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武汉华夏男科医院新闻飞度医院排名

2019年06月20日 19:47:36|来源:国际在线|编辑:飞度搜医生
He#39;s cute, fun, smart and you can#39;t stop thinking about him. Not so fast. While many men may seem ideal after just a few weeks of dating, upon closer inspection, there can be warning signs that you should avoid a relationship with this person. It is important to recognize these warning signs before it#39;s too late.他长得帅,有很有趣,而且聪明,你都没法停下来不去想他。别太快陷进去。有些男人在约会几周后看上去似乎就是理想的另一半,但再仔细观察一下,有些警示信息就会出现了,告诉你这样的男人要不得。尽快发现这些警示很重要,以免后悔莫及。1. The set-in-his-ways guy.只按自己方式做事的男人These men will only become more rigid over time. Dating someone who refuses to do anything new makes for a long-term relationship that is both boring and one-sided. Assuming that he will eventually change and open up to your hobbies is misguided. This will likely never happen.随着年龄的增长,这样的男人只会越来越固执。如果你的约会对象不愿意做些新的事情来维持你们的关系,不让你们的关系变得单调又一边倒的话,假设这样的男人会改变,并且会迎合你的兴趣,那你就太天真了。这种事是绝对不会发生的。2. The pick-up-after-me guy.需要你来料理生活的男人You are his partner, not his maid. Men who expect you to clean up their dishes, pick up their clothes and take care of them as if they are little children on a consistent basis need a really check, and will likely treat you as if you are their mother for the rest of their lives.你是他的另一半,而不是他的女佣。这种男人会指着你来刷盘子、洗衣、照顾他的饮食起居,把自己当成是需要人经常照顾的小孩,而把你当成是他的老妈子。3. The I-don#39;t-know-what-I#39;m-looking-for guy.“我不知道我要什么”的男人One day, he wants a relationship. The next day, he wants kids. Two months later, he#39;s not sure about either. Often times when this line is pulled, its code for ;I#39;m looking for a marriage and kids, just not with you.; Steer clear.今天他想要谈恋爱,明天他想要有孩子,两个月后,他又什么都不确定了。经常出现从这种男人嘴里说出的台词是“我想要结婚,也想要有孩子,不过不是和你。”想想清楚吧,子们。4. The I-need-to-watch-sports-all-the-time guy.“我只想一直看比赛”的男人There#39;s nothing wrong with sitting on the couch and watching sports. Many guys do. But this should never trump the responsibilities of a relationship or take precedence over family obligations. There is a difference between loving sports and having a childish obsession with them. Choose a man who knows the difference.蜷坐在沙发上,看看体育比赛,这没什么不好的,很多男人都会这么做。但是决不能因此而逃避家庭中的责任和义务。热爱体育和孩子气的沉迷比赛是有很大不同的。你要找的男人必须要会分辨其中的差别。5. The I-don#39;t-like-your-friends guy.“我不喜欢你的朋友”的男人No man is more important than your friends. If he doesn#39;t like them and refuses to hang out with them, leave immediately.没有一个男人会比你的朋友更重要。如果他不喜欢你的朋友,不愿意和他们一起出去,那就赶紧离开这个男人。6. The I-get-increasingly-less-romantic-with-each-date guy.“我对约会厌倦了”的男人Many men break out all the stops early on in the dating process, but by the fifth of sixth date, the laziness starts to creep in. While no man should always be expected to plan five-star dates, at the same time, the romance shouldn#39;t just completely fall off a cliff at once. These changes in effort can be very foretelling of how he will be a year or two down the road.在刚开始约会的时候,很多男人都会大献殷勤,但是约会五六次之后,有些男人就懒得翻花样了。当然不能指望男人每次都能策划五星级的约会,但同时要知道浪漫约会不能在达到顶峰后立马结束。这种心思的变化可以预示出一个男人在一两年后是个什么样子。7. The let#39;s-just-stay-in guy.只想在室内待着的男人If you like being indoors more than being outdoors, this may be a good match for you. But men who are constantly suggesting that they want to just stay in and watch a movie early on in the dating game are likely the lazy type, or only out for sex. This will only get worse over time.如果你也是个宅女,那么这样的男人也许适合你。但是男人在约会初期就总是建议待在屋里看电影,那么这个人可能很懒或者只是想和你上床。这种情况会随着时间的推移越来越坏。8. The lack-of-ambition guy.没有抱负的男人Be very wary of men who talk up a big game of what they plan on doing with their lives. Some men with no ambition whatsoever like to talk up a good game, but at the end of the day, they are just saying what they know women want to hear. There is nothing wrong with a guy who wants to grow into a better person, just make sure that he#39;s genuine.对于男人说的关于未来的大计划,要非常谨慎小心。有些没有抱负的男人反而喜欢说些大话,到最后,他们也只是挑女人喜欢听的说罢了。男人如果想要变得更好,那是极好的,但要先确保他是真心的。9. The ;sorry, I#39;m not a big phone person,; guy.“我不爱打电话”的男人Some men may not like being tied down to a phone, but responding to your text messages or phone calls shouldn#39;t be annoying; it#39;s common courtesy and respect. This is a warning sign of future selfish behavior.有些男人也许的确不爱守着电话,但是回复你的短信或来电却并应该是一件烦人的事,这是一种基本的礼仪和尊重。如果他不爱打电话的话,也许是日后自私的征兆。10. The over-controlling guy.控制欲过强的男人The opposite of number nine, the over-controlling guy must know where ;his woman; his every second of the day and approve of who she is hanging out with. Run from this type of man immediately.与第九条相反,这种男人控制欲过强,他们想要知道“他的女人”每时每刻的动静,要得到他的允许,他的女人才能和别人出去。遇到这种男人还是趁早抽身吧。 /201303/228673Giving birth to a child is a physical and emotional experience that#39;s as exhausting as it is exhilarating. Afterward, every new mom needs recovery time, even if she had a relatively easy birth. Factor in a C-section or other complications and the need for care after birth increases exponentially.新生命的诞生固然是让人高兴的大事儿,但生产的过程对新妈妈来说,无论是身体上还是心理上都是非常疲惫的。生产结束后,每个新妈妈都需要恢复时间,就算是生产过程相对轻松的妈妈也不例外。剖腹产和并发症等使得妈妈们在产后越来越需要得到护理。For many women around the world postpartum support comes from partners, family, and friends who rally to help out and give the new mom a chance to regain her strength and focus on bonding with her baby. The type of support moms get and the length of time they receive that support vary around the world.世界各国的女性在生产后都会得到各方的帮助持,有的来自家人朋友,有的来自团体组织,他们帮助新妈妈恢复体力,和新生儿之间建立亲子关系。不同地区的产妇所得到的的产假时长和照料方式也各有不同。In China and India, many new moms practice the tradition of postpartum confinement after the birth of a child. Confinement is a period of time, usually from 30 to 40 days after the birth of a child, when a new mom rests and avoids physical work.在中国和印度,许多产妇妈妈都有坐月子的传统。生下宝宝后30至40天,妈妈都要卧床休息,不做任何体力劳动。The mom stays home and is attended by close family and friends. Some women even hire a professional confinement ;lady; or maid. These helpers cook special recovery meals for the new mom, teach her how to bathe, swaddle, and care for her newborn, and tend to the baby when mom needs rest.新妈妈待在家里,由家人朋友悉心照料。有些人甚至还会专门雇“月嫂”,负责做产妇专用恢复餐、教会新妈妈如何给孩子洗澡、裹襁褓等等。要是妈妈累了要休息,她们还得照顾新生儿。In India the confinement period can last anywhere from 40 to 60 days depending on where the woman lives. In addition to rest and special meals, the ;confined; new mom might also receive a daily massage to soothe her body and help her blood circulation.在印度,产妇生活的地区不同,坐月子的时间也不同,但大都在40至60天左右。除了休息和特殊饮食,新妈妈在坐月子期间每天还要做,以放松身体、促进血液循环。Part of the reason confinement traditions aren#39;t more widesp is that forty days at home, with or without professional help, is a luxury that#39;s out of reach for most women.但并不是所有国家都有坐月子的传统。部分原因是不管有没有专业护理,在家待40天对于大多数女性来说都是可望不可即的奢侈生活。In fact, many new moms around the world have to go back to work as soon as possible after their child is born because they have no access to paid maternity leave.事实上,全球许多女性因为没有产假,在生下孩子后就立刻返回工作岗位。The U.S. is one of the only developed countries without a national paid maternity leave program. Compare that to countries like Sweden where new mothers and fathers are eligible for 48 weeks each of paid leave after the birth of a child, the UK (39 weeks) and Russia (28 weeks). Even India and Malaysia both offer 12 weeks of paid leave to their new mothers.美国是唯一一个不设国家带薪产假项目的发达国家。同其它国家相比,瑞典为新生儿父母各提供48周的带薪产假,英国有39周,俄罗斯有28周。即使在印度和马来西亚,产妇也有12周的带薪产假。The Duchess of Cambridge will live with her parents, Carole and Michael Middleton after giving birth to her first child. Carole’s younger brother, Gary Goldsmith confirmed that Catherine will indeed be using mum’s help.凯特王妃生下第一个孩子后将会回娘家,与父母卡罗尔和迈克尔住在一起。卡罗尔的弟弟加里·戈德史密斯确认说,凯瑟琳(即凯特王妃)的确需要妈妈的帮助。“The fact that they’re taking the baby to Carole’s for the first six weeks is genius,” Goldsmith said of the Middletons. ”Carole’s a brilliant mum – she is 10 years older than me and practised on me – and I think it’s the right thing to do. It will take the pressure off Kate.”谈起米德尔顿一家时,戈德史密斯说:“他们在产后前六周和孩子住在母亲家的决定十分正确,卡罗尔是个聪明能干的母亲。他比我大十岁,之前就照顾过我。我认为回家的做法很明智,凯特的压力会因此减轻不少。” /201307/249765Chen Defang, president of a Chinese firm at the center of a politically charged dispute over a copper mine in newly democratic Myanmar, has been ting in unfamiliar territory for the past few months.新近实行了民主制度的缅甸围绕一座铜矿展开了一场以政治为目的的争端,位于争端中心的是一家中国企业,这家企业的总裁陈德芳过去几个月一直在一个陌生的领域中谨慎而行。He used to keep the kind of low public profile you might expect from the head of a company owned by a Chinese arms manufacturer and whose partner in Myanmar is owned by the military there. Wanbao Mining Ltd. relied on Myanmar#39;s generals rather than community relations to get the land and permits needed for the Letpadaung copper mine near Monywa in northwestern Myanmar.他过去在公开场合一直保持低调,这或许是意料之中的,因为他所在的公司隶属于一家中国武器制造商,而且公司在缅甸的合作伙伴是由缅甸军方所有。万宝矿产有限公司(Wanbao Mining Ltd.)依靠缅甸高层将领而不是社会关系取得了Letpadaung铜矿所需的土地和许可。这座铜矿位于缅甸西北部地区的蒙育瓦附近。But since protests from local villagers halted construction at the mine in November, Mr. Chen has had to launch a public-relations and lobbying offensive to deal with Myanmar#39;s dramatically altered political climate.但自去年11月当地村民的抗议令铜矿的建设陷入停顿之后,陈德芳不得不发动一场公关和游说攻势,以便应对缅甸急剧变化的政治环境。In an interview last week with The Wall Street Journal─his first with Western media─Mr. Chen was enthusiastic about his meeting this month for the first time with Aung San Suu Kyi, Myanmar#39;s opposition leader and spending several days touring villages near the mine to discuss local people#39;s demands.陈德芳上周接受了《华尔街日报》的采访,这是他首次接受西方媒体的采访。他热情洋溢地谈到了本月与缅甸反对党领袖昂山素季(Aung San Suu Kyi)的首次会面,谈到对铜矿附近几个村子进行的数日考察,探讨当地村民的要求。#39;The mistake we made is we didn#39;t consult the people enough; local people weren#39;t involved in our development plan,#39; he said.他说,我们犯的错误是没有充分征求当地居民的意见,当地居民没有参与到我们的开发计划中。#39;She#39;s an amazing lady,#39; said Mr. Chen, who hadn#39;t met Ms. Suu Kyi before.陈德芳说,昂山素季是一位令人惊奇的女性。他以前从未见过昂山素季。He went on to give details of how Wanbao─based on Ms. Suu Kyi#39;s suggestions─had increased compensation to local residents for land around the mine and was drawing up plans to build libraries and other local infrastructure, as well as to boost local employment by helping small and medium-size enterprises.他接着详细介绍了万宝矿产的一些措施,比如该公司增加了铜矿周边当地居民的土地补偿款,并正在制定在当地修建图书馆和其他基础设施的方案,以及通过帮助中小企业来促进当地的就业。这些措施都是根据昂山素季的建议做出的。#39;My strategy is to kill the #39;resource curse,#39;#39; he said, adding that he hoped to resume construction within three months. #39;Sooner or later they will say: #39;Thank you, Mr. Chen.#39;#39;他说,我的战略是要消除“资源诅咒”。他还说,他希望在三个月内恢复施工,早晚他们会说:“谢谢你,陈先生”。Whether Wanbao will deliver on such promises, and whether its opponents will be grateful, remains to be seen. Critics say Chinese companies have little experience in democratic consultation because of their own country#39;s authoritarian political system.万宝矿产是否会兑现这些承诺,它的反对者是否会心存感激,这仍有待观察。批评人士说,由于中国的威权政治制度,中国企业几乎没有什么民主协商的经验。#39;They are still acting like a bossy partner: These suggestions are just cosmetic,#39; said Win Myo Thu, managing director at Ecodev, a nongovernmental group that studies the environmental impact of large industrial projects in Myanmar, including the mine. He said it was #39;ridiculous#39; to aim to complete the consultation in just three months.非政府组织Ecodev董事总经理Win Myo Thu说,他们的行为举止仍像个跋扈的合作伙伴:这些意见只是为了粉饰太平。该组织研究缅甸大型工业项目对环境的影响,包括上述铜矿项目。他说,力争在短短三个月内征求完意见太“荒唐”了。Still, that Wanbao is even talking in such terms─Mr. Chen spoke of #39;empowering#39; locals by providing education and employment─reflects the impact of Myanmar#39;s democratic transition on its once cozy, but highly opaque, relations with China.尽管如此,单凭万宝矿产谈论此事时的措辞就可以看出,缅甸向民主制度的转型对中缅之间曾经惬意但不透明的关系带来了影响。陈德芳谈到通过向当地居民提供教育和就业机会给予当地居民权利。It also hints at the broader pressures facing Chinese companies in the developing world, where they have often been accused of fostering corruption, damaging the environment and neglecting local people#39;s interests in a scramble to secure supplies of industrial raw materials.它还暗示出中国企业在发展中世界中所面临的更广泛的压力。在发展中世界,中国企业常常被指在急于保障工业原材料供应的过程中助长腐败风气、破坏环境、忽视当地居民的利益。Wanbao is at the forefront of that quest. A unit of China North Industries Corp., Wanbao says it controls more than billion worth of mineral resources., including the Myanmar mine and a cobalt deposit in the Democratic Republic of Congo.万宝矿产处于风口浪尖上。该公司是中国兵器工业集团公司(China North Industries Corp.)的子公司,自称控制着价值100多亿美元的矿产资源,包括上述缅甸的铜矿和刚果民主共和国的一座钴矿。When Wanbao sealed the Myanmar mine deal in 2010, after three years of talks, the country was ruled by a military junta close to China. there was no public scrutiny of the agreement with the military-owned Union of Myanmar Economic Holdings, or UMEHL.2010年万宝矿产在经过了三年的谈判后达成了缅甸铜矿协议,当时缅甸是在一个与中国关系密切的军政府的统治下。那个时候,万宝矿产与隶属于缅甸军方的缅甸联邦经济控股有限公司(Union of Myanmar Economic Holdings)之间的协议,并没有让公众进行审查。Mr. Chen said Wanbao agreed to invest billion in the new mine at Letpadaung, plus 0 million in two existing mines nearby. UMEHL would provide a 25-year license and take 51% of profits, with the rest going to the Chinese.陈德芳说,万宝矿产同意对Letpadaung的这座新铜矿投资10亿美元,另外对附近两座现有的矿投资5亿美元。缅甸联邦经济控股有限公司将提供为期25年的许可,收取51%的利润,剩余的利润则归中方所有。n order to obtain the 7,800 acres (3,160 hectares) needed for the new mine, Wanbao offered locals 0 an acre, he said.But in Wanbao#39;s plans were thrown into turmoil in November construction was halted by local protests over low land compensation and the project#39;s environment impact.他说,为拿到新矿所需的7,800英亩(合3,160公顷)土地,万宝矿产向当地居民提供了一英亩600美元的补偿款。但去年11月,当地居民抗议土地补偿款过低以及项目对环境造成影响后,铜矿的施工暂停,万宝矿产的计划被打乱。A government panel led by Ms. Suu Kyi said this month the project should go ahead as it benefitted the economy. It said the owners should correct mistakes and urged measures, such as periodic environmental monitoring, better land compensation and more involvement of small and medium-size enterprises.昂山素季领导的一个政府委员会本月说,该项目应该继续,因为项目对缅甸的经济有利。委员会说,铜矿所有人应该改正错误,采取抗议者要求其采取的措施,比如定期进行环境监测,提高土地补偿金额,让中小企业更多地参与其中。Mr. Chen said Wanbao would comply with those recommendations, but he gave details of only some measures, saying others were still being worked out.Asked whether he agreed with the report#39;s findings, he said: #39;My concern is not whether I agree with everything or not.…I didn#39;t really research or study the details of everything. I focused on their instructions for what we do in the future.#39;He declined, however, to blame UMEHL or local authorities for their handling of opposition to the mine. The commission#39;s report concluded that police had used incendiary devices containing phosphorus to break up protests over the mineMr. Chen said he thought that part of UMEHL was owned by Myanmar#39;s ministry of defense, but he didn#39;t know its exact ownership structure. #39;Why should we be concerned who owns their shares?#39; he asked. #39;We didn#39;t focus on that.#39;陈德芳说,万宝矿产将听取这些建议,但他仅详细介绍了部分措施,说其他措施仍在研究之中。当记者问他是否赞同报告的研究结果时,他说,我关心的并不是我是否赞同所有的东西……我并没有真正研究或调查所有事情的细节。我看重的是他们对我们未来应该做的事情的建议。不过,他不愿指责缅甸联邦经济控股有限公司或当地政府应对铜矿项目反对意见的方式。委员会的报告得出结论说,警方在驱散抗议者时使用了含磷易燃设备。陈德芳说,他认为缅甸联邦经济控股有限公司有一部分是隶属于缅甸国防部的,但他不知道它的确切所有权结构。他反问,我们为什么要在乎谁持有他们的股份呢?我们的重点不在这上。He said his company had aly started paying higher compensation of 0-,200 an acre, depending on what the owners had been using the land for, and it had drawn up new plans to build local infrastructure, including a library in each of the 30 affected villages.他说,万宝矿产已经开始提高补偿款,根据土地此前的用途,每英亩付700至1,200美元不等的补偿款,该公司还制定了在当地修建基础设施的新方案,包括在30个受影响的村子各建一个图书馆。He said the company hadn#39;t increased the number of local people it planned to employ at the project, which currently has 2,400 staff, including 200 foreigners. But he said Wanbao had committed to invest million annually in small and medium-size enterprises, such as brick factories, to boost local employment.他说,万宝矿产一直没有增加计划为该项目在当地雇佣的人员数量,目前人数为2,400人,包括200名外国人。但他说,万宝矿产已经承诺每年向砖厂等中小企业投资100万美元来促进当地的就业。He also said the company had established a new #39;community and social development#39; department and was in talks about setting up local joint ventures to manufacture machinery for the mine, most of which currently has to be imported.他还说,万宝矿产成立了一个新的“社区及社会发展”部门,并正在就在当地组建几家生产铜矿机械设备的合资企业进行谈判。目前大部分机械设备都必须从国外进口。#39;Our company has nothing to do with what happened. I was really upset with what happened,#39; Mr. Chen said when asked about the use of phosphorus. But asked whether Wanbao had expressed its dissatisfaction to UMEHL or Myanmar authorities, he said: #39;I can#39;t tell them what they should do and not do.#39;当记者问他对缅甸警方用含磷设备驱散抗议者的看法时,陈德芳说,我们公司与发生的事无关,我对发生的事深感不安。但当记者问他万宝矿产是否曾向缅甸联邦经济控股有限公司或缅甸政府表达过不满,他说,我不能告诉他们他们应该做什么,不应该做什么。He also brushed off concerns raised by many of the project#39;s opponents that it channels revenues to current and retired military officers with interests in UMEHL.他也没有理会铜矿项目的很多反对者提出的担忧。反对者说,铜矿项目的收入会流入在缅甸联邦经济控股有限公司存在利益的现任及退休军官手中。 /201303/232426

In his famous book Learned Optimism, Martin Seligman points out how our present use of language can be a fairly accurate predictor of future success. Seligman explains how he was able to predict outcomes of sporting events with reasonable accuracy by comparing the language used by the coaches and players in interviews before the event. Basically what he did was count all the positive words and the negative words in published pre-game es from the players and coaches, and then he calculated the ratio of positive words to negative. The team with the higher ratio was the one picked to win. There is some subjectivity in deciding whether a word is positive, negative, or neutral, but if you try it yourself, I think you’ll find that most of the time it’s fairly easy to classify words. Seligman also explains using a similar process to predict the winners of political elections.Try this for yourself. Here’s a sentence I grabbed from Yahoo News on Feb 23:Scientists fear the avian flu that has killed 46 people in Asia could be the strain that will cause the next global pandemic but said more evidence is needed about how infectious it is in humans.How many positive and negative words do you count? I count zero positive and four negative (fear, killed, pandemic, infectious). So this sentence has a ratio of 0/4 0.Let’s try the same process on all of the headlines from Yahoo News (I’m using the Feb 23 version). I count 6 positive words (eases, adds, new, found, right, wealthy) and 15 negative words (denounce, fight, die, soak, death, somber, slain, fears, concerns, dismissed, defiant, avoids, risk, pandemic, handouts) for an overall ratio of 6/15 0.4.My picks are subjective of course, so yours may be different, but try it for yourself on any news site. If you find one with a ratio above 1.0, please tell me about it!Try this on yourself as well. Go over some text you wrote recently — emails, forums posts, whatever. What’s your ratio of positive/negative words? Seligman would argue that this is a powerful predictor of future success. Some personal development experts believe that by intentionally choosing more optimistic words in the language you use, you’ll start to become more optimistic in your thinking, which will in turn lead to better results. Anthony Robbins has a whole chapter about it in one of his books; he refers to it as “transformational vocabulary.”Have some fun and try this on your friends and co-workers. Grab something they wrote, and compute their ratio. Is their language predominantly optimistic (gt;1.0) or pessimistic (lt;1.0)? Who has the highest score? The lowest score? Any interesting patterns?What kind of boss do you work for? What about your company’s brochures? If you run your own business how’s your marketing material, your web site, your business plan? Are you projecting confidence or self-doubt to your customers? What about your journal entries? Your to do list?You’ll often see a pattern where like attracts like. Pessimistic news sources will attract pessimistic ers, partly because those are the best targets for advertising — negative people are more likely to believe that buying products will change their emotional state. A pessimistic company will attract and breed pessimistic employees — the high-energy positive people will go where their enthusiasm is welcome. So there’s a good chance you’ll see similar ratios to your own when you look around your environment. /200803/29467

Millions of men may be putting their health at risk by not realising they#39;re overweight, Guardian research suggests.数百万男人可能使自己处在健康危险之中,没有意识到他们超重,《卫报》的研究表明。Men are more than twice as likely as women to underestimate their weight - and therefore may not be aware that their lifestyle is putting them at the risk of a range of diseases – including heart disease, diabetes and some cancers – associated with carrying extra pounds.男人低估自己的体重是女性的2倍,因此可能没有意识到他们的生活方式正把他们置于一系列疾病的风险中,包括心脏病、糖尿病和某些癌症——与超重有关。Almost one in four men asked to say whether they were of a healthy weight, overweight or obese by the Guardian guessed they were at least one category thinner than they really were – indicating many are taking risks with their health without even knowing it.几乎四分之一的男性被要求确定他们是健康体重、超重还是肥胖,《卫报》猜测他们至少比他们的真实体重瘦了一个等级,这表明许多人在甚至不了解的情况下拿自己的健康冒险。The findings, which come from a very large sample (but not a scientifically selected one), suggest millions of men may be unaware they are overweight, and thus of the consequent health risks they are taking: in the UK, 68% of men and 58% of women are overweight or obese.这些来自于一个非常大的样本(但不是科学选择的一个样本)的发现暗示数以百万计的男人可能没有意识到自己超重,因此造成他们面临的健康风险:在英国,68%的男性和58%的女性体重超标或肥胖。By contrast, women were possibly too self-conscious about their weight. Only 8% under-estimated which category they fell into, while 27% thought they weighed more than they did – versus just 12% of men.相比之下,女性可能太在意自己的体重。只有8%低估她们的体重类别,而27%的人认为她们的体重超过他们所想的,而男性仅有12%。This could suggest women are more influenced by images of thin women shown across the media, are more worried and aware about their health, or could be tied to a myriad of other factors.这可能表明女性受到媒体展示的苗条女性照片影响更多,更担心且意识到她们的健康,或可能与无数其他因素有关。The findings also revealed stark differences in self-knowledge between people of different weights.结果还发现在不同体重的人中间存在截然不同的自我认知。There#39;s also a thorny dilemma: is there a way to make men worry more about their waistlines, while at the same time making women worry slightly less?还有一个棘手的困境:是否有办法使男人担心自己的腰围多些,同时使女性担心得稍微少些? /201304/232896

I now know why I gained more than 30 pounds in my early 20s: I was lonely. I had left my beloved alma mater upstate for graduate school and a job in the Upper Midwest. I knew no one and felt like a fish out of water.现在我知道,在自己20岁出头时,为什么会猛增了30多磅体重了:我当时太孤独了。我告别了北方我深爱着的母校,来到美国上中西部边读研究生边工作。在那儿我举目无亲,感觉像是一条离开水的鱼。I filled my lonely nights and days with — you guessed it — food. Anything I could get my hands on, especially candy, cookies and ice cream. Food filled the hole in my soul, at least temporarily.在许多个黑夜和白天,我用吃东西来填充寂寞——估计你猜也猜得到。任何触手可及的东西我都会吃,尤其是糖果、曲奇和冰激淋。食物填满了我灵魂的空洞,至少暂时如此。No matter how hard I tried, I could not rein in my out-of-control eating until I returned to New York and my family, and began dating my future husband.不管我怎样努力,都没法摆脱业已失控的暴食,直到我回到纽约,回到家人身边,开始跟我未来的丈夫约会,这一切才停止。Loneliness, says John T. Cacioppo, an award-winning psychologist at the University of Chicago, undermines people’s ability to self-regulate. In one experiment he cites, participants made to feel socially disconnected ate many more cookies than those made to feel socially accepted. In a real-life study of middle-aged and older adults in the Chicago area, Dr. Cacioppo and colleagues found that those who scored high on the U.C.L.A. Loneliness Scale, a widely used psychological assessment, ate substantially more fatty foods than those who scored low. “Is it any wonder that we turn to ice cream or other fatty foods when we’re sitting at home feeling all alone in the world?” Dr. Cacioppo said in his well-documented book, “Loneliness, ” written with William Patrick. “We want to soothe the pain we feel by mainlining sugar and fat content to the pleasure centers of the brain, and absent of self-control, we go right at it.”据芝加哥大学(University of Chicago)获奖无数的心理学家约翰·T·卡奇奥波(John T. Cacioppo)说,孤独感会影响人们的自我调节能力。他援引了一项试验:感觉自己与社会脱节的参试者,相比觉得受社会接纳的参试者,所吃的饼干要更多。卡奇奥波曾和同事们在芝加哥地区做过一项研究,参加试验的是中老年人,他们发现那些在加州大学洛杉矶分校孤独感量表(UCLA Loneliness Scale,一项广为使用的心理学量表)中得分较高的人,比起得分低者,所吃的高脂食物要多得多。卡奇奥波与威廉·派特里克(William Patrick)合著有内容翔实的著作——《孤独感》,在书中他写道:“坐在家中,感觉自己与世隔绝,在这种时候狂吃冰激淋或其他高脂食物,这有什么好奇怪的?我们希望通过将糖和脂肪注入大脑的愉悦中枢来纾解心中的苦闷,在此时我们毫无自制力,直接将手伸向食物。”He explained that lonely individuals tend to do whatever they can to make themselves feel better, if only for the moment. They may overeat, drink too much, smoke, speed or engage in indiscriminate sex.他继续解释说,只要能让自己好受点,孤独的人们可以做出任何事情,哪怕只会感到片刻慰藉。他们也许会暴食、酗酒、抽烟、飙车,或者滥交。A review of research published in 1988 found that “social isolation is on a par with high blood pressure, obesity, lack of exercise or smoking as a risk factor for illness and early death, ” Dr. Cacioppo wrote.回顾1988年发表的一篇研究,卡奇奥波发现,“与世隔绝的感觉,与高血压、肥胖、缺乏运动、吸烟一样,构成了致病或早死的危险因素。”Even without indulging in unwholesome behaviors, Dr. Cacioppo and others have shown that loneliness can impair health by raising levels of stress hormones and increasing inflammation. The damage can be widesp, affecting every bodily system and brain function.卡奇奥波和其他研究者发现,孤独的人们就算不会沉缅于不健康的行为,但孤独仍会导致人体的压力激素水平上升,加剧炎症反应,进而影响健康。它可以对身体产生各种伤害,影响身体的各个系统和大脑功能。Lisa Jaremka, a postdoctoral fellow at Ohio State University, reported in January at the annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology that people who are lonely have higher levels of antibodies to certain herpes viruses, indicating more activated viruses in their systems. In another study, she found higher levels of inflammation-inducing substances in the blood of lonely people.俄亥俄大学(Ohio State University)士后丽莎·雅雷姆卡(Lisa Jaremka)在1月份的人格和社会心理学协会年会上做了一份报告,指出孤独的人对某些疱疹病毒可产生较高水平的抗体,这意味着他们体内含有更多活性病毒。她在另一项研究中发现,孤独的人血液中含有的致炎因子浓度较高。Chronic inflammation has been linked to heart disease, arthritis, Type 2 diabetes and even suicide attempts, Dr. Jaremka noted. People who are lonely also react more strongly to negative events and perceive daily life as being more stressful, which can depress the immune system.雅雷姆卡士指出,慢性炎症与心脏病、关节炎、II型糖尿病,甚至自杀企图有关。孤独的人在应对负面事态时,也易于做出更激烈的反应,并且认为日常生活压力重重,而这会抑制免疫系统。Loneliness can even influence how genes are expressed, Dr. Cacioppo has found. Loneliness predicted changes in DNA transcription that in turn dampened the body’s ability to shut off the inflammatory response, he reported. A study by Dr. Carla M. Perissinotto and colleagues at the University of California, San Francisco, assessed loneliness among 1, 604 older adults and followed them for six years. Those who were lonely were more likely to develop difficulties performing activities of daily living like bathing and dressing, using their arms and shoulders, climbing stairs and walking. Loneliness was also associated with an increased risk of death during the study period.卡奇奥波发现,孤独感甚至会影响基因表达。他指出,孤独感会预示DNA转录的变化,而这反过来会抑制机体关闭炎症反应的能力。加州大学旧金山分校(University of California, San Francisco)的卡拉·M·佩里西诺托(Carla M. Perissinotto)和同事们对1604名老年人的孤独感进行了评估,随访持续了六年。那些孤独的老人更有可能难以进行日常活动,比如洗澡和穿衣,使用胳膊和肩膀,爬楼梯和步行。在研究期间,孤独感与死亡危险上升也有联系。It’s not surprising that loneliness has also been linked to cognitive decline. A Dutch study published last year in The Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery amp;Psychiatry found that participants who reported feeling lonely — regardless of how many friends and family surrounded them — were more likely to develop dementia than those who lived on their own but were not lonely.不出人们所料:孤独感与认知功能减退也有联系。《神经病学、神经外科学与精神病学杂志》(The Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery amp;Psychiatry)去年刊登了荷兰的一项研究,研究发现感到孤独的参试者——不管他们身边事实上有多少亲友陪伴——相比虽然一个人生活,但并不觉得孤独的人,更有可能患痴呆症。The nearly 2, 200 participants, ages 65 to 86, were followed for three years and had shown no signs of dementia at the study’s start. About half lived alone, and 20 percent reported feeling lonely. After adjusting for other factors that are linked to cognitive decline, like age, feeling lonely was linked to a 64 percent increase in the risk of developing dementia, according to Tjalling Jan Holwerda of the VU University Medical Center in Amsterdam.阿姆斯特丹自由大学(VU University)医学中心的特亚林·简·赫尔威达(Tjalling Jan Holwerda)介绍说,这项研究调查了近2200名年纪在65岁到86岁间的老人,随访三年,在研究起始阶段所有人都未出现痴呆症症状。其中约半数独居,20%的人表示感到孤独。在排除了其他与认知功能减退有关的因素,比如年龄后,研究发现感到孤独,可使患痴呆症风险增加64%。This is not proof that loneliness causes dementia; the reverse could be true. People whose cognitive abilities begin declining may withdraw from others, the authors suggested. On the other hand, loneliness may result in “a lack of sensory and cognitive stimulation, ” which in turn reduces levels of nerve growth factors in the brain and may contribute to dementia.这并不能明孤独可导致痴呆,但反之可以成立。研究作者发现,认知功能开始减退的人可能会渐渐淡出社交生活。另一方面,孤独感可能导致“知觉和认知刺激缺失”,降低大脑中的神经生长分子水平,进而导致痴呆症发作。The Dutch study, among others, suggests that how people perceive their situation may have a stronger impact on health than whether they live alone and lack social connections. Divorced people have reported feeling lonelier in a bad marriage than they do being single. And people who live alone may still have a large network of friends and family that helps to keep loneliness at bay.荷兰进行的这项研究和其他调查显示,相比独居和缺乏社交纽带,人们对个人境遇的感知可能会对健康产生更剧烈的影响。离异人群表示,身处不幸的婚姻中,比独身更让他们感到孤苦。而独居的人或许拥有着一个庞大的亲友团,帮助他们击退孤独感。But according to Dr. Cacioppo, having many friends and family members around does not guarantee immunity from loneliness if the relationships are missing a strong emotional connection. The quality of these relationships — how meaningful they are to the individual — counts more than numbers in predicting loneliness, his studies and others have shown.但卡西普奥认为,如果社交关系缺乏强有力的情感联系,就算有众多亲友在侧,也无法担保人们能对孤独感刀不入。他和其他人的研究发现,社交关系的质量——也就是它对个体的意义有多么重大——比起数量,更能有效地揭示人们的孤独感。People are fundamentally social beings who require meaningful connections with others to maximize health and well-being. Dr. Cacioppo suggests reaching out to others with “random acts of kindness”: doing something that helps them physically or emotionally, maybe something as simple as complimenting a stranger’s outfit, leaving behind the change in a coffee machine, or helping an old person carry groceries or cross the street.人类本质上是社交生物,需要通过与他人建立有意义的联系来最大限度地取得健康与幸福感。卡西普奥建议大家可以做“随机的友善举动”,向他人递去橄榄枝:做些可以在身体或情感上有益他人的事情,哪怕只是易如反掌的小事,比如恭维一个陌生人的穿着,用完公用咖啡机后换上新滤纸,帮老人提购物袋或过马路。Next, try seeking out social activities that help others while fostering social contacts, like volunteering in a soup kitchen, ing to the blind or assisting in a classroom. Such actions can result in what Dr. Cacioppo calls the “helper’s high, ” establish new friendships and counter a feeling of aloneness.接下来,可以尝试参与帮助别人的社会活动,同时缔结社交联系,比如去施粥场做义工,给盲人读书,或去学校帮忙。这些行动可产生卡西奥波所谓的“帮助者高潮”,认识新朋友,同时抵御孤独感的侵袭。“What’s required, ” he wrote, “is to step outside the pain of our own situation long enough to ‘feed’ others. Real change begins with doing.” You won’t know whether what you do will result in a genuine connection to another person unless you try.“你需要做的,”他写道,“是从你个人身处的痛苦中走出来,去‘哺育’他人。真正的改变要从行动开始。”只有开始尝试,你才会知道自己做的事情是否能让你和别人建立真正的感情。While I have always been outgoing, since my husband’s death I’ve tried even harder to connect with people in ways that make us all feel good. For example, on learning that an acquaintance at the Y needed pants from a store I was going to pass, I offered to get them for her, an exchange that enriched us both.我一直为人外向,自丈夫去世后,我更努力地与别人交往,好让大家都觉得高兴。比方说,听说在基督教青年会(YMCA)的一位熟人想去一家商店取裤子,而我刚好要打那儿路过,于是我主动帮她取了,这桩小事让我俩都得到了快乐。 /201306/242396

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