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2019年07月18日 04:52:09

Explore your feelings, and how they affect your behaviour, with this new series on the psychology of the emotions.We tend to think of our emotions as having laws unto themselves, but one psychological researcher has suggested that our emotions do follow certain general rules.This post begins a new series on the psychology of emotions with Professor Nico Frijda's twelve laws of the emotions (Fridja, 2006). As for most laws there are exceptions, but these have been synthesised from years of psychological research and hold true much of the time..1. The Law of Situational MeaningThe first law is simply that emotions derive from situations. Generally the same types of situation will elicit the same types of emotional response. Loss makes us grieve, gains make us happy and scary things make us fearful (mostly anyway - see all the other laws).2. The Law of ConcernWe feel because we care about something, when we have some interest in what happens, whether it's to an object, ourselves, or another person. Emotions arise from these particular goals, motivations or concerns. When we are unconcerned we don't feel anything.3. The Law of Apparent RealityWhatever seems real to us, can elicit an emotional response. In other words how we appraise or interpret a situation governs the emotion we feel (compare with laws 11 amp; 12). The reason poor movies, plays or books don't engage us emotionally is because, in some sense, we fail to detect truth. Similarly it's difficult to get emotional about things that aren't obvious, right in front of us. For example grief may not strike when we are told about the death of loved one, but only once it becomes real to us in some way - say when we pick up the phone to call them, forgetting they are gone.4, 5 amp; 6. The Laws of Change, Habituation and Comparative FeelingThe law of habituation means that in life we get used to our circumstances whatever they are (mostly true, but see laws 7 amp; 8). The emotions, therefore, respond most ily to change. This means that we are always comparing what is happening to a relatively steady frame of reference (what we are used to). As a result our emotions tend to respond most ily to changes that are relative to this frame of reference. /200901/60171金华丽都医院什么时候建立If youre over 40, gray hairs aren't your only problem. You may also smell old.如果你年过40,白发还不是唯一的困扰。你的体味可能也会出现老化。That, at least, is what U.S. fragrance maker Harvey Prince would like you to think. The company's solution? "AgelessFantasy" perfume, a mix of flower and fruit aromas that promises to make you seem eight years younger than youare.至少,美国香水制造商“汉威王子”公司会让你这么想。公司的解决方法是什么呢?——那就是“岁月无痕”香水。这款香水混合了花香和果香,保让你闻上去年轻8岁。Harvey Prince president Kumar Ramani told the Daily Mail:" From the point of arriving at the fragrance, we had to negate the body odor that comes with age. It is not enough to simply mask the smells of aging. Our goal was to find a fragrance that women and men would associate with youth."“汉威王子”的总裁库马尔拉马尼对《每日邮报》说:“只是简单地遮盖老化的体味是不够的。我们的目标是找到一种让人觉得能永葆青春的芳香。” Will that argument get women rushing to the shops for their own 100ml bottle? Only time will tell.这一番言论会让女性们冲进商店选购100毫升装的香水吗?只有时间会给出。 /200904/66257金华妇幼保健院打美白针多少钱You may get along well with your boss but there will always be that specific instance where you want to say more than you should. Here are ten things that you should not say to your boss. 也许你和你老板相处得很好,但总是会有一些特殊的场合,你想说的话多于你应该说的。下面是你不该和老板说的10句话。 1. In a minute. 等一会。 Sometimes you'll get called into the boss' office just as you're about to do something that you've been waiting to do. Bosses don't often view our personal wants as an important factor to the job, so when your boss calls you in to see them, it's not good to say you'll be there in a minute. 有时老板让你去他办公室的时候,你正好要做一些你一直等着要做的事情。事实上老板们并不把我们个人的需要看成是工作中一个重要的因素,所以当你的老板叫你去见他的时候,最好别说等一会过去。 2. Oops, I forgot. 啊!我忘记了。 And we do get so busy that we can't remember everything, but some things may not be well received when we say that. So, instead of saying you forgot, try, "I"m on it but I haven't got through to them yet'. It's like saying the glass is half full instead of half empty. They mean the same; one just sounds better. 当我们很忙的时候,我们不可能记得所有的事情,但是有些事情当我们说忘了的时候,老板们也许就会不高兴。所以,你可以说,“我正在做,但是还没有完成”而不是直接说你忘记了。这就像是说玻璃杯里的水是半满着而不是半空着一样。它们的意思是相同的,只是另一个听起来更好。 3. No! 不行! If the boss comes to you with a project to do, it's not always in your best interest to refuse to do it. You could suggest someone else do it or declare how busy you aly are, but to say no might not be appreciated. 如果老板找你做一个项目,但项目并不总是你最感兴趣的。如果想要拒绝他,你可以建议其他人来做,或是告诉他你现在有多么忙,直接说不行也许会让你的老板很不高兴。 4. You don't know that? 你不知道么? Most bosses like to feel that they know everything, although you and the rest of the office may differ in opinion on that issue. Try beginning your sentence with, "You probably aly know this ". This shows your boss that you respect their intelligence, even though you know better. 大多数老板觉得自己懂得所有的东西,尽管你和办公室的其他同事也许会在一件事情上和你的老板有不同的观点。试着这样去说,“你或许已经知道这个”。这就让你的老板感觉到你尊重他的想法,即使你知道的更多一些。 5. You're late. 你迟到了。 Being late has come to be one of those privileges that may inconvenience you but is their seniority right. Telling them they are late could be seen as undermining their position over you. 上班迟到是对你而言很麻烦但却是老板们的特权之一。告诉老板他们迟到了可能被看成你在藐视他们的地位。 /200905/70091浦江县妇幼保健医院图片

金华铁路医院激光去掉雀斑多少钱金华市中医院好吗?If we can only encounter each other rather than stay with each other, then I wish we had never encountered。如果只是遇见,不能停留,不如不遇见。 /201010/115231How do you spend your off hours? Do you watch television? Do you surf the web? Read articles here at Lifehack.org? There are many ways you can spend your leisure time. But is it really possible to get more out of your time off? Not just making this time more productive, but actually making it more enjoyable.Breaking the Work/Play DistinctionI believe the answer goes against what many of us have been taught about how to spend our free time. From early childhood we’ve been taught to divide everything to do into two groups, work and leisure. Work consists of all the things we need to do and leisure is everything else.Splitting the world this way isn’t necessarily wrong. But the subtle message contained in this split is that work and leisure shouldn’t resemble each other. Your work needs to be productive, efficient and challenging. Therefore leisure should be relaxing, accomplish nothing and be free of pressures.Why This Kills Your Free TimeThe problem is this assumption, that work should be the opposite of leisure, ruins your free time. The belief that the most enjoyable moments of life are spent relaxing in the fruits of our labor doesn’t match the real world. Research has shown that the most enjoyable moments of our life are the ones where we are most engaged.Psychology researcher Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi recorded this phenomenon. He did this through a device that pinged at random points in time. The subject then filled out a form based on their feelings, thoughts and current activity. What he found was people have more enjoyable experiences from work than from their time off. He mentions this paradox in his book, Flow:“Thus we have the paradoxical situation: On the job people feel skillful and challenged, and therefore feel more happy, strong, creative and satisfied. In their free time people feel that there is generally not much to do and their skills are not being used, and therefore tend to feel more sad, weak dull and dissatisfied. Yet they would like to work less and spend more time in leisure.” [emphasis mine]I believe the dissatisfaction for work stems from the external need to work. Since we cannot exercise freedom in choosing to show up every morning, it is easy to begrudge the time there. Even if it produces positive experiences in our lives.The Answer Isn’t Becoming a WorkaholicI don’t believe the resolution of this problem, is to work all the time. I think that would only exacerbate a situation where people feel trapped by oppressive work schedules. Even if jobs can produce,challenging flow experiences, putting all your eggs into one basket can be risky.Instead, Fill Your Spare Time With Active LeisureActive leisure is free activities you choose that challenge and fulfill you. But because you take up these tasks through internal desires, not external constraints, you won’t feel trapped by them.Many people have found ways to incorporate active leisure into their lives. Taking up hobbies, sports and learning new skills even when time is limited. But as the standard forty hour workweek gets pushed longer and passive entertainment becomes easier to consume, it is harder to take up active leisure.Leisure is Hard WorkUpgrading your leisure time to make it more enjoyable isn’t always easy. This may sound backwards, since many people believe the purpose of leisure is to be easy. But sometimes the benefits of being active in your time off aren’t immediately apparent.Activity requires that you invest your attention. The body was designed to be efficient, not enjoyable, so it may resist your attempts to invest energy in anything non-essential.How to Start the Active Leisure HabitThere are many ways you can upgrade your leisure time, but it requires effort. Unlike watching television or relaxing, opportunities for flow need to be structured in advance. It can sometimes require planning and always requires an initial push of momentum to get started.I suggest an experiment. Try replacing some low-energy task with a more engaging one. Continue it for a month. After that month, if you don’t feel the new task is more satisfying than your old usage of time, quit. This is about enjoyment, not productivity, so you don’t need to feel guilty if you decide to switch back later.Suggestions for Active LeisureHere are a couple ideas to get the ball rolling:1. Join Toastmasters -At toastmasters.org you can find clubs near your location. There are thousands of them and they are a great experience. I’ve known many people who tell me Toastmasters is the highlight of their week.2. Start a Craft -Try learning a new hobby or restarting an old one. Painting, woodworking, sculpting, programming or blogging are all great starts. Buy a tutorial book to get you started and learn from there.3. Play Sports -Find a physical activity that will get you to move and provides a challenging environment. Not only will this keep you healthy, but it will put your mind into a state of flow more easily than sitting on the couch.4. Learn a New Language -Challenge yourself to learn a new language. This has always been a goal of mine. I’ve heard from many sources that it can be both challenging an enjoyable to gain fluency in a non-native tongue.5. Play a Game -Computer games and interactive entertainment can be great ways to produce flow. Although you can get addicted to the enjoyable environment, structuring a small amount of time to play games can engage you mind to have fun.6. Start a Project -One of my personal favorites is to get a new project going. Starting a project to complete something over the course of a couple months can be exciting and incredibly rewarding. Go start that novel you’ve been thinking about. 你是如何度过休闲时间的?看电视?网上冲浪?还是在Lifehack.org上浏览文章?度过休闲时间的方法有很多。但是,你真的能从休闲中得到更多的东西吗?不仅要使休闲生活更丰富多,还要切实享受更多的快乐。  打破工作和的界线  我相信这个和很多人受到的如何度过休闲时间的教导背道而驰。很小的时候就有人教导我们把生活分为两部分:工作和。工作包含了所有我们需要做的事情,而则是另一回事。  这样划分生活不一定是错的。但是,这里蕴含着工作和不应该相类似的信息。工作需要有成果、效率和挑战,因而就应该是轻松的、无目的、没压力的。  这样的划分毁掉休闲生活的原因  毁掉休闲生活的问题在于一个假设:工作应该是的对立面。生活中最快乐的时刻是轻松享受劳动成果的时刻,这个信念与现实不符。研究表明,生活中最快乐的时刻在我们最忙碌的时候。  心理学研究员Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi对此现象做了记录。他通过能及时在任意点发出呯的声响的装置做了这个记录。实验对象根据自己的感觉、想法和当前活动填写一张表格。他发现,人们从工作中获得的快乐感受比在休闲时得到的更多。他在自己的书《心流》中提到了这个悖论:  “这样,就出现了自相矛盾的情况:在工作中,人们能感觉到能力和挑战,因而感觉到更多的快乐、更优秀、更有创造力,对自己也就更满意。而在休闲时间,人们一般都感到没什么事可做,他们的娴熟技能也得不到应用,因而更容易感到沮丧、无聊,对自己也更不满意。然而,他们还是宁愿少点工作时间,多些休闲时间。”(我的特别强调)  我认为,人们对工作的不满源于外界对工作的需要。由于不能自由选择每天早上上班的时间,就很容易因此发牢骚,尽管上班能为我们的生活创造快乐的体验。  解决办法不是要你成为工作狂  我认为解决这个问题的办法不是全天候工作。我想那样的话只能使情况恶化,使人有受到令人压抑的工作日程限制的感觉。尽管工作中充满挑战的机会,但把一切希望都寄托在工作上是很危险的。  那么,就以积极的休闲活动占用你的空余时间  积极的休闲活动是由你随意选择自己感兴趣而且满意的活动。由于做这些事出自个人的意愿,而非他人强迫所为,你就不会感到压抑。  许多人找到了让积极的休闲活动融入生活办法。即使在时间有限的时候,也把它花在业余爱好、体育锻炼和学习新技能上。但是,随着标准的每周四十小时的工作时间拉长,消极的活动令人感到更自在,因而人们难得参加积极的休闲活动。  休闲是个艰苦的工作  升级休闲活动使之带来更多快乐,往往不能令人感到舒心。这似乎说反了,因为人们认为休闲的目的就是要舒心快乐。不过,有时用于消闲的积极活动产生的好处并不能马上体现出来。  活动需要你投入注意力。而体能是为工作能力,而不是为得到快乐务的,因此,它可能会在任何不必要的事情上抵制你的企图。  如何启动积极休闲的习惯  升级休闲活动的办法有很多,但都需要付出努力。能产生心流的机会不像看电视或休息,它需要预先规划。它可能有时需要编制计划,而且总是需要一个开始实行的初始时间。  我建议做个实验。以一种活力不足的活动替代更具吸引力的事情。坚持一个月。一个月以后,如果你觉得新的活动不如原来的令你高兴,就停下来。这是为了快乐,不是为了产出,因此,如果你决定再改回去,不必感到内疚。  几种积极休闲活动  以下是几个关于开始积极休闲活动的设想:1. 参加讲演会-在toastmasters.org 网站能找到离你所在地最近的俱乐部。俱乐部有很多,那是很棒的体验。我认识许多人,他们告诉我,参加演讲会是他们一周内最重要的事情。2. 开始一门手艺-试着培养新的业余爱好,或重新捡起老手艺。绘画,做木工,雕刻,编程和写客都是很好的开始。买一本指南书,指导你开始学习。3. 进行体育锻炼-选择一项体育运动,能让你活动起来,给你提供具挑战性的环境。这不仅能保持你的身体健康,而且能让你的思维处于比坐在沙发上更敏捷的活动状态。4. 学习一门新的语言-激励自己学习一门外语。这一直是我自己的目标。我从很多方面了解到这样能激发快乐,也能使说外语的舌头更灵活。5. 玩个游戏-电脑游戏和互动活动可能是激发心流的最好方法。尽管你可能沉迷于快乐的活动,但是安排一点时间玩玩游戏能吸引你的注意力,让你开心。6. 启动一项计划-我个人最喜欢做的是运作一项新的计划。启动一项计划,在几个月时间内一步步完成计划能令人感到兴奋,而且能获得意想不到的回报。开始写你一直想写的小说吧。 /200811/56280浙江省金华妇幼医院是不是公立医院Nonverbal Communication 美国人的肢体语言 The boy and girl glance around the crowded room. Their eyes meet. Embarrassed, they look away. Nervously, they steal glances at each other, averting their eyes when they see the other one looking back. The boy acts cool, crossing his legs and affecting a casual air-even though his heart is beating wildly. The girl, obviously smitten herself, is afraid the boy will see her looking at him. A few seconds pass. He looks at her again. She starts to blush. He nervously looks at the ceiling and whistles softly to himself. They continue their cat-and-mouse game for a seemingly inter-minable period of time. Will they ever talk to each other? 那个男孩和女孩瞥视那拥挤的屋内。他们的视线相遇了。不好意思,又把视线挪开。惴惴不安地,他们互相偷看着,当发现对方也在回望自己时,又转移视线。男孩表现得很酷,交叉着双腿,装着一副漫不经心的样子--虽然他的心正狂野地跳动着;女孩,显然地已坠入情网,很怕男孩看到自己在看他。几秒钟过去了,他再度看她;她的脸红了起来。他紧张地看着天花板,自己轻吹着口哨。他们似乎没完没了地玩着这个猫捉老鼠的游戏。他们到底会不会交谈呢? The fact is, they have aly communicated a lot, without ever saying anything. Nonverbal elements form a major part of any communication interchange. Some people would say it's the most important part. According to one study, words convey only 7 percent of a person's message. Intonation and voice quality communicate 38 percent, and nonverbal cues transmit a whopping 55 percent. That means people pick up more from nonverbal communication than from the words a person says. When studying about a foreign culture then, it just makes sense to pay attention to how people use nonverbal cues. 事实上,他们没说一句就已经沟通过了。非语言之要素在任何形式的双向沟通中占了很重要的一部份。有些人会认为那是最重要的一部份。根据一项研究,言语只传达了百分之七的讯息。语调及音色传达了百分之三十八,而非语言的暗示传递了极大的百分之五十五。这就表示了人们从非语言沟通中领悟到的比从说出来的话语中的还多。所以,在研习一个外国文化时,注意人们如何使用非语言暗示是很有道理的。 Gestures comprise a major form of nonverbal communication. In contrast to sign language, used by deaf people to communicate elaborate messages, gestures function as visual icons which represent a single idea. But often these gestures are embarrassingly culture-bound. For example, when the Maoris of New Zealand stick out their tongue at someone, it is a sign of respect. When American schoolchildren make the same gesture, it means just the opposite. Also, Americans often indicate "OK" with their thumb and forefinger touching to form a circle. The same gesture means "money" to the Japanese, "zero" to the French and a vulgarity to Brazilians. For that reason, people in a foreign culture must use gestures with caution. 手势是非语言传达中很重要的一环。与聋人用来沟通复杂讯息所使用的手语不同的是,手势的功能就像是视觉上的图像,它代表的是单一的意念。而往往这些手势极受文化限制,甚至造成尴尬的误解。例如,当纽西兰的毛利人对某人伸舌头,这是尊敬的表象。当美国学童作同样的动作时,它表达的意思正好相反。还有,美国人通常用大拇指及食指环绕起一个圆圈表示「没问题」。同样的手势对日本人是「钱」的意思,对法国人是「零」的意思,对巴西人是极低俗的手势。因此,处在外国文化中的人必须小心地使用手势。 /200803/32557义乌市鼻翼整形多少钱

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