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Beginning with the countrys most intense campaign to prosecute corrupt officials, authorities are now adopting detailed rules to prevent corruption at an earlier stage and in a more sustainable way, analysts said.一些分析人士近日表示,从我国进行得最为激烈的起诉腐败官员的运动开始,中国当局政府在早期阶段就以更持续的方式、采取了详细的规定,以防止腐败;A large number of local governments require that officials cellphones be switched on 24 hours a day,; a commentary in the China Discipline Inspection News, a newspaper affiliated with the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection (CCDI) of the Communist Party of China, on last Saturday.中央纪律检查委员会主办的《中国纪检监察报》在周六的评注中写道:“大部分地方政府要求官员的手机必4小时开机。”The commentary cited the head of the construction bureau in Liquan county, Shaanxi Province as an example. He had recently been reprimanded after turning off his phone and remaining out of touch for ;a long time.;评注中引述的是陕西省礼泉县建设局局长的例子。他最近因关掉了手机,导致长时间不能取得联系而遭到了惩戒。Dozens of minister-level officials and above have been investigated in the past three years, including Zhou Yongkang, one of the central governments top leaders.在过去的三年时间里,包括中央政府的最高领导人之一的周永康在内的数十位部长级及部长级以上官员均接受了调查。Officials will be given ;warnings; or ;serious warnings; if they go on a trip but fail to report their whereabouts to authorities as required, according to a set of Party rules on sanctions for those who violate the Party code of conduct that took effect on January 1.根据今年1日生效的一套有关对违反党的行为准则如何实施处分的条令表示,那些没有向上级报告行程就私自出去旅游的官员,按要求将被处以“警告”或者“严重警告”;Authorities have no idea where certain officials go. Sometimes it takes much effort to look for them when they are needed,; Xi was ed by the China Discipline Inspection News as saying in January.中国纪检监察报引用习总书记的话说:“有时候如果上级都不知道他们去哪里了,等到需要他们的时候再来找会花费很大的力气。”Administrators withhold the passports of many local government officials and only return them after a strict personal assessment or for formal overseas tours. Provincial- and ministerial-level CPC officials are required to report their annual plan for overseas tours to the CCDI and the Organization Department of the CPC Central Committee.行政管理人员扣留了许多地方政府官员的护照,只有通过严格的个人评估或者进行正规的海外旅游才会返还其护照。省级和部级的共产党高级官员需向中纪委和中共中央组织部报告他们海外旅游的年度计划。According to the ;strictest; asset declaration system, which was developed by the Organization Department of the CPC Central Committee, officials at the deputy county level or above are required to report their personal information annually to the Party, including personal and family assets and investments, any overseas travel, as well as the nationality and occupation of their relatives, the Xinhua News Agency reported.据新华通讯社报道:根据由中国共产党中央委员会组织部出台;最严格;的资产申报制度,副县级或以上官员每年都必须向党部申报自己的个人信息,包括个人及家庭的资产和投资,以及任何海外差旅费、亲属的国籍和职业。Unlike political parties in the West, the CPC, a pioneering party, is committed to wholeheartedly serving the people. However, the cornerstone of the Partys governance may be eroded if the CPC fails to fulfill its commitment, Zhi Zhenfeng, an associate research fellow at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences told the Global Times.中国社科院副研究员振锋告诉环球时报:不同于西方的政党,中国共产党是开创性的党,是全心全意致力于为人民务的党。但是,如果中国共产党未能履行其承诺,党执政的基石也将会被侵蚀。Therefore, stricter supervision of Party members becomes necessary, as a heavier responsibility on CPC officials means greater power in a sense, increasing the chance of corruption, Zhi noted.振锋指出,因此,对党员更严格的监督变得非常必要,因为党员身上肩负的重任,在一定意义上意味着更大的权力,这更增加了腐败的可能性。来 /201604/435503

Here’s how President-elect Trump could unify a bitterly divided America, provide well-paying jobs to many of the millions of disaffected workers who voted for him, and lift the economy, stock market and tax rolls.候任总统特朗普该采取什么办法,让严重分裂的美国重新团结一致,向投票给他的众多心怀不满的工人提供高薪工作岗位,并提振经济、股市和税收?All he needs to do is what he presumably does best: build something.他只需要做他大概最擅长的事情:建造点什么。And I don’t mean a few miles of asphalt or a paint job on a rusting bridge.我指的并不是铺几英里长的沥青路,或者粉刷生锈的桥梁。Build something awe-inspiring. 而是建造某种令人赞叹的东西。Something Americans can be proud of. 某种让美国人引以为豪的东西。Something that will repay the investment many times over for generations to come.某种让子孙后代受益无穷的东西。Build the modern-day equivalent of the Golden Gate Bridge, the Hoover Dam, the Lincoln Tunnel or the Timberline Lodge. 建造当代的金门大桥(Golden Gate Bridge)、胡佛水Hoover Dam)、林肯隧Lincoln Tunnel)或林木木Timberline Lodge)。Or even, given Mr Trump’s passion for the sport, another Bethpage State Park Black Course the first public golf course to host the prestigious ed States Open.又或者,鉴于特朗普对体育的热情,建造另一座贝斯佩奇州立公园黑球场(Bethpage State Park Black Course)——第一座承办享有盛誉的美国公开ed States Open)的公共高尔夫球场。All of these are Depression-era New Deal public works projects started under President Franklin D. 所有这些公共工程项目,都属于应对大萧条的罗斯福新政的一部分,始建于富兰克林#8226;D#8226;罗斯Franklin D. Roosevelt that are still in use.Roosevelt)总统治下,目前仍在使用之中。Can anyone name even one infrastructure project from President Obama’s 0 billion American Recovery and Reinvestment Act? I didn’t think so. 有谁能从奥巴马总统价000亿美元的《美国复苏与再投资法案American Recovery and Reinvestment Act)找出哪怕一个基建项目吗?我不这么认为。In fairness to Mr Obama, Republicans in Congress bitterly opposed his public works spending plans, and he lamented there were too few shovel y projects.替奥巴马说句公道话,共和党议员曾强烈反对其公共工程出计划,而且他曾感叹几乎没有什么可以动工的项目。That didn’t stop F.D.R. 但这没能阻挡住罗斯福。His Public Works Administration and Works Progress Administration, using combinations of public and private money, solicited proposals from states and cities, hired millions of workers and eventually built 78,000 bridges, 650,000 miles of roads, 700 miles of airport runways, 13,000 playgrounds and 125,000 military and civilian buildings, including more than 40,000 schools in most cases to high standards of quality and design.他的公共工程(Public Works Administration)和工程振兴(Works Progress Administration)动用了公共以及私人资金,向各个州和城市征询了意见,雇用了数以百万计的工人,最终建成了7.8万座桥梁5万英里长的道路00英里长的飞机跑道.3万座游乐场以2.5万座军用和民用建筑,包括000所学校——其质量和设计标准在大多数情况下都很高。The federal government built the La Guardia, Ronald Reagan Washington National and Los Angeles International airports, the Upper Mississippi locks and dams, the Bonneville power project on the Columbia River, the Robert F. 联邦政府修建了拉瓜迪亚机La Guardia)、罗纳德#8226;里根华盛顿国家机Ronald Reagan Washington National)和洛杉矶国际机场(Los Angeles International),在哥伦比亚Columbia River)兴建了纳维Bonneville)电力项目,在纽约架起了罗伯特#8226;F#8226;肯尼迪大Robert F. Kennedy Bridge in New York, and the Florida Keys Overseas Highway. Kennedy Bridge),还修建了佛罗里达跨海公Florida Keys Overseas Highway)。Most are still in use today. 它们大多仍在使用之中。To a large degree, this is the infrastructure that made America great, to borrow Mr Trump’s catchphrase.套用特朗普的说法,这些基建项目在很大程度上让美利坚散发出了伟大荣光。What Roosevelt accomplished is astounding, said Scott Myers-Lipton, a sociology professor at San Jose State University and author of the books Rebuild America: Solving the Economic Crisis Through Civic Works and Ending Extreme Inequality.罗斯福取得的成就令人叹为观止,圣何塞州立大学(San Jose State University)社会学教授、著有《重建美利坚:以民用工程解决经济危机Rebuild America: Solving the Economic Crisis Through Civic Works)和《终结极端不平等Ending Extreme Inequality)的斯科特#8226;迈尔利普Scott Myers-Lipton)说。But it’s not so much the numbers people remember today. 但这并不是今天的人们记忆中的数字。Most people just know there was an alphabet soup of organizations, he said. 大多数人只知道曾经有各种各样的机构名称字母缩写,他说。What they see and remember are the landmarks: the Bay Bridge, Reagan National Airport or the baseball stadium in San Jose. 他们看在眼中、记在心里的只有地标:海湾大Bay Bridge)、里根国家机场或者圣何塞的棒球场。We’re living on that legacy today.我们今天依靠那些遗产过活。Repealing Obamacare, lowering taxes for businesses and mostly wealthy people, overhauling the immigration system and privatizing Medicare what congressional Republicans have cited as their top legislative priorities would be divisive in a nation bitterly split along partisan and geographic lines. 被共和党议员引为立法优先事项的举措,比如废除奥巴马医改法Obamacare)、为企业以及主要由富人构成的群体减税、整饬移民制度、将联邦医疗保险(Medicare)私有化,会在一个沿着党派和地理界线严重割裂开来的国家引发分歧。But nearly everyone agrees that America has grossly neglected its infrastructure even as the rest of the world, notably China, has raced ahead.但几乎人人都认为,在世界上的其他地方——尤其是中国——迎头赶上之际,美国严重忽视了基础设施建设。Our airports are like from a third-world country, Mr Trump said at Hofstra University during the first presidential debate. 我们的机场就跟第三世界国家的差不多,特朗普在霍夫斯特拉大Hofstra University)参加第一场总统竞选辩论时说。You land at La Guardia, you land at Kennedy, you land at LAX, you land at Newark, and you come in from Dubai and Qatar and you see these incredible you come in from China, you see these incredible airports, and you land we’ve become a third-world country.你乘坐的飞机在拉瓜迪亚机场降落,在肯尼迪机场降落,在洛杉矶国际机场降落,在纽华克机场降落,你从迪拜或者卡塔尔过来,看过那里棒极了的机场,你从中国过来,看过那里棒极了的机场,然后飞机降落在美国,你会觉得我们已经变成了一个第三世界国家。Who could disagree? Hillary Clinton also called for a big increase in infrastructure spending.谁会有异议呢?希拉里#8226;克林Hillary Clinton)也曾呼吁大幅增加基建投资。The single best thing the federal government can do to promote economic growth is to repair and build the transportation network, the highways, railroads and airports, said Roger Noll, an emeritus professor of economics at Stanford and a senior fellow at the Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research. 要促进经济增长,联邦政府的最佳选择是整修和建设交通网络,公路、铁路和机场,斯坦福大学经济学荣休教授、斯坦福大学经济政策研究所(Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research)高级研究员罗#8226;诺尔(Roger Noll)说。It’s been neglected for 30 years.这方面被忽视已经0年了。Last year, Dan McNichol, author of the book The Roads That Built America, a history of the Interstate highway system, and a White House adviser on transportation issues for President George H. 去年,讲述州际公路系统历史的著作《造就美国的公路The Roads That Built America)的作者、在乔治#8226;H#8226;W#8226;布什(George H. W. Bush, navigated the country in a 1949 Hudson Commodore on a mission to investigate the state of America’s infrastructure.W. Bush)总统任内担任白宫交通运输事务顾问的#8226;麦克尼科Dan McNichol),曾开着一949年的哈德逊准Hudson Commodore)在全国各地游历,调查美国基础设施的情况。I was trying to see if this was really a crisis or a media sensation, he told me this week from California, where he’s working on the state’s high-speed rail project. 我想知道这真的是一场危机,还是只是媒体的耸人听闻,身在加利福尼亚州的他本周对我说。他正参与该州的高铁项目。I found out it’s pretty dire in terms of total infrastructure. 我发现,就基础设施的总体情况而言形势非常严峻。For a nation that leads the world in global trade, our systems are failing.对一个在全球贸易中引领世界的国家来说,我们的各种系统每况愈下。Mr Trump has pledged trillion over 10 years, but no one I spoke to thought that was enough. 特朗普承诺在10年时间里投资1万亿美元,但和我交谈过的所有人都觉得不够。Doubling that would be more realistic, Mr McNichol said. 麦克尼科尔说,翻一番更实际。And Mr Trump’s campaign proposal was limited to infrastructure projects that could pay for themselves out of user fees, which seems like a shortsighted approach. 此外,特朗普竞选时提出的方案仅限于可通过收费实现自负盈亏的基础设施项目。这看上去似乎是一种目光短浅的做法。Most economists say the best way to finance a big public works program, particularly given today’s low interest rates, would be for the government to borrow most of the money from investors.大部分经济学家表示,为大型公共工程筹集资金的最佳方式是,资金大头由政府向投资者举债,尤其是考虑到眼下利率水平低。Pulling off something on the scale of the Depression-era public works programs would be no small feat. 在规模堪比大萧条时期的公共工程上取得成功绝非易事。Recent federal infrastructure efforts, including reconstruction after Hurricanes Katrina and Sandy, as well as the Obama stimulus program, hardly inspire confidence.最近的联邦基础设施项目,包括飓风卡特里娜和桑迪后的重建,以及奥巴马的刺激计划,都让人感到心里没底。Alan Brinkley, a professor of history at Columbia, said he doubted Mr Trump could replicate Roosevelt’s achievements. 哥伦比亚大学历史教授阿兰#8226;布林克利(Alan Brinkley)怀疑特朗普无法复制罗斯福的成就。Roosevelt had a coherent mission, if not always a consistent way to address the Depression and the economic crisis, Mr Brinkley said. 罗斯福担负的使命始终如一,尽管他应对大萧条和经济危机的方式并非总是一致,布林克利说。He was eclectic in his approach because he was pragmatic.他在方法上的多样是源于他的务实。Even more important, Roosevelt was informed, surrounded himself with informed people, and was prepared on Day 1 to begin. 更重要的是,罗斯福见多识广,身边也都是见多识广之人,上任第一天他就准备开始了。I’m not sure that Trump’s policies go beyond his electioneering slogans, Mr Brinkley said. 我不确定特朗普的政策会不会超越竞选时打出的口号,布林克利说。I’m afraid a new P.W.A., he added, referring to the Public Works Administration, will stand for Promises Without Actions.我担心新的PWA,他接着说,这里指的是公共工程(Public Works Administration),会变成‘只许诺不行动Promises Without Actions)。But in the spirit of magnanimity, let’s give Mr Trump the benefit of the doubt, as Mr Obama has suggested. 但是,正如奥巴马所建议的,本着宽宏的精神,我们权且相信特朗普。He’ll need his own versions of Harold L. Ickes, Roosevelt’s interior secretary, who ran the P.W.A., and his close adviser Harry L. Hopkins, who ran the W.P.A.他将需要找到自己的哈罗#8226;L#8226;伊克Harold L. Ickes)和自己的亲密顾问哈里#8226;L#8226;霍普金斯(Harry L. Hopkins)。前者是罗斯福的内政部长,主政公共工程,后者负责工程振兴。Mr Trump will also need to be hands-on. 特朗普还需要亲力亲为。Roosevelt asked states and cities for proposals, but he made nearly all the final decisions himself. 罗斯福让各州各市提交方案,但几乎所有最终决定都是他自己拍板的。F.D.R. was a fanatic about infrastructure, roads, planning, Mr McNichol said. FDR非常喜欢基础设施、公路和规划,麦克尼科尔说。As a commissioner in New York, he helped lay out the Taconic Parkway. 在纽约当警察局长时,他就参与设计了塔科尼克公园大道(Taconic Parkway)。He even helped design the picnic tables.他甚至还参与设计过野餐桌。The right public works projects, said Mr Myers-Lipton of San Jose State, would address the public anger that elected Trump, which is that the regular folks aren’t being taken care of. 圣何塞州立大学的迈尔利普顿说,合适的公共工程项目会缓解公众的一种愤怒情绪,他们觉得普通老百姓没有得到妥善的对待,正是这种情绪促使特朗普当选。During the Depression, the government built beautiful hotels and golf courses and parks. 在大萧条时期,政府修建了漂亮的酒店、高尔夫球场和公园。The vision was, what’s usually for the elite should be for everybody. 这背后的想法是,通常仅面向精英的务理应面向所有人。That’s the power of public works.这就是公共工程的力量。来 /201611/479513

China’s seizure of a US navy submarine drone signals its willingness to push back harder against American surveillance in the South China Sea, 中国扣押美国海军无人潜航器这件事表明,北京方面有意以更强硬的方式回击美国在南中国海的监测活动。as tensions mount between the two nations ahead of the presidential inauguration of Donald Trump.在唐纳德.特朗Donald Trump)即将迎来总统就职典礼之际,中美两国间的紧张气氛正在升温。The Pentagon said China had agreed to return the surveillance device, which was seized in international waters on Thursday. 五角大楼(Pentagon)表示,中国已同意归还上周四其在国际水域捕获的监测设备。But the incident highlights concern about the direction of US-China ties amid uncertainty about the stance Mr Trump will adopt.但这起事件凸显了,在不确定特朗普将采取何种立场的氛围中,美中关系发展方向令人担忧。Mr Trump has been critical about China since launching his campaign, on everything from trade policy to its assertive moves in the South China Sea. 自参加大选以来,特朗普一直对中国批评有加——从贸易政策到中国在南中国海的强硬行动。After his victory, however, he sparked alarm in Beijing and among many experts in Washington by speaking to the Taiwanese president and hinting that he might abandon the One China policy that has guided US policy on China and Taiwan for four decades.而胜选后,他与台湾总统通电话并暗示可能放弃40年来一直指引美国台海政策的一个中国政策,这引发了北京方面以及华盛顿许多专家的警惕。The president-elect cricised China over the drone incident, which he said was unprecedented; before saying that the US should allow China to keep the device. 这位美国当选总统就此次无人潜航器被扣事件批评中国称,该事件史无前例,随后又表示,美国应让中国留着这个设备。We should tell China that we don’t want the drone they stole back 他在Twitter上写道:我们应该告诉中国,我们不想要回他们偷走的无人潜航器。let them keep it! he tweeted.让他们留着吧!While US-Sino relations usually enter a period of uncertainly at a time of administration change in Washington, analysts said that the apprehension surrounding the drone in disputed waters bucks the recent trend of improving ties between the US and Chinese navies. 虽然美中关系在美国政府换届之际通常都会进入一段不确定期,但分析人士表示,此次争议水域潜航器事件引发的担忧,与近年来两国海军关系不断改善的势头背道而驰。This goes against the grain of the professionalisation of [China’s] People’s Liberation Army Navy over the past few years, as it seemed to be embracing confidence-building measures with the US, said Euan Graham, a security analyst at the Lowy Institute, a think-tank in Sydney. 这与(中国)人民解放军海军近些年的专业化相悖,因为中国海军似乎正在接受与美国建立信任的措施,悉尼智库洛伊研究所(Lowy Institute)安全问题分析家尤格雷厄姆(Euan Graham)表示,This is a significant escalation with a navy ship interfering with another navy ship at close quarters.一艘海军舰艇近距离干扰另一艘海军舰艇作业,这是严重升级了。Ni Lexiong, a naval expert at the East China University, said the seizure was a reminder to surrounding countries in the South China Sea area, as well as the US and Japan, to reconsider China’s stance on defending its territory.上海政法学院海军专家倪乐雄表示,此次扣押是提醒南中国海周边国家以及美国和日本,他们需要重新认识中国捍卫本国领土的立场。The Pentagon said the drone, which was being operated by the USNS Bowditch, a civilian-operated navy survey vessel, was taken unlawfully by a Chinese naval ship on Thursday, 50 nautical miles from Subic Bay in the Philippines. 五角大楼表示,这具由美国鲍迪奇号(Bowditch)海军测量船操控的无人潜航器,上周四在距离菲律宾苏比克Subic Bay) 50海里的水域被一艘中国海军舰只非法捞起。Such drones are typically used to collect oceanographic data such as water depth and salinity.鲍迪奇号由非军事人员操纵,而此类无人潜航器通常用于收集水深、盐度等海洋数据。China’s defence ministry said that it had seized the drone to prevent it endangering the navigation and crew of the Chinese ship. 中国国防部表示,捕获该无人潜航器是为了防止该装置对过往船舶的航行安全和人员安全产生危害。But it also reiterated its opposition to US military reconnaissance operations in the waters around China.中国国防部还重申,反对美国在中国周边海域进行军事侦察活动。Analysts said that while the information gleaned from underwater drones was not classified, it was vital to the operation of the submarines that both sides operate in the South China Sea. 分析人士表示无人潜航器收集的信息虽然并非机密资料,但对双方潜艇在南中国海的作业却至关重要。Li Mingjiang, a China expert at the S. 新加坡拉惹勒南国际研究院(S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies in Singapore, said Beijing was willing to risk an escalation with Washington over the latest incident because it was worried about US plans to expand the use of naval drones in the South China Sea.Rajaratnam School of International Studies)中国问题专家李明江表示,北京之所以愿与华盛顿在这起最新事件中冒险升级态势,是因为它担心美国计划在南中国海增加部署海军潜航器。PLA leaders have good reason to worry about this emerging US naval strategy against China in East Asia, he said. 他说:解放军高层有充分理由担心美国海军正在构建的在东亚与中国对抗的新战略。If this strategy becomes reality, it could be quite detrimental to China’s national security. 如果该战略成为现实,对中国的国家安全可能相当不利。Yue Gang, a retired PLA colonel, said that while the Bowditch might have been in international waters, it was almost certain that the drone was conducting espionage activities within the nine-dashed line, 解放军退役上校岳刚表示,虽然鲍迪奇号或许是在国际水域航行,但几乎可以肯定该潜航器在九段线内进行间谍活动。Beijing’s contested claim to much of the South China Sea.北京方面依据九段线主张拥有南中国海大部分海域,这一主张引起了争议。He said that Beijing’s response was a significant signal of its displeasure with US policy, while also giving the navy time to analyse the drone to obtain evidence of the espionage activities.岳刚表示北京的反应是对美国政策不满的一个重要信号,同时也让海军有时间分析这架潜航器,以获得间谍活动的据。Western analysts said that such a brazen act would undermine other nationsconfidence in China’s commitment to global norms.西方分析人士表示,这种肆无忌惮的行为会破坏其他国家对中国遵守全球规范承诺的信心。It’s illegal and it fuels concerns about whether China is really willing to abide by the international right of freedom of navigation, said Ian Storey, a senior fellow at the Institute of Southeast Asian Studies in Singapore.新加坡东南亚研究所(ISEAS)高级研究员伊斯托Ian Storey)表示:这是个非法举动,它引起了人们的担忧,中国是否真的愿意遵守国际上的航行自由权?Security analysts also said that the seizure would prompt the US and others to rethink how they deploy civilian survey vessels and underwater drones.安全分析师还表示,扣留潜航器事件将促使美国和其他国家重新思考如何部署民用勘探船和水下潜航器。There will have to be a reappraisal of how unarmed US vessels do business in the South China Sea, said Mr Graham of the Lowy Institute.洛伊研究所的格雷厄姆表示:必须对美国非武装船只在南中国海的作业方式进行重新评估。They’re going to require an escort or armed personnel on board.它们将需要护卫舰,或在船上配备武装人员。Heiko Borchert, a security consultant, said that China’s actions highlight the risks of deploying drones in a non-benign naval environment.安全顾问海科.彻Heiko Borchert)表示,中方此举突显出了在非良性海军环境部署潜航器的风险。The incident shows that the tactical and strategic benefits of unmanned underwater vehicles can quickly turn into a strategic liability if other actors are not willing to back down on their own policy line, he wrote on the website of the Center for International Maritime Security, a US think-tank.彻特在美国智库国际海事安全中心(Center for International Maritime Security)的网站上写道:这一事件表明,如果其他行事方不愿意在自己的政策路线上让步,水下无人装置的战术和战略利益可能很快就会变成战略负担。来 /201612/484750


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