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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年03月20日 21:43:47
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  THE GOOD TIMES are rolling again in the country#39;s toniest neighborhoods. Property prices in East Hampton, New York City and Beverly Hills were up about 10 percent last year, according to Zillow, a Seattle-based site that estimates home values. Near Miami, on the exclusive Fisher Island-which can be reached only by private ferry, and even then, only by those whose names appear on a special list-home prices are up by about a third.美国的高档社区又迎来了大好时光。根据西雅图房价估算网站Zillow的数据,去年东汉普顿、纽约市和比弗利山庄的房价上涨10%左右。在迈阿密附近有座不对外人开放的费希尔岛(Fisher Island),去岛上只能通过私家渡轮、而且只有一个特别名单上的人能去,那里的房价更是上涨了三分之一左右。Higher real-estate prices normally spell good news for sellers, but there#39;s an associated cost that many tend to forget: A property will probably generate much higher estate taxes upon the owner#39;s death than it would have a few years ago. What#39;s more, estate taxes have been rising faster than property prices and asset values-and, some experts say, they are likely to rise even further. Yet some legal maneuvering may help cushion the blow.房价上涨对于卖家来说通常是好事,但其中也涉及一项很多人总是忘记的成本:到业主去世的时候,房产产生的遗产税恐怕要远远高于几年前的水平。另外,遗产税的上涨一直快于房价和资产价格,而据一些专家说,可能还会进一步上涨。但一些法律上的操作或许有助于缓冲这种负面影响。Today, the federal estate tax kicks in on estates worth more than .34 million, with the rate topping out at 40 percent. Since anyone is allowed to leave an unlimited amount of money to their spouse, the effective exemption per couple comes out to about .7 million. The low point for the estate-tax rate came in 2010, when it was effectively zero-thanks to political dysfunction on Capitol Hill that led to a one-year hiatus on the tax. As a result, the heirs of a handful of billionaires-including late New York Yankees owner George Steinbrenner-got to keep hundreds of millions of dollars that otherwise would have gone to Uncle Sam.如今的联邦房地产遗产税针对的是价值534万美元以上的房产,最高税率40%。由于每个人都可以把一笔金额不限的钱留给配偶,每对夫妇事实上的免税额是1,070万美元左右。最低的房地产遗产税率出现在2010年,由于国会山的政治失灵导致该税种出现了一年的空档,当年的税率实际为零。得益于此,包括纽约扬基队(New York Yankees)已故老板乔治#12539;斯坦布莱纳(George Steinbrenner)等在内的好几位亿万富豪的继承人留住了本来要交给美国政府的数亿美元。Of course, those savings are not available today. Indeed, the growing economic inequality in America means that, if anything, estate-tax rates are likely to rise. Even as recently as the 1970s, the top federal estate-tax rate on the richest Americans was 77 percent. If the economic disparity continues to widen, today#39;s 40 percent rate may seem temptingly low to a future Congress.这些钱在今天当然是省不下了。事实上由于美国贫富差距越来越大,遗产税税率不变则已,要变则很有可能是提高。在距今不远的20世纪70年代,针对美国最富人群的联邦房地产遗产税税率最高就曾达到77%。如果贫富差距继续拉大,今天40%的税率在将来的国会看来或许显得实在太低,不得不要上调。The good news? The federal tax code has more loopholes than a 100-foot scarf created by a team of injured knitters, including a couple of big ones that might be especially useful here. The first allows someone to transfer a home to an heir through a temporary trust known as a qualified personal residence trust, or QPRT (pronounced cue-pert). This trust can make time your friend, rather than your enemy, for estate-tax purposes, as it can sharply reduce the taxable value of a home. A million home transferred to an heir via a seven-year QPRT, for instance, would only count as an .6 million home. Since the beneficiary wouldn#39;t get their hands on the property for another seven years, the Internal Revenue Service would allow the estate to discount the value by a few percentage points for each year#39;s delay.好消息是,联邦税法的漏洞比一群带伤的编织工编织出的30米长围巾的漏洞还多。其中的几个大漏洞在这里或许特别有用。第一个漏洞允许人们通过一种名叫“合格个人住宅信托”(qualified personal residence trust,简称QPRT)的临时性基金把房产转让给继承人。这只基金可以让时间成为你在遗产税方面的朋友而不是敌人,因为它可以大幅度地降低房产的应税价值。举个例子:一套价值1,000万美元的住宅通过一只七年期的QPRT转让给继承人,就只会当作一套价值860万美元的房产计税。由于受益人要七年以后才能得到房产,国税局(Internal Revenue Service)会允许这套房产的价值每推迟一年就少计算几个百分点。Even better, once the home is transferred to an heir, all future price appreciation gets excluded from the taxable value. If, for instance, that private-island home increases in value by, say, 7 percent a year and you die 10 years from now, then without the trust your estate would have to pay taxes on a million home. With the trust, the taxes would be on a home valued at .6 million. Depending on your exact circumstances, that difference could end up saving your estate as much as million in taxes. There are some caveats, of course, the main one being that you have to outlive the trust to get the benefit. Otherwise, the full value of the home reverts to your estate. Moreover, once the home is transferred, it is in the hands of your heirs, even if you live for 20 more years.喜上加喜:一旦房产转让给继承人,将来所有增值部分都会排除在应税价值之外。比如,如果上述那套私属岛屿住宅每年增值7%,而你在10年后去世,那么在没有QPRT的情况下,你这套房产作为接受的遗产将被按2,000万美元的价值交税。在有QPRT的情况下,房产的应税价值将只是860万美元。到最后,这之间的差价有望帮助你节省遗产税最多500万美元,具体多少则要看你的具体情况。当然也有一些注意事项,最重要的一条是你要比这只信托基金活得长才能享受到这个好处,不然你自己的遗产又要按住宅的全部价值计税。另外,一旦房产被转让,它便归你的继承人所有,哪怕你再活20年也没有用。Another little-known strategy is to transfer the home to a family-controlled limited liability company and then give shares in the LLC to beneficiaries each year. This could slash a future estate-tax bill a few different ways. First, a person could claim an estate-tax discount on the value of each share in the LLC, because it#39;s a minority stake in a private company. So, even though a 1 percent share in a million beach house in the Hamptons ought to be worth 0,000, for estate-tax purposes, it might be valued at only ,000-or even less. Second, one could slice ,000 more o#172; the taxable value-for each beneficiary, each year-with the federal gift-tax exclusion. That could bring the taxable value of that 0,000 share down to ,000. Finally, once a share is given, it and its future price appreciation are excluded from the estate , up to the ,000 gift-tax exclusion per person. Put another way, even if a home is worth million, its total taxable value to an estate would be considerably less once a person dies in 10 years#39; time-again, saving millions.另外一条鲜为人知的策略是把房产转让给一个由家族控制的有限责任公司,然后一年一年地将有限责任公司的股份送给受益人。这样做可以从几个不同的途径减少将来的遗产税。第一,可以要求对有限责任公司的每股价值折价征收遗产税,因为它是非公众公司的少数股权。所以,对于汉普顿一处1,000万美元的海滩大宅,尽管它1%的股份本来应该是价值10万美元,但在计算遗产税的时候,它可以只被估值为8.5万美元、甚至更少。第二,根据联邦赠予税免税额规定,每位受益人每一年的应税价值可以再砍掉1.4万美元,这样就可以把10万美元份额的应税价值降到7.1万美元。最后,股份一旦送出,其本身和将来的增值部分就会从遗产中扣除,最高可以扣除每人1.4万美元的赠予税免税额。也就是说,即便房产价值2,000万美元,只要人能活过10年,遗产的应税总额会大大减少――依旧省下几百万美元。Some experts prefer the LLC route. Over time, it can allow for a #39;substantial wealth transfer at no cost to the parent,#39;says Eric Rothenberg, a tax attorney with a law fi rm based in Needham, Mass. But the big issue with an LLC is determining how much of a discount can be claimed on each share. In the past, some have claimed a discount of as much as 40 percent, meaning they have transferred 0,000 worth of shares for as little as ,000 in taxable value, #39;but that#39;s aggressive,#39; says Bob Glovsky, a fi nancial planner at Colony Group, a wealthmanagement fi rm that is based in Boston and has around .3 billion in assets under management. He warns that claiming too much might mean a challenge from the IRS. If the government agency succeeds, the investor would lose the savings-and owe additional interest as well as penalties. For these reasons, Glovsky recommends opting for the QPRT instead of the LLC. What#39;s more, the discounts used on a QPRT are based on tables that are published by the IRS-so they aren#39;t open to challenge. And, Glovsky says, the trusts are often simpler to set up as well.一些专家更推荐有限责任公司这条路子。马萨诸塞州尼德姆一律师事务所的税法律师埃里克#12539;罗藤伯格(Eric Rothenberg)说,经过一定的时间,这个办法可以“在不给父母造成代价的情况下实现大额财富转移”。但使用有限责任公司的办法存在一个重要问题,就是确定每一股可以拿到多少折价。波士顿管理约33亿美元资产的财富管理公司Colony Group的理财规划师鲍伯#12539;格鲁夫斯基(Colony Group)说,过去有人最高拿到了40%的折价,意味着转让价值10万美元的股份应税价值最低只有6万美元,但这就比较“激进”了。他提醒,申请折扣幅度太大可能招致国税局的质疑。如果国税局质疑成功,投资者不但省不下这些钱,还要付额外的利息和罚金。有鉴于此,格鲁夫斯基建议选择QPRT而不是有限责任公司。另外,QPRT享受的折扣是以国税局公布的数据表格为基础的,所以不会被质疑。格鲁夫斯基还说,信托基金的成立通常也更加简单。Most well-o#172; folks, of course, remember to get sound legal advice on these kinds of matters. It might help during the process to keep in mind that some say the estate tax is among the least obnoxious forms of taxes, because it is levied neither on toil nor on entrepreneurship, but on the good fortune of inheritance. And even though you might ultimately have to pay the tax in the end, the U.S. tax code-fortunately-contains some breaks for the well-informed.当然,大多数富人都会想到在这些问题上寻求可靠的法律建议。在此过程中记住这样一点或许是有好处的:有人说,房地产遗产税是最不讨人嫌的税种之一,因为它的征税对象既不是辛勤劳动者,也不是创业者,而是继承财产的幸运儿。而且,尽管最终你还是得缴纳税款,但好在美国税法还是有些空子可以让见多识广的人去利用。 /201404/285490

  Amazon.com, the giant online retailer, has too much power, and it uses that power in ways that hurt America.巨型在线零售商亚马逊(Amazon.com)力量太强大了,而且它运用这种力量时,对美国造成了伤害。O.K., I know that was kind of abrupt. But I wanted to get the central point out there right away, because discussions of Amazon tend, all too often, to get lost in side issues.当然,我也知道这样说有点唐突,我只是想把中心思想直截了当地提出来,因为谈论亚马逊的时候,人们往往会纠结于次要问题。For example, critics of the company sometimes portray it as a monster about to take over the whole economy. Such claims are over the top — Amazon doesn’t dominate overall online sales, let alone retailing as a whole, and probably never will. But so what? Amazon is still playing a troubling role.比如,批评这家公司的人有时候会把它描绘成即将掌控整个经济的巨兽。这样的说法未免过于夸张——亚马逊都没有在整体上主导在线销售,更别说整体上主导零售业了,它可能永远都不会主导零售业。但那又怎样?亚马逊还是在扮演一个令人不安的角色。Meanwhile, Amazon’s defenders often digress into paeans to online bookselling, which has indeed been a good thing for many Americans, or testimonials to Amazon customer service — and in case you’re wondering, yes, I have Amazon Prime and use it a lot. But again, so what? The desirability of new technology, or even Amazon’s effective use of that technology, is not the issue. After all, John D. Rockefeller and his associates were pretty good at the oil business, too — but Standard Oil nonetheless had too much power, and public action to curb that power was essential.与此同时,替亚马逊辩护的人,常常会离题万里地赞颂在线卖书(这对许多美国人来说的确是好事),或者称赞亚马逊的客户务——如果你好奇的话,我可以回答你,我的确有亚马逊的Prime账户,而且经常用。但话又说回来,这又怎样?问题并不在于新技术是不是好事,甚至不是亚马逊对技术的有效运用是不是好事。毕竟,约翰·D·洛克菲勒(John D. Rockefeller)和他的商业伙伴经营石油生意也很在行,但是标准石油(Standard Oil)拥有的力量仍然太强了,公众采取行动制约这种力量也是至关重要的。And the same is true of Amazon today.同样的说法今天对亚马逊也是成立的。If you haven’t been following the recent Amazon news: Back in May a dispute between Amazon and Hachette, a major publishing house, broke out into open commercial warfare. Amazon had been demanding a larger cut of the price of Hachette books it sells; when Hachette balked, Amazon began disrupting the publisher’s sales. Hachette books weren’t banned outright from Amazon’s site, but Amazon began delaying their delivery, raising their prices, and/or steering customers to other publishers.如果你没有关注最近亚马逊的新闻,我来介绍一下:今年5月,亚马逊和大型出版社阿歇特(Hachette)之间公开爆发了一场纠纷,并演变成了商业大战。亚马逊要求从阿歇特销售图书的收入中抽取更多分成,阿歇特不愿意提高抽成,于是亚马逊开始干扰这家出版社的销售。亚马逊网站并没有完全禁止销售阿歇特的图书,而是开始拖延配送、提高价格,甚至还会把顾客引向其他的出版商。You might be tempted to say that this is just business — no different from Standard Oil, back in the days before it was broken up, refusing to ship oil via railroads that refused to grant it special discounts. But that is, of course, the point: The robber baron era ended when we as a nation decided that some business tactics were out of line. And the question is whether we want to go back on that decision.你或许想说,这只是做生意,和标准石油被拆分之前的做法没什么区别——拒绝通过不愿向该公司给予优惠折扣的铁路输送石油。可是重点当然也是这个:我们这个国家当时决定,有些商业行为太过头了,于是“强盗大亨”(robber baron)的时代结束了。现在的问题是,我们愿不愿意撤销那个决定。Does Amazon really have robber-baron-type market power? When it comes to books, definitely. Amazon overwhelmingly dominates online book sales, with a market share comparable to Standard Oil’s share of the refined oil market when it was broken up in 1911. Even if you look at total book sales, Amazon is by far the largest player.亚马逊真的有“强盗大亨”似的市场控制力吗?谈到书,它的确有。亚马逊压倒性地控制了在线图书销售,市场份额与标准石油在1911年被拆分前,在精炼石油产品市场上的份额相当。即使参考总体的图书销量,亚马逊也能以极大的优势占据头把交椅。So far Amazon has not tried to exploit consumers. In fact, it has systematically kept prices low, to reinforce its dominance. What it has done, instead, is use its market power to put a squeeze on publishers, in effect driving down the prices it pays for books — hence the fight with Hachette. In economics jargon, Amazon is not, at least so far, acting like a monopolist, a dominant seller with the power to raise prices. Instead, it is acting as a monopsonist, a dominant buyer with the power to push prices down.目前亚马逊还没有尝试压榨消费者。实际上,它为了强化主导地位,一直在系统性地保持低价。它所做的实际上是利用市场地位挤压出版商,即压低自己为买书付出的价钱,于是就有了与阿歇特的冲突。用经济学术语说,亚马逊并没有,至少现在还没有,像典型的垄断企业那样运作,即卖家利用市场控制力来提高价格。但它的确是一个垄断买方——有能力压低价格的占据主导地位的买家。And on that front its power is really immense — in fact, even greater than the market share numbers indicate. Book sales depend crucially on buzz and word of mouth (which is why authors are often sent on grueling book tours); you buy a book because you’ve heard about it, because other people are ing it, because it’s a topic of conversation, because it’s made the best-seller list. And what Amazon possesses is the power to kill the buzz. It’s definitely possible, with some extra effort, to buy a book you’ve heard about even if Amazon doesn’t carry it — but if Amazon doesn’t carry that book, you’re much less likely to hear about it in the first place.而在这一方面,它的力量的确强大,实际上比其市场份额数字所显示的还要强大。图书销售在很大程度上依赖于公众的关注和谈论,正因为如此,出版方才会让作者疲于奔命地参加活动推介新书。你买书是因为听说过这本书,因为其他人在读,因为它成了议论的话题,因为它登上了畅销榜。而亚马逊所拥有的,就是扼杀公众关注效应的实力。多花一些精力,肯定可以买到你听说过,但亚马逊不卖的书。但如果亚马逊不卖那本书,你听说那本书的可能性本身就会小很多。So can we trust Amazon not to abuse that power? The Hachette dispute has settled that question: no, we can’t.那么,我们能信任亚马逊不会滥用这种影响力吗?阿歇特出版社的纠纷已经解答了这个问题:不,我们不能。It’s not just about the money, although that’s important: By putting the squeeze on publishers, Amazon is ultimately hurting authors and ers. But there’s also the question of undue influence.并不只是钱的问题,尽管钱是一个重要的问题:通过挤压出版商,亚马逊最终会伤害作者和读者,但还有影响力过度的问题。Specifically, the penalty Amazon is imposing on Hachette books is bad in itself, but there’s also a curious selectivity in the way that penalty has been applied. Last month the Times’s Bits blog documented the case of two Hachette books receiving very different treatment. One is Daniel Schulman’s “Sons of Wichita,” a profile of the Koch brothers; the other is “The Way Forward,” by Paul Ryan, who was Mitt Romney’s running mate and is chairman of the House Budget Committee. Both are listed as eligible for Amazon Prime, and for Mr. Ryan’s book Amazon offers the usual free two-day delivery. What about “Sons of Wichita”? As of Sunday, it “usually ships in 2 to 3 weeks.” Uh-huh.可以明确地说,亚马逊对阿歇特图书施加的惩罚本身就很恶劣,然而执行这种惩罚的方式却有一种有趣的选择性。上个月,《纽约时报》的Bits客记录了两本阿歇特的书受到不同对待的情形。一本是丹尼尔·舒曼(Daniel Schulman)的《威奇托之子》(Sons of Wichita),书中讲述了科赫(Koch)兄弟的故事;另一本是保罗·瑞安(Paul Ryan)撰写的《前进之路》(The Way Forward),瑞安是米特·罗姆尼(Mitt Romney)竞选总统时的搭档,也是众议院预算委员会(House Budget Committee)主席。亚马逊表示,两本书都享受亚马逊Prime务,瑞安的书可以享受通常的免费两日配送。《威奇托之子》呢?周日时显示“通常需要2至3周送达”。呵呵。Which brings us back to the key question. Don’t tell me that Amazon is giving consumers what they want, or that it has earned its position. What matters is whether it has too much power, and is abusing that power. Well, it does, and it is.于是这又把我们带回了关键的问题。别告诉我亚马逊为消费者提供了他们想要的,也别说什么它现在的地位是辛苦赚来的。重点在于,它的力量是不是太强了,它有没有在滥用这种力量。这两个问题的都是肯定的。 /201410/337326China-Nestled among tiny farms in this rural outpost outside Shanghai is a huge, supersanitary chicken farm-a bold bet by Tyson Foods Inc. that it can thrive in China by overhauling a decades-old business model. 在上海周边的农村地区散落的小农场中间,坐落着泰森食品公司(Tyson Foods Inc.)的一家超大型、极其清洁的养鸡场。这是泰森食品的一次大胆押注,寻求通过彻底改变存在了几十年的商业模式在中国市场获得成功。 Instead of buying chickens from independent farmers, as Tyson long has done world-wide, the company is spending hundreds of millions of dollars to build its own farms in China. The effort is aimed at making inroads in a crucial growth market by addressing one of the country#39;s most vexing problems: food safety. 泰森食品斥资数亿美元在中国建设自己的养鸡场,而不是从农村散养农户手中收购鸡只,这也是该公司长期以来在全球各地的一贯做法。这样做的目的在于,通过因应“食品安全”这一让中国人最感苦恼的问题,进入中国这个至关重要的增长市场。 On a recent afternoon, 330,000 chickens graze in 16 ventilated buildings, each about the area of two Olympic swimming pools. Video cameras monitor the interiors, where the faint sound of chirps mix with the whir of big fans. Workers don sterilized uniforms and shoes. Every delivery truck entering the grounds is sprayed three times with disinfectant. 不久前的一天下午,记者看到33万只鸡在16个通风良好的鸡舍里进食,每个鸡舍的面积都有两个奥运泳池那么大。有摄像头对鸡舍的内部进行监控,鸡舍内,鸡只的叫声和大型风扇的嗡嗡声夹杂在一起。工人们穿着消过毒的制和鞋。每一辆驶入养鸡场的卡车都要喷三次消毒剂。 Tyson aims by 2015 to run 90 such farms in China and supply its processing plants here almost exclusively with company-raised broilers, as chickens raised for meat are called. Today the Springdale, Ark., company has 20 farms in China. Three years ago, none. The goal is to double production in China to three million birds a week for supermarkets and restaurants to help offset sluggish growth in the U.S. 泰森食品的目标是,到2015年之前在中国运营90个这样的养鸡场,该公司在中国的加工工厂所需的肉鸡几乎完全来自自己的养鸡场。如今,这家总部位于阿肯色州斯普林代尔(Springdale)的公司在中国的养鸡场数量已经从三年前的零增加到20个。泰森食品的目标是,在中国实现产量翻番,达到每周向超市和餐厅供应300万只,以对冲美国市场增长疲软的影响。 #39;We just can#39;t build the [chicken] houses fast enough, and we#39;re going absolutely as fast as we know how to go,#39; says Tyson Chief Executive Donnie Smith. 泰森食品首席执行长史密斯(Donnie Smith)说,我们建鸡舍的速度还不够快,但我们的速度绝对已经在我们力所能及的范围内尽可能地快了。 Tyson has competition. Chinese companies, such as KFC supplier Fujian Sunner Development Co. 002299.SZ +0.09% , dominate the market and are expanding. Many are working to modernize their food-production system, sometimes with their own company farms. Acquiring new technology and safety practices was a reason for this year#39;s .7 billion takeover of U.S.-based pork processor Smithfield Foods Inc. by China#39;s Shuanghui International Holdings Ltd. 泰森食品也面临着竞争。包括肯德基(KFC)的供应商福建 农发展股份有限公司(Fujian Sunner Development Co.)在内的中国公司主宰着这一市场,而且规模也越来越大。很多公司都在努力实现食品生产体系的现代化,一些公司还建立了自己的养鸡场。今年,中国的双汇国际控股有限公司(Shuanghui International Holdings Ltd.)以47亿美元收购美国的猪肉加工商Smithfield Foods Inc.,原因之一就是要获取新的技术和安全操作。 Tyson doesn#39;t disclose its investment costs or revenue by country. But CLSA Americas LLC estimates that Tyson#39;s China revenue was about 5 million in the fiscal year that ended in September and will reach .1 billion by fiscal 2015. 泰森食品不按国别披露其投资成本或营收。不过,CLSA Americas LLC估计,在截至今年9月份的这个财年里,泰森食品在中国的营收大约为7.15亿美元,到2015财年将达到11亿美元。 In the U.S., where Tyson is the largest meat processor by sales, the company contracts with 4,000 farmers to raise the chickens that Tyson processes. The farmers raise about 100,000 birds at a time, shouldering the risk and navigating the logistical hassles. 按销售额计,泰森食品是美国最大的肉类加工厂商,该公司与4,000家农场签订了协议,该公司加工的鸡只由这些农场饲养。这些农场在同一时间内饲养的鸡大约有10万只,农场自己承担风险和物流成本。 But that doesn#39;t fly in China, which is dominated by small-scale farms. Small poultry farms, which may have only a few hundred birds each, are hard to monitor to prevent disease and deter excessive use of the feed additives that speed animal growth. 然而,在主要以小规模养饲养场为主的中国,这种做法行不通。小型家禽饲养场一次可能仅饲养数百只家禽,很难监控并预防疾病,而且也很难防止通过过度使用饲料添加剂来加快家禽生长。 Such food-safety problems are hindering companies#39; efforts to tap a growing demand for meat in China#39;s emerging middle class. China overtook the U.S. last year as the world#39;s largest consumer of chickens. But since then, a new bird-flu outbreak and other health scares have triggered sharp declines in sales. 中国新兴的中产阶级对肉类食品的需求在不断增长,但上述食品安全问题正在阻碍各个企业为满足这些需求所作的努力。去年,中国取代美国成为全球最大的鸡肉消费国。但之后,新型禽流感疫情爆发以及其他健康问题又导致销售额出现大幅下降。 Yum Brands Inc., which counts on China for about half the company#39;s billion in global revenue, blamed consumer concerns over chicken for weaker sales at Yum#39;s KFC outlets. The company cut ties this year with some small-scale suppliers after several vendors were investigated for using excessive levels of antibiotics. 百胜餐饮集团(Yum Brands Inc.)全球140亿美元的收入中有大约一半来自中国。该公司将旗下肯德基(KFC)餐厅销售额下降归咎于消费者对鸡肉的担忧。由于调查发现一些供应商使用过量抗生素,该公司今年与一些小规模供应商断绝了业务关系。 China#39;s chicken market is central to Tyson#39;s plan to increase its sales from international production by at least 12% annually over the next few years. Tyson, which generated billion in global revenue for fiscal 2013, has processed chicken in China since 2001. Lately, though, the company hasn#39;t turned a profit in the country because of its investments in new farms and processing plants. The company expects to be profitable in China by the fourth quarter of fiscal 2014. 泰森食品计划在未来数年让国际产品销售额每年实现至少12%的增幅,而中国鸡肉市场对该公司实现这一计划十分关键。泰森食品自2001年以来一直在中国加工鸡肉,该公司2013财年全球收入达到340亿美元。但近来,由于该公司对新饲养场和加工工厂进行投资,公司在中国的业务一直未能实现盈利。泰森食品预计2014财年第四季度前在中国实现盈利。 After a decade of purchasing birds from independent farmers, Tyson determined it needed to take over production. #39;It became apparent we have less control over product quality and safety when we buy chickens available on the open market,#39; says Malik Sadiq, the chief operating officer of Tyson#39;s China division. 过去10年,泰森食品一直从独立饲养场那里收购家禽,现在该公司确定需要自己来饲养。该公司中国业务首席运营长萨迪克(Malik Sadiq)说:很明显,当我们在公开市场上购买鸡时,我们对产品质量和安全的控制不够。 Tyson says that while operating farms raises costs, it also gives the company direct oversight of production, enabling it to use biosecurity measures. For example, its chicken houses are covered, unlike at many Chinese farms, protecting the animals from the droppings of migrating birds that can carry diseases such as bird flu. 泰森食品说,虽然经营饲养场会增加成本,但此举也让公司可以直接监控生产,令公司可以采用生物安全措施。比如说,和中国的养鸡场不一样,泰森食品的鸡舍是有屋顶的,这样可以保护鸡群免受迁徙过程中候鸟粪便的污染,候鸟粪便可能携带禽流感等病毒。 Tyson hopes that safe products will help build its retail brand in a country where it is little known. 泰森食品在中国还不为人所熟知,该公司希望安全的产品将有助于公司在中国打造其零售品牌。 The payoff could be significant. Poultry sales here have been growing faster than those of pork, China#39;s favorite meat, in part because chicken is less expensive. Retailers and fast-food companies are expanding and looking for safe suppliers. The bulk of Tyson#39;s chicken sales in China today are to wholesalers and other meatpackers that use the meat in sausage and other products. About 20% of its sales by volume is for the fast-food sector. 这样做可能带来巨大的回报。中国家禽销售的增速超过了中国人喜爱的猪肉,部分原因在与鸡肉相对便宜。零售商和快餐企业正在扩张,都在寻找安全的供应商。目前,泰森食品在中国销售的鸡肉主要面向批发商以及其他将鸡肉用于生产香肠和其他产品的肉类加工商。该公司销量的大约20%是面向快餐行业。 Minnesota-based Cargill Inc. started processing chicken in China this past spring, opening its own farms and plants as part of a 0 million investment. And Illinois-based OSI Group Inc., a supplier to McDonald#39;s Corp., said recently that it had expanded the poultry farms it operates in China through a joint venture. 总部设在明尼苏达州的嘉吉公司(Cargill Inc.)今年春季开始在中国加工鸡肉。作为一项2.5亿美元投资的一部分,该公司在中国开设了自己的饲养场和工厂。麦当劳(McDonald#39;s Corp.)供应商、总部设在伊利诺伊州的OSI Group Inc.不久前表示,该公司通过一家合资企业扩大了其在中国经营的家禽饲养场。 Building farms is complicated and capital-intensive. Gaining rights to China#39;s scarce agricultural land is difficult. Tyson must find plots without neighbors who raise poultry to mitigate the sp of disease. Government approval of leases can take months, if not years, according to industry executives. 建养鸡场不仅复杂,而且需要大量资本。获取中国稀缺的农业用地权十分困难。泰森食品须找到四周没有家禽饲养的地块,这样可减少疾病的传播。业界高管表示,政府对租赁权的审批可能需要数月、甚至数年时间。 Mr. Sadiq, the Tyson operating chief, says the tax revenue the company provides help its case with officials. But analysts say that provincial authorities generally give preference to local companies. When Tyson gets approval, it often pays compensation or rent to current farmers. 泰森食品首席运营长萨迪克说,公司缴纳的税款会有助于完成政府审批。但分析人士说,省级主管部门一般会优先考虑地方企业。泰森食品若拿到审批,往往要向当前用那些地的农民付赔偿金或租金。 China#39;s national government generally has supported the move to larger farms to modernize production and improve food safety. The government also has aided the commercial chicken industry by reducing the number of so-called wet markets, where live birds and other farm products are sold to consumers and where viruses can circulate easily. 中国中央政府一般来说对农场扩大规模以实现现代化生产和提高食品安全的做法持持态度。此外,政府还会通过减少传统市场来辅助商业鸡肉产业。传统市场是指将活禽和其它农产品直接卖给消费者的市场,病毒可轻易传播。 Tyson has had to build roads and bridges and install electrical lines. Cargill is making similar investments, including building 30 miles of roads near its operations in Anhui, a relatively poor eastern province, and splitting the cost with the local government for installing 300 miles of electrical lines. 泰森食品不得不修路搭桥和安装电线。嘉吉目前也在进行类似投资,包位于在中国相对贫困的东部省份安徽该公司农场附近修建30英里(约48公里)的公路,并与当地政府分摊安装300英里(约480公里)电线的费用。 #39;Embarking on these projects in rural China requires just immense complexity,#39; says Christopher Langholz, who heads Cargill#39;s animal-protein business in China. 嘉吉动物蛋白中国区总裁梁厚哲(Christopher Langholz)说,在中国农村开展这些项目极为复杂。 Still, executives believe it will pay off. Retailers are selling upscale labels and imported foods to consumers who believe that such products are safer than what is available at traditional markets. 尽管如此,高管们仍认为此举十分划算。零售商目前在销售高档和进口食品,消费者们认为这些产品比传统市场上的食品更安全。 Tyson says its strategy aly is winning more business from restaurant chains and retailers. Wal-Mart Stores Inc. #39;s chief executive for China, Greg Foran, says Tyson has helped minimize the retailer#39;s risk by providing a safe, controlled supply. 泰森食品说,这一策略已经让公司从连锁餐厅和零售商那里获得了更多业务。沃尔玛连锁公司(Wal-Mart Stores Inc.)中国业务首席执行长高福澜(Greg Foran)说,由于泰森提供了安全可控的产品供应,沃尔玛的风险降到了最低。 Tyson aims to expand retail sales to 20% of its volume in China from 10% today. But that will require building name recognition and persuading consumers to buy packaged breasts and wings instead of entire birds recently slaughtered at market-and to pay more for chicken billed as higher quality. 泰森食品的目标是将在华零售数量占公司销售总数的比例从目前的10%增至20%。但这不仅要建立品牌识别度,还要说消费者购买包装好的鸡胸和鸡翅,而不是在市场上买刚刚屠宰好的整鸡,并且让他们愿意为所谓高品质的鸡肉花更多钱。 #39;Chinese customers don#39;t pay,#39; says James Rice, a former vice president of Tyson#39;s operations in China who now works for a Chinese liquor company. #39;In China, 20% of customers have the purchasing power and the other 80% will buy the cheapest thing.#39; 泰森食品前中国区运营副总裁、现供职于中国某白酒企业的赖斯(James Rice)说,中国消费者不会花这个钱的;在中国,只有20%的消费者有购买力,其余80%则是捡便宜东西买。 Macy Lu, a 40-year-old homemaker in Shanghai, says she bought Tyson chicken recently because the deboned and skinned thighs were more convenient than what she would have bought elsewhere. It was a #39;bit more expensive,#39; she says, but she felt safer buying the Tyson chicken because of the production date on the label. #39;If there is any problem, at least it#39;s traceable.#39; 40岁的上海家庭主妇Macy Lu说,自己近来买的是泰森鸡肉,因为这些鸡大腿无骨无皮,相较其它地方的鸡腿更为方便。她说,泰森鸡肉是要稍微贵一点,但感觉更安全,因为商标上有生产日期。她说,如果有任何问题,至少是可以追溯的。 /201312/268155

  People in China#39;s southeastern Guangxi Province have a custom of eating ducks during the Ghost Festival, which falls on the 14th night of the seventh month of the Chinese lunar calendar every year.8月27日是农历七月十四,民间的中元节,俗称“鬼节”,在广西有吃鸭子的习俗。The duck vendors strewed tens of thousands of ducks over the streets of Liuzhou City of Guangxi Province and sold them to customers overnight on August 27, 2015.8月27日凌晨,广西柳州市航生北路场面壮观,十万余只鸭子铺满街道,商家的叫卖声不断。The custom has continued for more than ten years.这种场景已经持续了十多年。 /201508/396038

  

  Chinese telecommunications equipment supplier Huawei Technologies Co. said two of its employees are among the 239 passengers on board the Malaysia Airlines flight that went missing over the weekend.中国电信设备供应商华为技术有限公司(Huawei Technologies Co.)说,马来西亚航空公司(Malaysia Airlines,简称:马航)上周末失踪的那架航班上有其两名员工。该航班共载有239人。#39;We are in very close contact with Malaysia Airlines and the Chinese Embassy in Malaysia,#39; said a Huawei spokeswoman who works at the company#39;s headquarters in Shenzhen, China. #39;Everyone here is very concerned and we are all watching the news,#39; she said.华为发言人在公司总部深圳说,华为正与马航和中国驻马来西亚大使馆保持密切联系。她说,公司所有人都极为关注此事,大家都在看新闻。The spokeswoman said that the two employees are Chinese, but did not identify them by name or provide further details.该发言人说,这两名员工为中国籍公民,但未透露其姓名,也没有提供更多详情。According to the passenger list released by the airline, just over half of the passengers on flight MH370 are Chinese citizens. The Boeing 777 jet vanished in the early morning hours on Saturday over the South China Sea. A massive, multination search for the plane is ongoing.据马航公布的乘客名单显示,MH370航班上多一半的乘客都为中国公民。这架波音(Boeing)777喷气式客机上周六凌晨在南中国海(South China Sea,中国称南海)上空失踪。多个国家目前正在展开大规模搜救行动。Huawei, the world#39;s second-largest supplier of telecom networking gear after Sweden#39;s Ericsson, has about 150,000 employees world-wide. The company has a Malaysian office in Kuala Lumpur.华为是仅次于瑞典爱立信(Ericsson)的全球第二大电信网络设备供应商,在全世界有大约15万名雇员。该公司的马来西亚办事处设在吉隆坡。 /201403/279303。

  One month after the expired-meat scandal that dented the sales and reputation of western fast food in China, office worker Arthur Han contentedly chews his burger and proclaims that now is the best time to eat at McDonald’s in China – while the heat is still on from the food safety authorities.导致西方快餐在华声誉和销售额下滑的“过期肉”丑闻曝光一个月后,办公室职员阿瑟#8226;韩(Arthur Han)在麦当劳(McDonald#39;s)餐厅里惬意地嚼着汉堡,称现在是在中国吃麦当劳的最佳时机,因为食品安全管理部门仍对这家美国汉堡连锁店保持着强大压力。Mr Han says he does not normally eat at the US burger chain, whose brand image for cleanliness and quality was shaken last month by an undercover television investigation that accused it and several other western fast-food companies including Yum Brands and Burger King of using a mainland supplier thatrelabelled expired meat.韩先生说,他并不是麦当劳的常客。上月,一个卧底调查电视节目动摇了麦当劳以清洁和质量著称的品牌形象。该调查节目声称,麦当劳以及包括百胜餐饮集团(Yum! Brands)和汉堡王(Burger King)在内的另几家西方快餐公司,从一家将过期肉更换标签再销售的中国内地供应商那里进货。In a country where food safety is one of the biggest political issues, the 0bn fast-food industry has been propelled again into the spotlight. The latest issue comes as the rapidly growing sector is grappling with a host of other issues. These include escalating competition from local players; rising rents; labour shortages – and the fundamental difficulty of procuring safe supplies in a market that is both fragmented and growing rapidly.在中国,食品安全是最重要的政治问题之一,这也使总值达到2000亿美元的快餐业再次被推到聚光灯下。除了这起最新事件,这个快速发展的行业还在努力解决其他很多问题。这些问题包括:中国本土快餐企业构成的日益激烈的竞争,不断上涨的租金,用工短缺,以及在一个既碎片化又快速发展的市场里采购放心原料的根本性难题。McDonald’s said this month that the scandal – which led Shanghai authorities to close down the affected factory of Shanghai Husi Food Co, a subsidiary of US food group OSI, and detain staff – initially had a“significant negative impact” on sales, though it could not estimate the outcome for the full year.这起丑闻促使上海主管部门查封了受影响的上海福喜食品有限公司(Shanghai Husi Food)的工厂。上海福喜是美国福喜集团(OSI)的子公司。麦当劳本月表示,这起丑闻最初对其销售额造成了“显著的负面影响”,尽管其无法估算出对全年业绩的影响。Yum said its brands KFC and Pizza Hut also saw sales drop initially, adding that if the decline persists it could have a “material effect” on full-year earnings per share. But analysts say that, whatever the impact on western brands, it is unlikely local players will be able to mop up the leftovers.百胜表示,旗下品牌肯德基(KFC)和必胜客(Pizza Hut)最初也发生了销售额下降的情况。它补充称,如果这种下滑持续下去,可能对全年每股盈利(EPS)造成“实质性影响”。但分析师表示,不管这起丑闻会对西方品牌造成什么影响,中国本土的快餐企业都不大可能从中捞到好处。Food safety “is not just something that affects McDonald’s and KFC, they are just the best known”, says Torsten Stocker, partner at consulting firm AT Kearney. “If it’s a problem they are facing, why would others be any different?”食品安全“不止影响麦当劳和肯德基,它们只不过是最有名的”,咨询公司科尔尼(AT Kearney)的合伙人唐仕德(Torsten Stocker)说。“如果它们现在面临这样的问题,其他企业又有何分别呢?”Many diners seem to realise that western brands are not the only ones with a problem: one young office worker eating lunch at a local fast-food outlet this week displayed a length of wire that he had just pulled out of his meal and told the Financial Times that the only solution was to “ignore it”.许多用餐者似乎明白并不是只有西方品牌有问题:上周,一名在中国本土快餐店吃午饭的年轻办公室职员向英国《金融时报》记者展示了一根他刚从午饭里择出来的金属丝,并告诉记者唯一的解决办法就是“无视它”。That, say observers, speaks to the issue of suppliers. Most of China’s half a million food processors are far too small or unsophisticated to serve enormous and exacting clients such as the foreign chains.观察人士表示,这暴露出了供应商的问题。中国的50万家食品加工商中,绝大部分规模太小或太缺乏经验,不适合为外资连锁餐厅等既庞大又要求严格的客户务。Analysts say suppliers have failed to keep up with expansion in the sector, with companies such as Dicos increasing its restaurant numbers by 40 per cent in the first quarter of this year compared with last year, to 2,200 stores.分析师称,供应商未能跟上快餐业扩张的脚步。以德克士(Dicos)为例,该公司今年第一季度门店数量同比增长40%,达到2200家。Hence a string of scandals have shaken the faith of China’s twenty- and thirtysomething white-collar workers. Brands such as Yum’s KFC in particular have been hit by one highly publicised supplier scandal after another; Yum sales had just begun to recover from a 2012 scare over antibiotics in chicken, when the expired-meat scandal broke last month.因此,一连串的丑闻已经动摇了中国二三十岁白领的信心。肯德基等品牌尤其受到一个接一个被大肆曝光的供应商丑闻的冲击;百胜的销售额刚刚开始从2012年禽肉滥用抗生素引起的恐慌中恢复,上月就又曝出了“过期肉”丑闻。And problems with food quality have also coincided with other trends that have challenged western fast-food brands, industry analysts say.行业分析师表示,食品质量问题冒出来之际,其他潮流也对西方快餐品牌构成了挑战。“Fast-food consumers in China have shifted away from their original curiosity about western fast food, and nowadays they are pickier and more focused on health,” says Shi Jun, catering industry analyst at Beijing-based Alliance PKU Management.“中国的快餐消费者已不再像最初那样对西方快餐感到好奇,现在他们更挑剔、更关注健康,”总部位于北京的北大纵横管理咨询公司(Alliance PKU Management)的餐饮业分析师史俊说。“Twenty years ago, a McDonald’s or a KFC might have been one of the few locations in some towns that had air conditioning and a clean bathroom, but now there are lots more alternatives; competition has greatly increased,” says Shaun Rein, of China Market Research Group in Shanghai.“20年前,麦当劳或肯德基餐厅可能是某些城镇少数几个有空调和干净厕所的地方,但现在有很多别的选择;竞争大幅增加了,”上海中国市场研究集团(China Market Research)的雷小山(Shaun Rein)说。KFC remains far and away the market leader with 4,600 outlets, more than double the 2,000 McDonald’s. But Dicos – a Taiwanese-owned fast-food chain strongest in lower-tier cities, with cheaper s – recently eclipsed the US burger chain with 2,200 stores. It plans to have nearly 3,000 by the end of the year.肯德基在中国的门店有4600家,数量比拥有2000家门店的麦当劳多出一倍多,是这个市场遥遥领先的领跑者。但餐品更为便宜、在较小城市势力最强的台资快餐连锁店德克士,最近以2200家门店的数量超过了麦当劳。德克士计划在今年年底前将门店增加到近3000家。Private equity investors have backed a plethora of local fast-food chains, which are slowly building market share in the highly fragmented Chinese market, offering food that is closer to local tastes and marketing themselves as healthier. One such is Actis, which invested in a local hotpot chain, Xiabu Xiabu.私募股权投资者已经投资了一大批中国本土快餐连锁企业,这些企业正慢慢在高度碎片化的中国市场建立自己的市场份额。它们提供更符合中国人口味的食品,并宣传自己的食品更健康。私募股权投资者英联(Actis)就对中国本土火锅连锁店呷哺呷哺进行了投资。This is driving consumer choice in fast food, according to Mintel. The research company says: “A fundamental shift towards healthier Chinese-style cooking is redefining the fast-food industry, and consequently propelling domestic fast-food chains to challenge the foreign fast-food leaders.”研究公司英敏特(Mintel)表示,这对快餐业的消费者选择趋势产生了推动。该公司称:“向更健康的中式烹饪的根本性转变,正在重新定义快餐业,进而推动本土快餐连锁企业挑战该行业的外资领跑者。”Mr Han, at the McDonald’s diner, says that if he had the time, he would definitely eat Chinese. But the fast-food industry is counting on the fact that in China – as in other markets – people will continue to be pressed for time. With a rapidly growing market that still, for all its problems, generates net margins of 15-20 per cent, fast-food operators have little intention of throwing in the towel.在麦当劳餐厅的韩先生表示,如果自己有时间,肯定会吃中餐。但快餐业仰仗的正是以下一个事实:就像在其他市场一样,在中国,人们将继续面临时间不够用的局面。快速发展中的中国快餐市场尽管存在种种问题,净利润率却依然能够达到15%至20%。考虑到这一点,快餐业经营者无意在这个市场低头认输。 /201408/324410

  

  

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