这是对人性的侵犯!像尊严这一类概念都是由社会的多数人定义。一个享有人类一切权利的个体可能会察觉,比起长期遭受病痛折磨,有尊严地死去会是更好的选择。他应该享有选择安乐死的权利。简单地说,这是他的选择权,跟他面对其他人生境遇时的选择权是同等的,他是否行使这一权利的决定不应当受到质疑。在一个人选择安乐死的情况下,我们能做的,只有请求协助其如何离世。8.Euthanasia is not immoral.8.安乐死符合道德For something to be immoral, it would have to violate moral laws or norms. The argument of anti-euthanasia proponents is that euthanasia is immoral because life must be preserved and protected. The preservation of life is, however, subject to the self-determined choice of the person and not the choice of the physician. As an example, murder infringes on a person#39;s right to life by taking away the element of choice in the persons death. No infringement is done when it is the person who chooses how to die. For a physician to deny the person his right to die when under intense pain and suffering is effectively forcing them to live a life without what they believe is their dignity, a life of suffering and eventual death (in the case of terminally ill patients). While the intentions may be good, no person has the right to demand of another person to live a life of suffering, in fact, that is immoral as it removes their right to choose. Euthanasia facilitates the choice making it in fact the compassionate choice and sympathetic to that person#39;s dignity. It is also important to note that those that argue to preserve life despite the patient being terminally ill and in extreme pain are usually not the patients themselves and therefore removed from the consequences of the decision.不道德的东西违反法律规则。有人说安乐死是不道德的,因为人们必须保护生命。但生命的选择权应该属于该病人而不是该病人的医生。比如,杀人犯不顾被害者的意愿剥夺了他的生命选择权,这就是侵犯了被害者的生存权利;而一个人自己选择以某种方式结束生命时就不存在他人对他的生命权利的侵害。当医生强制一个饱受病痛折磨的人活下去时,实际上他是否定了病人对自己生命的决定权,从而让病人继续忍受病痛和尊严的煎熬,直到最终死去。这对于晚期病人来说尤其残忍。虽然医生出于好意,但任何人都没有权利要求一个人忍受病痛的折磨活着。事实上,这就是剥夺别人的选择权,这是不道德的。而安乐死实际上为病人提供了一个选择,让他能够以一个比较人道的方式离开这个世界。还有一点不容忽视,一般情况下,反对安乐死的人不是晚期病患,也没有遭受病痛的折磨,所以没有资格讨论安乐死是否符合道德。7.Euthanasia protects self-hood and human dignity.7.安乐死保护自我尊严Self-determination is one of the key elements that make us human. It is the ability to determine our destiny as individuals and is facilitated by our ability to think for ourselves. Imagine a life where an illness has left you incapable of conducting the basics of life; you are unable to breathe, move or even think for yourself. You have effectively removed your ability to self-determine, arguably a significant element in being ;human;. Our sense of ;self; is created as we progress through life. We grow our personalities as human beings by our choices and experiences. This sense of self is the foundation of our human dignity.自主决定的能力使我们人类与动物不同,是人类掌握自己命运的体现,并且受人类;利己;本能的影响。试想一下疾病让你丧失了所有基本生活技能,你再也不能够自己呼吸、活动、甚至思考;实际上这也意味着你失去了自主决定的能力–而这是人类的重要技能之一。人类的自我意识随着我们生活经验的积累而产生。我们通过不断选择和尝试形成了人类的特有品质。正是自我意识形成了人类尊严的基础。Now, go back to the example of the person who can no longer breathe, move or even think for himself, and add the element of extreme and constant pain to the point where they prefer death to living this way. Over time, because of this experience, the person will eventually lose sight of their ;self;, when they could move around, form opinions and self determine. This will all be a distant memory, and the most real thing to them will be the constant state of pain they are in. They won#39;t even be able to cry out in pain despite the pain. Seem far-fetched? Consider Tony Nicklinson, whose bid for euthanasia was rejected multiple times. Tony Nicklinson was diagnosed with a disease that prevented him from moving any and all muscles in his body. After his bid was denied, he decided to starve himself to death, which took a week without food. Another example is Kelly Taylor who starved herself for 19 days trying to die. Without the option of euthanasia, their quality of life will continue to deteriorate the same way Tony and Kelly had endured. They will eventually die, but in what state? Will they go out in a state of dignity? Euthanasia can provide them with the opportunity to finish their life keeping their human dignity intact.现在回到刚才的话题,当人再也不能自己呼吸、活动、思考,还得常常忍受极端又频繁的痛苦,生不如死,该怎么办?随着这些痛苦的积累,他最终会丧失;自我;–不能自由活动、发表观点、自我决定。以前许多轻而易举就能做到的事情都会变得遥不可及,而令他们感受最深的只剩没有尽头的苦痛。而他们甚至不能大哭以表疼痛难受。觉得不可思议?多次申请安乐死都被拒绝的汤尼·尼克林森就是这样。自从被诊断出患病,全身肌肉逐渐丧失活动功能,多次申请安乐死被拒绝后,汤尼绝食一个星期后离开了这个世界。凯莉·泰勒也曾尝试绝食19天来结束生命。没有安乐死,更多人会像汤尼和凯莉一样,生活变得越来越遭。他们最后会以怎样的状态死去呢?能否带着尊严地死去?安乐死就能给他们机会死得好看些,带着尊严而死。6.Euthanasia does not harm to others.6.安乐死不会危害其他人Because people will naturally have different interests, it is not uncommon to have conflicts of interest. When conflicts arise, it is the goal of civilized society and the state to ensure the resolution of conflicts without the infringement of fundamental human rights. These rights are protected above all others and their infringement is punished severely. That being said, euthanasia as a choice infringes on no such fundamental rights. Death by its nature is a private affair. Assisted suicide (as is the case of euthanasia) involves direct harm and the termination of life only to the individual who has requested it. One cannot request euthanasia for another ;competent; person. If this is the case, it will then be a question of murder instead. The process of euthanasia does not restrict or infringe on anyone#39;s fundamental rights and therefore does no harm.每个人天生都有不同的利益,自然会有利益冲突。有了冲突,文明社会和国家的做法是在没有侵犯基本人权的基础上化解冲突。人权至高无上,侵犯人权将会受到严重惩罚。话虽如此,安乐死作为一种选择,却没有侵犯这一基本权利。本质上,死亡是人们的私事。协助自杀(比如安乐死)却只对要求安乐死的人造成直接伤害以及终结其性命。人们不能要求身体健康的的人安乐死亡。如果有这样的案例,那么反而会被质疑这是谋杀。安乐死的过程没有限制或者侵犯任何人的基本权利,因此安乐死是无害的。审校:嘉珈Alison 来源:前十网 /201512/416465。

For decades, doctors have recom that couples trying to conceive should have intercourse as often as possible, not only during ovulation (obviously) but at other times as well. Doing so is known to improve the odds of success, though the reasons have remained a puzzle. Now two new studies suggest, somewhat radically, that sex alters a woman’s immune system in ways that affect her chances of conceiving.数十年来,医生会向试图怀的伴侣建议,尽可能频繁地性交,不仅是在排卵期(显然),其他时间也一样。大家都知道这样做可以增加成功几率,不过其中的原因却一直是个谜。现在,有两项新研究颇具重大意义地显示出,性活动会改变女性的免疫系统,从而影响她的受几率。The data for the studies come from the Kinsey Institute for Research on Sex, Gender and Reproduction and the Center for the Integrative Study of Animal Behavior, both at Indiana University, where researchers recruited 30 healthy, premenopausal women, all of whom were heterosexual and not trying to become pregnant. About half of them were sexually active, using condoms or intrauterine devices as birth control, while the others were abstinent. The volunteers provided blood, saliva and other samples throughout several menstrual cycles. Apart from their sex lives, women in both groups were broadly similar in terms of health and lifestyle.这两项研究的数据分别出自金赛性、性别与生殖研究所(Kinsey Institute for Research on Sex, Gender and Reproduction)和动物行为综合研究中心(Center for the Integrative Study of Animal Behavior)。两家机构均设在印第安纳大学(Indiana University)。研究人员招募了30名更年期之前的健康女性,全部为异性恋,而且并未尝试怀。其中大约一半人性生活活跃,采用安全套或宫内节育器避,另一半人则禁欲。志愿受试人员提供了数个月经周期的血液和唾液等样本。除了性生活方面的差异,两组女性在健康状况和生活方式方面大致相似。They soon revealed distinctly different immune-system responses over the course of a menstrual cycle. According to one of the new studies, published in September in the journal Fertility and Sterility, the sexually active women displayed heightened levels of a certain immune cell when their reproductive systems were preparing to release an egg but before they were able to become pregnant. Later in the menstrual cycle, when conception was possible, these women developed higher levels of a different type of immune cell — one known to help a body recognize and ignore nonhazardous foreign cells, like those in a fetus. There were no similar changes in the immune systems of the abstinent women.他们很快发现,在一个月经周期内,两组女性的免疫系统反应截然不同。其中一项发表于《生育和不育》(Fertility and Sterility)杂志9月刊的研究显示,在女性的生殖系统正准备排卵但还无法受之前,性生活活跃的女性某类免疫细胞的水平会比较高。在月经周期后期,也就是有可能怀时,这些女性体内又有另一种不同类型的免疫细胞的水平会升高——这种免疫细胞有助于人体辨认和忽视无害的外来细胞,比如来自胎儿的细胞。禁欲女性的体内没有类似的免疫系统变化。The other study, published in Physiology and Behavior, found other immunological differences. Sexually active women early in their cycles developed more antibodies of a type that lives in the mucus lining the reproductive tract and represents a threat to sperm and fetuses. Levels of these antibodies dropped later in the cycle, while the numbers of a different germ-fighting antibody in the blood but not in the reproductive tract grew.发表在《生理学与行为》(Physiology and Behavior)杂志上的另一项研究发现了一些其他的免疫系统差别。在月经周期早期,性生活活跃的女性体内某种抗体水平比较高。该抗体存在于生殖道粘膜内,对精子和胎儿都构成威胁。在月经周期后期,这种抗体的水平会下降,另一种不同的抗菌抗体的数量则会增多。这种抗体存在于血液里,而不存于生殖道中。Together, these findings indicate that ‘‘the more frequently a woman engages in sexual activity, the more often her immune system gets the message that it’s time to reproduce,’’ says Tierney Lorenz, the research scientist at the Kinsey Institute who was the lead author of both studies. The research did not examine conception or rates of illness and infection, so the real-life implications of the differences in immunity remain uncertain. It’s also not clear how the immune system knows someone is having sex. There may be messages from the brain or extra changes in hormones, Lorenz says. Sexual partners may even exchange elements of their microbiome, prompting changes in each other’s immunity. For now, the primary lesson Lorenz takes away from these studies, she says, is ‘‘awe for the elegance of our flexible, powerful, socially aware immune system.’’这些发现共同显示出,“女性性生活越频繁,她的免疫系统就会更频繁地接到信号,提示是进行繁殖的时候,”在金赛性、性别与生殖研究所做研究的科学家、上述两项研究的第一作者蒂尔尼·洛伦茨(Tierney Lorenz)说。这项研究没有调查受情况,也没有研究患病和感染的几率,所以不同的免疫状况在真实生活中会有什么影响仍未可知。同样还不清楚的是,免疫系统如何知道某人在做爱。洛伦茨表示,有可能是大脑发送了信号,或者有荷尔蒙的额外变化进行提示。性伴侣甚至可能会交换体内的菌群,由此引发对方体内的免疫系统发生变化。洛伦茨表示,她目前从这两项研究中得到的最大收获,是“对我们那灵活、强大和具备外界感知力的免疫系统的精妙,产生了敬畏之心。”This column appears in the October 25, 2015 issue of The New York Times Magazine原文将刊登在2015年10月25日出版的一期《纽约时报杂志》上。 /201510/405822。

People who drink more than two cups of coffee per day are less likely to suffer from liver conditions, according to a landmark Australian study.根据澳大利亚的一项研究,每天喝两杯咖啡以上有助于减缓肝脏疾病症状。The study, conducted by Monash University in Melbourne, focused on 1100 liver disease patients at the Monash Health Clinic and found that coffee was able to reduce the impact on their condition.墨尔本莫纳什大学的通过在莫纳什健康诊所对1100位肝病疾病患者展开研究,发现咖啡有助于缓解患者病症。Two cups a day were found to reduce the damage caused by hepatitis C by up to 13 percent. Four cups were found to reduce the signs of fatty liver disease -- the most common liver disease affecting about 40 percent of Australians -- by as much as 24 percent.每天两杯咖啡可以把丙型肝炎患病率最多降低13%,每天四杯咖啡可以减少脂肪肝症状——脂肪肝是一种非常常见的病症,40%的澳大利亚人都有此类症状——通过此方法可以降患病率低至24%。Current statistics showed that around 6 million Australians are, or have been, affected by some form of liver disease, with fatty liver disease, hepatitis B and hepatitis C the three most common forms.根据现有数据,大概有六百万澳大利亚人现在或者曾经患有肝脏类疾病,例如脂肪肝、丙肝和乙肝都是比较常见的疾病。Alex Hodge, a liver disease specialist at Monash Health, revealed the findings of the study this week at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases in San Francisco.阿历克斯·霍奇是莫纳什健康中心的肝病研究专家。本周,他在旧金山美国肝病联盟会议上发表了自己的研究。He told Melbourne radio on Tuesday morning about the findings of his study and the apparent curative effects of coffee.周二早间,他告诉墨尔本电台,他发现咖啡有明显的疗效。;Two or more cups of coffee led to an improvement in their liver disease,; he said.“两杯或者两杯以上的咖啡可以缓解他们的肝脏疾病。”他说。;Certainly moderate amounts of coffee, depending on the liver disease you#39;re looking at, seem to be associated with less liver damage and probably less liver fat.;“适量的咖啡可以缓解你的疾病,减少肝脏损坏,可能还会减少脂肪肝。”The study found the most dramatic results were found in patients with hepatitis C and that drinking tea had no effect on the liver.研究发现,携带丙肝的患者的疗效最为显著。然而,喝茶并没有产生相应效果。In a separate study, coincidentally published on the same day, Harvard University#39;s Chan School of Public Health found similar results with people who drink up to five cups of coffee per day.在当天发表的另一项研究是由哈佛大学公共卫生学院所研究,其内容为每天喝五倍咖啡有相似的疗效。;In the whole study population, moderate coffee consumption was associated with reduced risk of death from cardiovascular disease, diabetes, neurological diseases such as Parkinson#39;s and suicide,; the findings found.研究发现,“在研究群体中,适量的咖啡摄入可以减少心脏病、糖尿病和帕金森、自杀行为等神经类疾病的患病致死风险。”;Bioactive compounds in coffee reduce insulin resistance and systematic inflammation,; said Ming Ding, a Harvard doctoral student.哈佛士生丁明说: “咖啡中的活性化合物可以降低抗胰岛素耐受性和系统炎症。”;That could explain some of our findings. However, more studies are needed to investigate the biological mechanisms producing these effects.;“这可以解释我们的发现。然而,我们还需要进一步研究产生这些效果的生物机制。”No preventative effects were found during this study, which was published in the latest edition of the journal Circulation.但是,在研究中并没有发现咖啡有预防疾病的作用,该研究发表在最新一期《循环》杂志中。 /201511/411207。