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青岛吸脂手术哪家好山东青岛诺德医院切眼袋多少钱Every newspaper picture editor knows the score. If it’s a story about trade, it gets illustrated with a photo of a gargantuan cargo ship piled high with containers. And every amateur apostle of the free market, along with a few government ministers, knows that all you need to do to win an argument about trade is to cite the theory of comparative advantage and you’re pretty much done.任何一位报纸图片编辑都知道这个套路。如果这是一篇有关贸易的报道,与之搭配的图片就应该展现一艘巨大的货轮,船上集装箱高高堆起。任何一位自由市场的业余倡导者以及一些政府部门的部长也都知道,要想在有关贸易的争论中取胜,你只需要引用一下比较优势理论。Much public understanding about trade and globalisation is either scant or trapped in models and realities that owe more to the 20th century, and sometimes the 19th, than to today. At a moment when the downsides of trade and globalisation are cited as causes of Brexit, the election of Donald Trump and the rise of rightwing populism in Europe, getting the analysis right is a matter of rather more than academic interest.公众对贸易和全球化的认识要么匮乏,要么陷在模型或实例中走不出来,而且这些模型或实例通常更多反映的是二十世纪、有时甚至是十九世纪的情况,而非当下的现实。鉴于贸易和全球化的负面影响在当下被用作解释英国脱欧、唐纳德#8226;特朗普(Donald Trump)当选美国总统以及右翼民粹主义在欧洲兴起的原因,进行正确的分析就不仅仅是学术界感兴趣的问题了。Enter, with exemplary timing, this excellent book by Richard Baldwin, an academic with a strong applied focus, who combines a professorship at the Graduate Institute in Geneva with the presidency of the Centre for Economic Policy Research, a renowned network of economists.这本来自理查德#8226;鲍德温(Richard Baldwin)的杰作对上市时间的把握堪称典范。鲍德温是一位高度重视研究现实问题的学者,他是日内瓦国际研究所(Graduate Institute in Geneva)的教授,同时还是经济政策研究中心(Centre for Economic Policy Research)的主席。后者是一个颇具声望的经济学家联盟。For its time and as far as it goes, the 19th-century theory of comparative advantage is fine. Countries specialise in what they are relatively good at: high-wage and capital-rich 19th-century Europe did higher-technology industry, poorer countries such as India did agriculture and small-scale manufactures. Thus, given the productivity gains in manufacturing, began the “Great Divergence” that meant the richer countries pulling away from the rest.就其所产生的年代及其所讨论的深度而言,诞生于19世纪的比较优势理论是很好的。国家应专注于自身相对擅长的领域:例如十九世纪时高工资、资本充裕的欧洲国家就大力发展了技术含量较高的工业,印度等收入较低的国家就主要发展农业和小型制造业。因此,在制造业生产率提升的影响下,“大分裂”(Great Divergence)发生了,而这意味着高收入国家相对于世界其他地区的领先优势拉大。But Baldwin’s analysis notes this was only one form of globalisation. His framework posits three “cascading constraints” that hold back the globalisation of markets, namely the costs of moving goods, ideas and people. Initially, all were bundled together: early societies stayed where they were, passed down information to the next generation and ate what they grew. The first wave of globalisation that created the Great Divergence expanded markets via the falling cost of transporting physical goods, thanks to the steamship and the railway.但鲍德温的分析指出,这只是全球化的一种表现形式。他的分析框架提出了三种阻碍市场全球化的“逐层递进限制”,即货物运输成本、观念传播成本以及人员流动成本。最初这三种成本是混合在一起的:在早期社会形态中,人们几乎不怎么离开居住地,把信息传递给下一代,吃的也是自己种植生产的食物。导致了“大分裂”的第一波全球化浪潮通过降低实体货物运输成本拓展了市场空间,这主要归功于蒸汽船和铁路的出现。But the globalisation that began around 1990 and led to the astonishing rise — in fact, re-emergence — of China and other emerging market giants reflected a relaxation of the constraint on ideas. Digitisation and communications allowed the monitoring and control of supply chains that had previously been bundled together in one economy to be split up into dozens or hundreds of stages, which were then allocated to producers around the globe according to efficiency and cost.而始于1990年前后、推动了中国和其他主要新兴市场经济体崛起——更准确的说是重新崛起——的那一轮全球化浪潮反映了限制观念传播因素的放松。数字化以及现代通讯使得监督控制供应链的过程可以分散化,将过去集中在一个经济体境内的生产线分拆为数十道甚至上百道工序,并根据成本和效率指标分发给世界各地的生产商。Baldwin describes very well how this changes the simple country-by-country focus of comparative advantage, with some real-world case studies. South Korea, for example, shifted from its original model of operating an entire car industry at home to setting up an international automotive supply chain. With production processes being broken up into individual pieces and tasks, the sophistication goes to finer degrees. Some groups of workers, who can provide the necessary skills for the cheapest rate, prosper; some languish. Manufacturing sectors in rich countries require workers with very different skills, historically more typical of the service sector, such as management and design.鲍德温出色刻画了这一新情况是如何改变各个国家单纯侧重于本国比较优势的做法的,并对一些真实案例进行了讨论。例如,韩国改变了最初在国内运营一整条汽车生产线的模式,转而建设国际化的汽车供应链。随着制造流程被打碎成了一个个单一任务,复杂的生产过程进入了一个更加精细的阶段。部分工人群体发展壮大——他们能以最低的工资提供必要的技能;部分群体逐渐没落。高收入国家的制造业部门需要工人具备非常不同的技能,例如管理和设计能力,而过去对这些技能的要求常见于务业。Just as South Korea has changed, so newly industrialising countries are less keen on setting up entire industries at home and instead try to insert themselves into global supply chains. Sometimes this means changing, not just exploiting, their comparative advantage. Baldwin cites Vietnam, which joined Honda’s supply network by starting to manufacture motorcycle parts using production and technical expertise imported from the parent company. Thus Vietnam’s existing advantage of low-cost labour joined with the management and technical know-how of Japan to create a new specialism. Those economies that succeed can grow very quickly, producing a “Great Convergence” of poor and rich that provides the book’s title.正如韩国的转变一样,其他新兴工业化国家也不再那么急于把整个产业都布局在国内,而是试图引导本国企业融入全球供应链。有时这意味着这些国家需要改变自身的比较优势、而不仅仅是利用。鲍德温举了越南的例子,该国加入了本田(Honda)的供应网络,开始运用引进自本田母公司的生产技术制造托车零部件。由此,越南现有的低成本劳动力优势与日本的管理和技术经验结合在了一起,创造出了一种新的专长。那些获得成功的经济体能以很快的速度增长,进而导致了穷国和富国之间的“大融合”(Great Convergence),这也正是鲍德温这本书的书名。This framework explains a lot about current tensions around globalisation. For one, the stricken manufacturing towns of the American Midwest, many of whose poorer inhabitants switched to voting for Donald Trump, have experienced first-hand what it feels like rapidly to become a redundant link in a global value chain. (Much of this also owes to changing technology, not trade, but as the US trade representative Michael Froman is fond of saying, no one gets a vote on technology.)这个框架能从很多方面解释当前围绕全球化的紧张氛围。其一是,美国中西部地区受冲击的制造业城镇——这些地方的大量低收入居民将选票投给了唐纳德#8226;特朗普——亲身感受到了在全球价值链中迅速变得多余的滋味。(这种变化在很大程度上是由技术进步而非贸易导致的,但正如美国贸易代表迈克#8226;弗罗曼(Mike Froman)喜欢说的那样,人们无法对技术进行投票。)Second, it shows why modern trade deals, such as the proposed Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership between the US and EU, are centred on rules protecting patents and copyrights, and allowing foreign corporations to sue governments if they feel their investments are being expropriated. Multinationals are less concerned with goods tariffs, which are now generally low and belong to an earlier era of trade governance, than they are with trying to protect the specialist knowledge on which their global supply chains depend.其二是,该框架展现了现代贸易协议——例如美国与欧盟之间仍在谈判的《跨大西洋贸易与投资伙伴关系协定》(Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership)——为何把重点放在了保护专利和版权的规则,以及允许外国企业在认为自身投资被侵吞的情况下起诉政府的规则。比起目前总体处于较低水平、属于贸易管制时代之物的商品关税,跨国公司如今更关心的是保护自己的全球供应链所依存的专业知识。It also foresees the future of globalisation once technology has relaxed the third constraint, the movement of people. The easier it becomes to manage processes from afar — improved conferencing, remote-controlled robots — the more virtual immigration can substitute for actual and the specialisation of global supply chains proceed even faster.该书还预测了在科技发展放松了对人员流动的限制之后全球化的未来走向。远程管理生产流程变得越容易——例如依靠更好的视频会议技术或远程操纵机器人——虚拟人员迁移就越是能够代替实际迁移,全球供应链将以比以往更快的速度走向专门化。Baldwin’s work seems likely to become a standard, perhaps indispensable, guide to understanding how globalisation has got us here and where it is likely to take us next. There can be few more vital subjects today that will benefit from this sort of clear and comprehensive exposition.鲍德温的这本著作很可能将成为帮助我们理解全球化如何带领我们走到现在、以及下一步将引领我们走向何方的标准读物,甚至可能是必读之书。就当前而言,在能够受益于这种清晰而全面的论述的议题中,没有几个能比全球化议题更重要了。The Great Convergence: Information Technology and the New Globalization, by Richard Baldwin, Harvard University Press, RRP#163;22.95/.95, 344 pages《大融合:信息技术与新型全球化》(The Great Convergence: Information Technology and the New Globalization),理查德#8226;鲍德温著,哈佛大学出版社(Harvard University Press),建议零售价22.95英镑/29.95美元,344页Alan Beattie is the FT’s Brussels leader writer艾伦#8226;贝蒂(Alan Beattie)是英国金融时报驻布鲁塞尔主笔 /201701/487474在青岛祛除咖啡牛奶斑价格多少 Cartoon Characters Get Local Makeovers In AsiaBIG ROUND HEADS and tiny bodies make the Powerpuff Girls instantly identifiable to their fans in America. The preteen karate superheroes star in one of the top-rated shows on cable's Cartoon Network.圆圆的脑袋、豆芽菜般的娇小身材──美国动画剧《飞天小女警》(Powerpuff Girls)中三个小主角的这般形像,“粉丝”们一眼就能认出来。这三个十岁左右却会操空手道的小丫头是卡通电视网(Cartoon Network)热播节目中的明星。Last year, though, the 'Powerpuff Girls' showed up in Japan with a whole new look. On 'Demashita! Powerpuff Girls Z,' the heroines have grown up, sprouted long legs and wear skirts well above their knees. In the original American story line, the girls were created of sugar, spice and everything nice; their Japanese counterparts are normal girls who acquire super powers from a chemical reaction initiated by a rice cake.去年《飞天小女警》在日本播出时,她们的形像却发生了翻天覆地的变化。在名为《飞天小女警Z》(Demashita! Powerpuff Girls Z)的新版动画中,三个小女孩不但长大了,腿变长了,还穿上了超短裙。在美国版的故事中,三个女孩是用糖、香料等好东西创造出来的。而在日本版中,女孩们却是因食用年糕产生的化学作用而拥有了超能力。Once, American entertainment companies exporting characters just dubbed them into other languages. But in recent years, Asia has become the testing ground for character reinvention, a process called 'transcreation.'border0过去,美国业在对外输出卡通角色时仅仅是配上外语。但近年来,亚洲成为他们重新包装设计形像、进行“翻创”(transcreation)的试验田。The idea is to help characters designed with one audience in mind to really resonate in another culture. 'Japanese kids can more easily identify with characters they can relate to,' says Yoshiya Ayugai, a producer for Time Warner Inc.'s Cartoon Network Productions Japan, who helped re-create the Powerpuff Girls.此举是为了让原来针对某一观众群设计的角色形像能在其他文化环境下产生共鸣。时代华纳公司(Time Warner Inc.)旗下卡通电视网亚洲制作部的制作人Yoshiya Ayugai表示,日本的小孩更易于认同与自己有关联的角色。Yoshiya Ayugai曾参与重新设计《飞天小女警》的角色形像。Marvel Entertainment Inc. and Gotham Entertainment introduced a transcreated 'Spider-Man' to the Indian market in 2004, although the original had been familiar there for a long time. There, Spidey's alter ego, Peter Parker, is known as Pavitr Prabhakar. Spidey gains his powers from a mysterious yogi rather than a radioactive spider. When fighting crime, he sports a traditional loincloth.Marvel Entertainment Inc.和Gotham Entertainment曾在2004年针对印度市场对《蜘蛛侠》(Spider-Man)形像进行翻创,尽管原形像已深入人心。在印度版《蜘蛛侠》中,主人翁的名字由彼得#8226;帕克(Peter Parker)改成了帕维特#8226;普拉哈卡(Pavitr Prabhakar)。而他超人力量的源泉,也从放射性的蜘蛛变成了神秘的瑜珈。并且其变身蜘蛛侠与邪恶势力战斗的造型中还穿上了印度的传统装“斗提裤”。Spidey also inspired one of the region's first transcreations. In 1978, the Japanese media company Toei Co. turned Peter Parker into a racing champion named Yamashiro Takuya, who wears a bracelet that gives him the powers of a spider. His alter ego, 'Supaidah Man,' controls a giant transforming robot to battle an enemy named Professor Monster.蜘蛛侠也是亚洲地区最早一宗翻创案例的主角。1978年,日本东映公司(Toei Co.)曾将彼得#8226;帕克改变成拥有蜘蛛超能力的赛车冠军西谷拓也(Yamashiro Takuya)。而东映版蜘蛛侠的超能来自一只手镯,故事中他操纵着一部能变形的机器人与怪兽教授(Professor Monster)率领的邪恶势力作战。Sesame Street didn't arrive in India until the summer of 2006, as 'Gali Gali Sim Sim,' and introduced Boombah, an aristocratic lion fond of bhangra, a style of dancing seen in Bollywood films. Walt Disney Co. has had a hit in China with its 'Cuties' line of Mickey Mouse and friends featuring tiny eyes, button noses and the almost-not-there mouths of Japan's Hello Kitty. Sometimes the cutie Minnie even carries a cellphone. Disney came up with the design six years ago in Japan, and now it is a top seller among preteens in China who didn't grow up with the original Mickey.《芝麻街》(Sesame Street)2006年夏季才登陆印度,名字变为《加利加利西姆西姆》(Gali Gali Sim Sim),并新加入了一只喜欢跳邦拉舞的狮子布恩巴(Boombah)。邦拉舞是印度宝莱坞电影中常见的一种舞蹈。华特-迪士尼公司(Walt Disney Co.)在中国推出了米老鼠系列卡通人物的“Cutie”版造型,带有与日本Kitty猫造型相似的小眼睛、纽扣鼻和小得几乎见不到的嘴巴。有时候 Cutie版的米妮(Minnie)造型甚至拿着部手机。此系列造型是6年前在日本设计的,如今已经成为中国最畅销的少儿用品系列。Adults like Sarah Chen, a 23-year-old graduate student in Shanghai, like them, too. 'They are so cute and sweet, just like a little baby,' says Ms. Chen, who first discovered the Disney cuties online and eventually purchased a sweater with the modified Mickey Mouse on it.就连成年人也喜欢Cutie版的米老鼠,比如在上海念研究生的Sarah Chen。今年23岁的她第一次在网上发现迪士尼的cutie造型时惊叹道:“这些造型这么可爱,就像小宝宝一样”。最后还买下一件带有Cutie版米老鼠造型的运动衫。Most media companies acknowledge the need to localize their fare. While there is still a global audience for 'Tom and Jerry' reruns and Hollywood blockbusters, American imports don't top the TV ratings in most non-English-speaking markets. Transcreation nods to that need for local relevance.大多数媒体公司都认为,有必要对产品进行本土化设计。虽然重播的《猫和老鼠》(Tom and Jerry)及好莱坞其他畅销动画片在国际上仍有市场,但美国卡通在大多数非英语市场的电视节目中都拿不到最好的成绩。适当的本土化改造仍有必要。'There are very few things that work everywhere,' says Orion Ross, a vice president of creative at Time Warner's Turner Networks in Asia. 'Places with strong national identities, like Japan and India, need adaptation and change,' he says.时代华纳旗下特纳电视网(Turner Networks)亚洲副总裁奥里恩#8226;罗斯(Orion Ross)表示,放之四海而皆准的东西是很少见的。在如日本和印度之类有强烈国家认同感的地区,就有必要进行改编和调整。For some time-tested characters, change doesn't come easily. Disney tweaked Mickey into 'Cutie' form but still insists that only Western women can play Cinderella and Snow White at Tokyo and Hong Kong Disneylands. A Disney spokeswoman says, 'These performers bring the animated roles to life and are therefore cast to most closely resemble the on-screen characters. . . . It's about remaining true to the original animated feature.'对于一些已深入人心的角色造型,想改变它并不容易。虽然迪士尼让米老鼠Cutie化,但仍然坚持香港迪士尼乐园中灰姑娘和白雪公主角色必须由西方女性扮演。该公司某位发言人对此解释称,这些角色的扮演者赋予了动画形像以生命,因此必须与屏幕上的形像最为接近......这涉及到忠实于原造型的问题。The family of 'Peanuts' creator Charles M. Schulz, who died in 2000, forbids any changes to his comic strip. 'There is no adapting Peanuts,' says a spokeswoman for ed Media, the New York company that distributes the feature to newspapers around the world.像2000 年逝世的《花生》(Peanuts)漫画作者查尔斯#8226;M#8226;舒兹(Charles M. Schulz)就禁止对他笔下的角色(著名卡通形像史奴比(Snoopy)就是《花生》漫画的主角之一)作任何改动。拥有《花生》漫画造型版权的 ed Media Ltd.发言人表示,不会有改版的《花生》出现Sometimes, though, changes slip in under the radar. The Times of India printed the Peanuts strip with the dog Snoopy painted brown. After The Wall Street Journal asked about that, a ed Media spokeswoman said it was a 'coloring error' that would be corrected. Now, Snoopy is white in the Indian newspaper.有时候,改动是不易察觉的。在《印度时报》(Times of India)上刊登的《花生》漫画中,史奴比就曾经是灰色的。当《华尔街日报》记者就此事询问ed Media发言人时,他称此乃“配色错误”,应该会纠正过来。现在这份印度报纸上的史奴比已恢复成了白色。 /200803/30009青岛诺德整形

青岛连云港整形医院Search giant Google has replaced iPhone makers Apple to be the world#39;s most valuable company in the Brand Finance#39;s Global 500 2017 report.在咨询公司Brand Finance的《2017年全球500强》报告中,搜索巨头谷歌超过了iPhone的制造商苹果公司,成为了全世界市值最高的公司。Google#39;s brand is now worth more than 109 billion U.S. dollars, around 2 billion dollars more than Apple, making it the most lucrative in the world.谷歌的品牌价值现在超过了1090亿美元,比苹果公司要高大约20亿美元,这使其成为了全世界最赚钱的公司。This marks the first time that Google has topped the list since 2011.这是自从2011年以来谷歌首次荣登榜首。After Google and Apple, are Amazon and Microsoft.在谷歌和苹果之后的品牌包括亚马逊以及微软公司等。A total of 16 Chinese companies are in the top 100 on the list, including China Mobile, Alibaba and Tencent.包括中国移动、阿里巴巴和腾讯的16家中国企业进入了该榜单的前100名。Ranked 10th position, Industrial and Commercial Bank of China is the highest ranking Chinese company on the list.而中国工商排在榜单的第十位,是该榜单上排名最高的中国企业。 /201702/492233青岛如何快速清除脸上的黑素 青岛市第八医院体检

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